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  • 1.
    Bjurström, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Ivari, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Tarnawska, Alina
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, England, (GBR).
    Westbury, Nicholas C.
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, England, (GBR).
    Towards a multi-level theory of agility2021In: 26th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges, 2021, 2021, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multilevel theory of agility for C2 is absent. This paper uses an organizing paradigm to reinterpret the existing body ofresearch in order to explore the multilevel self-organizing dynamics that underpin the emergence of organizationalagility. Following social theory’s practice-turn, we outline in section 2 the essence of the organizing paradigm and mapsome of its implications. We reflect on the routines, creativity and complexity inherent in human organizing, and howorganizing practices manifest new collective C2 capabilities for unanticipated, unexpected and unfamiliar circumstances.Then we consider the role and limits of individual agency and rationality within the process of organizing, placing theemphasis on a collective process of structuring that imposes change and order in structure. In section 3 we present anillustration of some organizing principles and practices that may feature within a multi-level theory of agility. We explorehow collective sensemaking is intertwined with collective organizing, and briefly reflect on a conceptual model of agilityin the organizing paradigm. In the concluding section 4 we discuss the usefulness of an organizing paradigm for C2 agilityresearch and invite collaboration in researching cross-level organizing processes and practices.

  • 2.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. University West, (SWE).
    Bjurström, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Blurring the lines: Merging aspects of human cognition and artificial intelligence2022In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings, International Command and Control Institute , 2022, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the transformation of Twitter from a usable tool for spreading information to a space for learning. When we talk about different software, we in many cases can’t phantom their outreach and connectivity. Specific software solutions have been integrated into our lives making them a part of ourselves. Specific tools can be designed to enhance specific functions within the software such as automatic accounts spreading keywords users write. Users are humans and perceive their cyber environment in the same way as they perceive human interaction in real life. The transformation changed the tool to an area of operation where different stakeholders can interact with each other. From an intelligence perspective, the distinction between technology and HUMINT no longer serves its purposes of classification – it has merged into one and the same. From the perspective of C2, information technology in itself is still emphasized at the cost of other dimensions, hence obscuring the very mechanisms of how what is only seen as social media in fact is a dimension of itself. While the human dimension is sometimes addressed, there is a dearth of research exploring its workings.

  • 3.
    Schüler, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section. Högskolan Väst.
    Bjurström, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Speed vs thought2021In: 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges, 2021, Vol. Topic 3, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conception of speed in command and control (C2) systems’ impact on human thought and to introduce the notion of “Combat Integrated Learning” (CIL). In a context of increased complexity, unpredictability and ambiguity, adaptation not only concerns agility in terms of speed, but through resilience, self- healing and – in lack of calculable consequence ethics – an Aristotelian notion of virtue as a stable equilibrium of the soul as a basis for choice of action “knowingly and for its own sake”. As humans we have many cognitive functions which impact how we perceive information i.e., sensemaking and situation awareness. But the essence of thinking is a philosophical issue where philosophers like Arendt previously explained the emergence of banal evil as ordinary men having lost their ability to think. C2 systems that make us reactive to a piece of information, inciting speed to act, minimize human reflection and learning. Developing time effective C2 systems could in fact lead to the creation of military stupidity. Authority, organizational and administrative procedures may lead to normalization of risk, morally questionable attitudes and actions, routinized humiliation and behavior that ultimately break down sensemaking and the sense of “self” in degraded environments. C2 systems and their uses may hamper intelligent action through the loss of an active agency of the individual, thus impede understanding and management of the battlespace, especially in the light of deception and disinformation, and unclear causal relations of events in constrained environments.This paper points at potential good practices in the face of ambiguity.

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