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  • 1.
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, (ZAF).
    Hetland, Jørn
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    University of Bergen, (NOR), BI Norwegian Business School, Bergen, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?2023In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 700-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the full-range leadership model to argue that on days when leaders engage in transformational leadership behaviors, they identify follower strengths and stimulate followers to show personal initiative. We propose that transformational leadership is related to follower work engagement and performance through follower strengths use and personal initiative. Moreover, we hypothesize that followers' personal initiative is most effective when followers use their strengths. A total of 57 Norwegian naval cadets filled out a diary booklet for 30 days (response = 72.6%; n = 1242). Multilevel modeling analyses largely supported our hypotheses. On the days when leaders used transformational leadership behaviors such as intellectual stimulation and individual consideration, followers were more likely to use their strengths and take initiative. These behaviors, in turn, predicted next-day work engagement and next-day job performance. Moreover, followers’ personal initiative was particularly related to work engagement when strengths use was high rather than low. We discuss how these findings contribute to the leadership literature by showing how leaders inspire their followers to lead themselves. In addition, we elaborate on the practical implications for leadership training.

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  • 2.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Stress i teori och praktik2022Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Eid, Jarle
    et al.
    Centre for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Emergency Medical Communication, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, (NOR), Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Jacobsen, Johan K.
    Safetec Nordic AS, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Distributed team processes in healthcare services: a scoping review2023In: Frontiers in Medicine, E-ISSN 2296-858X, Vol. 10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: High-quality healthcare services is delivered by teams rather than individuals and depends heavily on multidisciplinary cooperation between dispersed healthcare professionals. The aim of this scoping review is to identify common barriers and innovative applications of technology supporting team processes and patient safety, in geographically dispersed healthcare services.

    Methods: Studies were identified from searches in APA PsychINFO, Epistemonikos and Medline databases, from 2010 to 2023. A detailed search strategy was performed, and studies were included, based on prior established criteria.

    Results: Among the 19 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, the majority (85%) were from Europe or North America, and most studies (53%) were quantitative, with a cross-sectional study design. Several reported observed distributed team processes in training and education. Most studies described barriers and detailed how innovative approaches and technological solutions were introduced to improve communication, coordination, and shared mental models in distributed healthcare settings. A small proportion of studies (16%) used health services data to examine interpersonal exchange and team processes.

    Conclusion: The scoping review offer recommendations to enhance future research on distributed team processes in healthcare services.

  • 4.
    Eid, Jarle
    et al.
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen; Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Hansen, Anita Lill
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen; Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (NOR).
    Andreassen, Natalia
    Business School, Nord University Business School, Bodø (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen.
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (NOR).
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Developing local crisis leadership: A research and training agenda2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crisis triggered by Covid-19 has exposed the interdependencies of modern society and sparked interest in local response to protracted and complex crisis situations. There has been a growing awareness and interest in the key roles of political and professional stakeholders, their emotional regulation and how they influence team performance and outcomes in dealing with uncertainty and complex crisis situations. While cognitive and behavioral aspects of crisis leadership are well researched, less is understood about how one can mitigate negative emotions, instill trust, or restore public faith and support of security forces and emergency response teams during crises. In addressing this gap, we propose a simplified conceptual roadmap for research and training of local crisis leadership. In this, we emphasize complex problem solving, team interaction, team context and technology and team training design. These four factors represent significant barriers if neglected. On the other side, they may be considerable force multipliers when better understood and managed. We suggest how seven research and training questions could be linked to the four conceptual factors and guide an evidence-based approach to develop local crisis leadership.

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  • 5.
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Sover vi godt?: Utvikling av sjømilitært lederskap2023In: Militær leder- og ledelsesutvikling i teori og praksis / [ed] Rino Bandlitz Johansen; Jan Ketil Arnulf, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2023, p. 297-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naval officers must through leadership act well under pressure and be able to develop mature teams. This requires social competence, empathic skills, and a respectful approach to those around you that ensures closeness and durable interaction. Use of safe, free-play cadet-led activities is paramount. Two invariable requirements are set for each cadet – action and justification. Research shows that the Naval Academy’s leadership development program has the desired effect.

  • 6.
    Espevik, Roar
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Hystad, Sigurd W.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Police Dyads Within an Operational Simulation: an Empirical Test of the Research Propositions Made in the “Big Five” Teamwork Approach2022In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 37, p. 844-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the impact of the theoretical big five of teamwork model proposed by Salas et al. (2005), the present study aimed at investigating the model within an operational police simulation. One hundred and sixty-seven frontline police officers participated in the study. Based on path analyses, a reduced model excluding trust and leadership obtained a good fit with the data.

    The results provided some support for the model by confirming six out of 10 proposed direct effects and four out of seven indirect pathways. Shared mental models directly affected team adaptability, and backup behavior affects adaptability and team effectiveness. Team orientation affects mutual performance monitoring and backup behavior, and finally, reciprocal monitoring affects backup behavior. Monitoring influenced both team effectiveness and adaptability through backup behavior. Two paths from team orientation towards effectiveness were found. One flowing through monitoring and another through back-up behavior. Our study expands former knowledge of the big five theory by empirically testing the totality of the model and identifying important pathways.

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  • 7.
    Hetland, Jørn
    et al.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, (ZAF).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Olsen, Olav K.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Daily work pressure and task performance: The moderating role of recovery and sleep2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous research has focused on the link between (mental and physical) workload and task performance, less is known about the intervening mechanisms influencing this relationship. In the present study, we test the moderating roles of daily recovery and total sleep time in the relationship between work pressure and daily task performance. Using performance and recovery theories, we hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates positively to daily task performance, and that both (b) daily recovery in the form of psychological detachment and relaxation, and (c) total sleep time independently enhance this relationship. Our hypotheses were tested in a 30-day diary study with 110 officer cadets on a cross-Atlantic voyage on a Naval sail ship. The results of multilevel modeling lend support to all three hypotheses. Taken together, our findings suggest that recovery and sleep duration between shifts play a key role in the relationship between daily work pressure and task performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the stressor-detachment model.

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  • 8.
    Hetland, Jørn
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    Organizational Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;c, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa, (ZAF).
    Nielsen, Morten B.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;d National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Daily interpersonal conflicts and daily negative and positive affect: exploring the moderating role of neuroticismIn: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives

    Drawing on affective events theory, the present study investigates relationships between daily interpersonal conflicts and negative and positive affective reactions, and tested whether trait neuroticism moderates immediate (same day) and persisting (next-day) affective reactions.

    Design and Methods

    A sample of 53 Norwegian naval cadets completed a diary questionnaire for 30 consecutive days (total N = 1590).

    Results

    As predicted, the findings showed that cadets reported more negative affect (but not less positive affect) on days they were confronted with affective events that were of a conflicting nature. In addition, the proposed interaction effects between daily conflict and neuroticism were significant for both negative and positive affect. Specifically, the immediate and persistent effects of daily conflicts on negative affect were strongest for individuals high (vs. low) in neuroticism. Moreover, individuals high in neuroticism reported less positive affect on days with conflicts, whereas individuals low in neuroticism reported more positive affect the two days following interpersonal conflicts.

    Conclusions

    The findings contribute to affective events theory with important knowledge about the role of trait neuroticism in dealing with interpersonal conflicts in a natural work setting.

  • 9.
    Johnsen, Bjørn H.
    et al.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, (NOR), University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Hystad, Sigurd W.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Østerås, Øyvind
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, (NOR).
    Vatsøy, Live
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Eid, Jarle
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    The Effect of Complexity of Ambulance Missions on Shared Mental Models in Virtual Teams2022In: Emergency Medicine Open Journal, ISSN 2379-4046, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background 

    Empirical research on shared mental models (SMM) in virtual environments are almost non-existent. Pre-hospital emergencies presents an opportunity to examine team processes in virtual teams because the dispatcher is geographically separated from the ambulance and at the same time plays a significant role in coordinating, organizing, obtaining, evaluating, and conveying relevant information to the deployed ambulance. The present study aimed at mapping team behavior and cognition in critical real-life emergency medical missions based on the concept of SMM. 

    Methods 

    By investigating the frequencies of coordinating mechanisms and team competencies based on voice recordings from real-life missions, differences in team behavior between low and high-complexity missions were investigated. 

    Results 

    Lower frequencies of team competencies and coordinating mechanisms were found in high compared to low-complexity missions. The results showed a different profile in communication between high and low-complexity missions with more frequent use of both coordinating mechanisms and team competencies in low-complexity missions. Furthermore, the profiles revealed that SMM and closed loop communication were the only coordinating mechanism used, and leadership and team orientation were the only competencies exercised. 

    Conclusion 

    It was concluded that the lack of visual input of a team member during team interaction could lead to team process loss due to a breakdown of the team into sub-units. Potential improvement of team behavior is discussed within the SMM framework. 

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  • 10.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    et al.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Eid, Jarle
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Østerås, Øyvind
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, (NOR).
    Jacobsen, Johan Kolstad
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, (NOR), University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Coordinating Mechanisms Are More Important Than Team Processes for Geographically Dispersed Emergency Dispatch and Paramedic Teams2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 754855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades there has been an increased emphasis on non-technical skills in medical teams. One promising approach that relates teamwork to medical efficiency is the theory of Shared Mental Models (SMM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Shared Mental Model approach for teamwork between operators in emergency medical communication centers and the first line ambulance personnel in real-life settings. These teams collaborate while working from geographically dispersed positions, which makes them distinct from the kinds of teams examined in most previous research on team effectiveness. A pressing issue is therefore whether current models on co-located teams are valid for medical distributed teams. A total of 240 participants from 80 emergency medical teams participated in the study. A team effectiveness model was proposed based on identified team coordinating mechanisms and the “Big five” team processes. Path analyses showed that SMM was positively associated with team effectiveness (i.e., performance satisfaction and situational awareness) and negatively related to mission complexity. Furthermore, the coordinating mechanisms of SMM and Closed Loop Communication was positively related to “Big five” team scores. However, no effects were found for the “Big five” team processes on effectiveness, which could indicate that the model needs to be adjusted for application to geographically dispersed teams. Possible implications for team training of distributed emergency response teams are discussed.

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  • 11.
    Mattingsdal, Jostein
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norwegian Defense University College, Laksevåg, Norway, (NOR).
    Aandal, Jan
    Emergency Response Team Selection and Training Department, Oslo Police, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Center for Crisis Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    From Peacetime to War: A path analysis of the factors that predict performance among police and military commanders in collaborative crisis response2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the applicability of Bandura’s social cognitive theory in predicting organizational performance in dynamic and ambiguous hybrid warfare contexts. Specifically, the study investigated the influence of dyad composition, past performance in peacetime, collective self-efficacy, and persistence on wartime performance among high-ranking police and military commanders.

    Study design/methodology/approach: One hundred and thirty-eight participants, consisting of police and military commanders, took part in a simulation exercise that escalated from peace to war. The participants were assigned to three types of dyads (N = 69); all-police (n = 20), all-military (n = 27), and mixed police-military (n = 22). The study utilized path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of the variables on wartime performance.

    Results: The model developed in this study accounted for 54% of the variance in wartime performance (R2 = 0.54). Path analysis showed direct effects of persistence (β = −0.33) and peacetime performance (β = 0.45) on actual performance in wartime. Direct effects also showed how persistence was predicted by dyad composition (β = −0.24) and peacetime performance (β = −0.50). Indirect effects indicated how persistence mediated the effects of peacetime performance (β = 0.17) and dyad composition (β = 0.08) on actual performance in wartime.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the understanding of how social cognitive factors, as described by Bandura’s theory, can predict decision outcomes in collaborative crisis response settings involving police and military commanders. The findings have implications for policy-making and provide recommendations for further research in this area.

  • 12.
    Mattingsdal, Jostein
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norwegian Defense University College, Oslo, (NOR)..
    Bjørn Helge, Johnsen
    Center for Crisis Psychology Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, (NOR)..
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Effect of changing threat conditions on police and military commanders’ preferences for urgent and offensive actions: An analysis of decision making at the operational level of war2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation was conducted to examine the decision making of 102 high-ranking police and military commanders (male/female = 88/12, mean years of employment = 22.15) engaged in a simulated hybrid attack on Norway. Four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA tests were performed, with two groups (police, military) and three phases (peace, war, and post-conflict) as independent variables. The decision tasks of force posture and mission urgency, along with Subject Matter Expert (SME) ratings of decision-making performance, served as dependent variables. By using social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, the analysis demonstrated within-group effects indicating how the transition from peace to war caused more offensive postures, higher urgency levels, and increased performance in wartime. Between-group differences were also found, illustrating that police commanders had higher levels of urgency than military commanders in general. Regarding force posture, within-group differences were only found in the post-conflict phase, when police commanders returned to pre-war levels, while military commanders showed less offensive postures than in peacetime. No significant between-group differences were found in decision-making performance. The analysis demonstrated new empirical findings about how crisis management is impacted by change and the backgrounds of those in charge. The findings have implications for designing interagency frameworks that improve police-military interoperability in collaborative efforts.

  • 13.
    Mattingsdal, Jostein
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norwegian Defense University College, Laksevåg (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Center for Crisis Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen (NOR).
    Hystad, Sigurd
    Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen (NOR).
    Exploring Why Police and Military Commanders Do What They Do: An Empirical Analysis of Decision-Making in Hybrid Warfare2023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a total of 102 high-ranking commanders from a military and police background were included in a simulation involving hybrid attacks on Norway. The aim was to explore the commanders’ decision-making in the context of hybrid warfare and changing threats. Data were collected in a simulated national headquarters and analyzed by a multinominal logistic regression method using a scenario that transformed from peacetime into war and returned to peace. The results demonstrated significant differences in the commanders’ preferences for unilateral or interagency forces depending on whether decisions were made in peacetime, war or the post-conflict phase. The results also showed how the commanders’ level of operational experience was associated with an increased preference for interagency forces. The current findings are new empirical insights into a thus far neglected aspect of decision-making research and have implications for improving police-military interoperability in major security crises.

  • 14.
    Sørlie, Henrik O.
    et al.
    University of Bergen, (NOR); Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College, (NOR).
    Hetland, Jørn
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, (NLD); University of Johannesburg, (ZAF).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, (NOR).
    Olsen, Olav K.
    University of Bergen, (NOR); BI Norwegian Business School, (NOR).
    Daily autonomy and job performance: Does person-organization fit act as a key resource?2022In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 133, article id 103691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we integrate Person-Organization (P-O) fit and Job Demands-Resources theories to argue that P-O fit (i.e., value congruence between person and organization) is a key resource that facilitates the accumulation and activation of situational job resources. We hypothesize that P-O fit strengthens the well-established positive relationship between job autonomy and job performance. Measures of objective P-O fit were obtained for 43 Norwegian naval cadets before embarking on a training mission onboard a sailing ship. During the mission, we measured daily self-reported autonomy as well as peer-rated task and contextual performance for 30 consecutive days. As predicted, the results of multilevel modeling analyses showed that the relationship between daily autonomy and (a) next- (but not same-) day task performance, and (b) next- (and same-) day contextual performance is stronger positive for individuals high (vs. low) in P-O fit. Moreover, effects of the daily autonomy – P-O fit interaction were noticeable on performance several days after. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

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