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  • 1.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Hybrid security governance in Liberia in the aftermath of UN intervention2023In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What can we expect in terms of security governance in targeted states as international peacebuilding interventions and security sector reform ends? Can we assume that years of reform and capacity building will result in formal security institutions whose function alone can explain stability or instability, sustainable peace or relapses into violence, or even war? In 2018, the United Nations ended its peacekeeping mission in Liberia. Celebrated as a success and role model for future undertakings, scrutinising the UN narrative may appear as a natural starting point for analysing Liberia’s relative stability. Yet, in the Liberian case, formal performance reviews will never be sufficient. This paper, with a conceptual point of departure in theories of hybrid security governance, recognises the continued entangled nature of formal and informal security provision in Liberia. It argues that post-intervention narratives of success should not keep us from assessing security beyond formal state capacity. Instead, holistic approaches are key to understand security governance as non-state security providers are, for better or worse, likely to remain relevant despite years of reform and capacity building.

  • 2.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University; Department of Economic History and International Relations, Stockholm University (SWE).
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University (SWE).
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Conceptualizing Civil War Complexity2023In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 137-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil wars that appear to observers to be the most complex—even using a colloquial understanding of the concept—are also those that seem to register the most intense fighting, the most prolonged spells of war, and the most resistance to durable conflict resolution. But what does it really mean for a civil war to be complex? We currently lack a concept of “civil war complexity” that can help us better understand the most important variations in civil wars across time and space. To address this gap we develop a conceptualization of “civil war complexity” consisting of three dimensions—“actor complexity,” “behavior complexity,” and “issue complexity”—and demonstrate how they manifest empirically. We also highlight this conceptualization’s utility—and the danger of overlooking it—through the case of Darfur. This conceptualization paves the way for a new research agenda that explores how civil wars differ in terms of their complexity, the causes and consequences of civil war complexity, and how to refine conflict resolution techniques and strategies.

  • 3.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    What They Are Fighting For: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Issues Dataset2023In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although conflict issues – the stated goals of actors engaged in conflict – hold a privileged position in many theoretical explanations of the occurrence, dynamics, and resolution of civil war, global issue data are scarce beyond datasets that focus on specific thematic areas. This article aims to bring issues into the forefront of civil war scholarship by presenting the UCDP Conflict Issues Dataset (CID). This global yearly dataset contains 14,832 conflict issues – divided, at the most disaggregated level, into 120 sub-categories – raised by armed non-state groups involved in intrastate armed conflict in 1989-2017. By bringing issues back in, the UCDP CID provides opportunities to reevaluate several central questions about the onset, duration, intensity, and resolution of civil war.

  • 4.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Defence and Security: Festschrift in Honour of Tomas Ries2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Försvar i takt med tiden: De svenska och finländska Natomedlemskapen och den nya nordflanken2023In: Om kriget kommer: Hot, beredskap och försvar / [ed] Anders Frankson, Stockholm: Lind & Co , 2023, p. 26-44Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Gästredaktörens förord2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 511-517Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    La Svezia nella Nato cambia l'ecuazione Baltica2022In: Limes – Rivista Italiana de Geopolitica, ISSN 1124-9048, no 5, p. 101-104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Natos forskning2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. FHS.
    Nätverksstyrning av samhällssäkerhet: En internationell överblick2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ryska hotet har efter 2014 växt fram som en komplex utmaning imånga dimensioner: från militärt till desinformation och angrepp icyberdomänen. Utvecklingen i Väst för att bygga samhällsäkerhet harrymt en utmaning om vad som skall dimensionera systemen:nukleära-, konventionella-, terror- eller hybrid-hot. Rapportenundersöker hur dessa vägval sett ut i USA, Tyskland, Finland, debaltiska staterna och Polen.

  • 10.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Tema: kriget i Ukraina: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift Vol. 125 No. 3 (2023)2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Vägen till kriget i Ukraina: Ett ramverk för strategisk analys2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 519-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political scientists are often asked to make public assessments about strategic events.The tendency to rely on historical analogy is problematic as method, while academicmethod proper is to slow, and the problem addressed in this article is how to improveanalytical assessments in strategic affairs. I use and develop an analytical frameworkintroduced during the Cold War by Sovietologist Michael MccGwire in order to systematizeexpert assessments. In the empirical section I illustrate it with an inquiry into theprelude to the escalation in Ukraine 2022. The inquiry shows that the Russian actionsto subordinate Belarus in the Spring of 2021 is key to the understanding of the ensuingmilitary and diplomatic events that often was mistaken as Russian coercive diplomacy.The empirically grounded assessments show that the framework could have improvedprecision in assessments in the run-up to the approaching war.

  • 12.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Geographies of Urban Space and War2023In: Oxford Bibliographies in Geography / [ed] Barney Warf, New York: Oxford University Press, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In military and academic circles, there is today an acknowledgment that war is urban and, for some commentators, that the urban also is war—in the sense of an ongoing militarization of cities and urban environments. Indeed, that war is (partly) urban has been the case for as long as humans have lived in cities and towns. What is new at present though is the recognized topicality of the manifold links between urban geographies and war. Until the last couple of decades, urban war and urban warfare were considered phenomena either of the past or of the future, but less of the present. It was only in the late 1990s and early 2000s that the significance of urban spaces in and of war became widely acknowledged, partly as an effect of military and everyday wartime experiences from places such as Grozny, Mostar, and Sarajevo. Other coinciding developments involve the post–Cold War revival of geopolitics, as well as emergent scholarly linkages between (critical) urban geopolitics, on the one hand, and studies of the military, war, and peace, on the other hand. However, this is not to say that military organizations themselves have not historically been preoccupied with urban spaces. With a focus on both intrastate and interstate urban conflict and urban war, the contribution at hand offers an understanding both of the academic study of military urban geographies and of military geographical approaches to and imaginaries of urban warfare and urban space (without going into military urban warfare practices as such). This is done over five sections, each with a specific theme that also illustrates the many links between academia and the military when it comes to cities and urban environments. The first section frames the topic. It offers a broad introductory perspective in the sense of an overview of academic literatures that are often combined in the scholarly study of military urban geographies. First are the conventional and the critical approaches, respectively, to military geography, and second is the literature on urban war that to a varying degree targets geographical aspects. The second section addresses in more depth conventional military geographical approaches to urban spaces, in a way that includes both academic works and military treaties and doctrines. The third section develops further conventional military geographical approaches to and imaginaries of urban space. It details some of the more recent military operational and strategic modes of imagining and approaching urban geographies. The fourth section shifts the focus back to the scholarly study of military urban geographies, but from critical perspectives. As further developed here, critical scholarship on the topic shifts attention to the conditions and effects of military presence on cities and urban spaces and to how military operations are both constituted by and constitutive of urban spaces and sites. The fifth and final section introduces a specific subtheme in critical scholarship on urban spaces in and of war: the literature on urbicide.

  • 13.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Minecraft as a technology of postwar urban ordering: The situated-portable epistemic nexus of urban peacebuilding in Pristina2023In: Territory, Politics, Governance, ISSN 2162-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that a ‘situated-portable epistemic nexus’ characterizes postwar urban peacebuilding. The concept captures how knowledge in urban peacebuilding is produced by/productive of discursive and material conditions that are both, and simultaneously, situated in a particular urban environment and transnationally emergent and circulating. I illustrate this argument in an analysis of an urban peacebuilding project in postwar Pristina, Kosovo, that relied on the computer game Minecraft as the main technology. Despite a heterogeneous group of actors involved, and a primacy devoted to local perspectives, the at-once-situated and globally portable discourses, technologies and artefacts of the Pristina project conditioned the production of a relatively narrow urban knowledge and space that formed around a purely visual conception of the urban – overall limiting what the situated urban was and could become.

  • 14. Druelle, Laurie
    et al.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Mellado Åhlin, Eric
    Mine Action and the Reintegration of Former Combatants: Expanding the Debate2022In: Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction, ISSN 2469-7575, E-ISSN 2469-7605, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 24-29, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, humanitarian mine action (HMA) and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) processes have increasingly been recognized as essential to paving the way for sustainable development thanks to their contributions towards human security, livelihood, and access to services. The integration between the two processes, however, has not yet been fully addressed in the literature or practice. This paper seeks to identify areas where DDR and HMA intersect and, supported by anecdotal evidence, suggest a conceptual framework for future research and implementation. Most importantly, we hope to widen the debate on the potentially synergic relationship between HMA and DDR, flag possible fallacies or oversimplifications, and challenge solely “top-down” approaches.

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  • 15.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Comparative Strategy – A New Framework for Analysis2023In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 80-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars of Strategic Studies have seldom problematized the concept of military strategy beyond identifying the three elements constituting the phenomenon, that is ends, means and ways. Moreover, we see a need for contextualizing the presumably universal conceptualization of military strategy. This article contributes to previous research by operationalize each of the three elements one-step further, thereby introducing an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of states’ different priorities regarding military strategy. Additionally, in order to explain these different priorities, the proposed analytical framework introduces tools related to both relative power and position in the international system, and to regional systems and unit-level characteristics. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated by a summary of some of our findings from a research project on comparative strategy including more than 30 states.

  • 16.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Enighetens gränser: Konsensus eller konfrontation vid utformningen av den svenska försvarspolitiken?2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limits of unity: Consensus or confrontation in shaping Swedish defence policy

    How encompassing is the consensus among the political parties represented in the Swedish parliament when it comes to the military threat from Russia, the relations with NATO and the design of the Swedish Armed Forces? This article aims at answering this question by exploring the Swedish defence policy from the Russian war against Georgia in 2008 to the ongoing war in Ukraine. Our results indicate that the consensus among the parties increases with the escalation of the tensions in the international relations. Hence, we disagree with some results of previous research on Swedish security politics. We conclude that the tipping point regarding the Swedish application for NATO-membership was the existential dimension of the current Russian aggression. When the internal efforts to defend Sweden against a potential Russian attack was perceived not being enough, applying for membership was considered a necessity, not an option, among a majority of the parties.

  • 17.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Strategies of the New European Allies: A Comparative Study2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses how and to what extent ex-communist states have adjusted their defence strategies since joining the EU and NATO, and how differences and similarities between their strategies can be explained.

    Between 1999 and 2013, four phases of enlargement took place when the European Union (EU) and NATO allowed 11 new former communist states to enter both organisations. These states share some common attributes and experiences related to strategic culture and common experiences during the Cold War era that can potentially explain similarities in behaviour and preferences among them. However, the strategic adjustments among these states are far from uniform. In an effort to explain these differences, the book introduces three intervening variables: (1) differences in relative power and position in the international system, (2) national geographical characteristics; and (3) historical experiences related to formative periods of state-building processes as well as wars and armed conflicts. Empirically, the book strives to present and analyse the defence strategies of each of the new allies by conducting a structured focused comparison of official strategic documents from the twenty-first century for each of the 11 cases. Theoretically and methodologically, it introduces an analytical framework enabling us to explain both similarities and differences in the formulation of the strategies of the 11 states, and to shed light on their external and internal efforts to promote their strategic interest by operationalising the dependent variable - defence strategy. The analytical framework combines elements of structural realism with classical realism, and constructivist research on unit-level characteristics related to relative power and perceptions of strategic exposure.

    This book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, European Union policy, NATO and International Relations in general.

  • 18.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    READY OR NOT? Explaining military strategic diversity among NATOs new European allies2023In: The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, Vol. 36, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the defense transformation processes during the two initial decades of the twenty-first century among the 11 former communist states that currently are members of both the European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The article introduces an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of states’ priorities regarding military strategy. Moreover, the article evaluates the influence of two intervening variables: (i) differences in relative power between middle powers and small states and (ii) differences in geographical exposure. Our findings suggest that differences related to these intervening variables correlate with differences in prioritized strategic ends, means, and ways.

  • 19.
    Eidenfalk, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, (AUS).
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Integrating Strategic Culture and the Operational Code in Foreign Policy Analysis2023In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 19, no 1, article id orac032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to theoretical integration in foreign policy analysis, by integrating two explanatory concepts that have mainly been used separately, namely the strategic culture of elites and the operational code of individual decision-makers. The explanatory power of using both concepts is illustrated in a case study of Australian foreign policy regarding the multinational coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. The main argument is that strategic culture can provide a reasonable explanation for Australia's overall military engagement in the coalition. However, to explain Australia's approach to the coalition, strategic culture must be complemented with the operational code. The article suggests that the character of strategic culture can influence the opportunities for decision-makers to have an individual impact on foreign policy.

  • 20.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Duty during Mission Deployment: Exploring Local Relations and Dynamics of Cohesion—The Case of Swedish Troops2023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores contemporary understandings of military duty and dynamics of cohesion during deployment with a focus on host–citizen relations. Duty is treated as a perception-based dynamic construct shaped, in part, by operational experiences. Traditionally, Western military duty is defined by conventional obligations of loyalty to the military unit and mission in the context of combat operations, in these ways linked to military cohesion. However, in response to increasingly “population-oriented” military operations, I argue the need to broaden the study of military duty and cohesion beyond interpersonal bonds of the military organization to include the role of host–citizen relations. In-depth interviews with Swedish service members reaffirm the centrality of conventional duty to the mission and military unit, yet also indicate varying levels and forms of obligations to local actors. Overall, understandings of duty matter to cohesion both as a unifying force and source of tension within the mission.

  • 21.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Partnering to Protect? Strategic Mission Leadership and Civil-military Relations in Integrated UN Peace Operations: A Literature Review2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil-military relations are of outmost importance to mission coherence and effectiveness of contemporary multidimensional ‘integrated’ UN peace operations. In this literature review, we explore the matter of civil-military relations during missions with a focus on leadership strategies, practices and challenges of civilian protection. By strategic mission leadership we mean senior civilian and military leaders ‘in the field’ who are responsible, in different ways, for mission implementation. The review confers key theoretical and empirical insights on how and why senior civilian and military mission leaders (fail to) interact and coordinate to protect civilians in a coherent way ‘in the field’, thereby outlining how matters of leadership, civil-military relations and civilian protection are interconnected in contemporary UN peace operations. In doing so, a review of the current state of research helps to inform policymakers and practitioners on how to improve selection and preparation of strategic mission leaders in future integrated UN missions.

  • 22.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Partnering to protect? UN mission leadership and civil-military relations: Research findings and policy implications2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ford, Matthew
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Ukraine, Participation and the Smartphone at War2023In: Political Anthropological Research on International Social Sciences (PARISS), ISSN 2590-3284, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 219-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitisation is redefining the battlefield. Whereas once only soldiers and embedded journalists had privileged access to the battlefield, now war is everywhere, brought to us by civilians and their smartphones. People produce, publish and consume media on the same device. They can be at the frontlines or on the other side of the world. Digital individuals may willingly participate in war or they may participate by virtue of being connected to the grid. In this sense it is participative in that everyone has the potential to be involved through the data they create. This produces dynamic information flows that amplify and accelerate both war and its representation bringing the relationship between the military targeting and media production cycles into alignment. In the process, the bystander has been removed from war and instead collapsed the relationship between audience and actor, soldier and civilian, media and weapon.

  • 24.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    War, Survival Units, and Citizenship: A Neo-Eliasian Processual-Relational Perspective, by Lars Bo Kaspersen, Routledge, 20202022In: Contemporary Sociology, ISSN 0094-3061, E-ISSN 1939-8638, Vol. 51, no 6Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Worlds of Uncertainty: war, philosophies and projects for order2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years we have faced huge uncertainty and unpredictability across the world: Covid-19, political turbulence, climate change and war in Europe, among many other events. Through a historical analysis of worldviews, Peter Haldén provides nuance to the common belief in an uncertain world by showing the predictable nature of modern society and arguing that human beings create predictability through norms, laws, trust and collaboration. Haldén shows that, since the Renaissance, two worldviews define Western civilization: first, that the world is knowable and governed by laws, regularities, mechanisms or plan, hence it is possible to control and the future is possible to foresee; second, that the world is governed by chance, impossible to predict and control and therefore shocks and surprises are inevitable. Worlds of Uncertainty argues that between these two extremes lie positions that recognize the principal unpredictability of the world but seek pragmatic ways of navigating through it.

     Argues that the co-existence, conflict and co-constitution of two principally contradictory worldviews are what define and shape modern Western cultureAims to decrease the anxiety and uncertainty many people feel about the world and provide a realistic picture of how much they can control and overcome crisesOffers added value to military students, analysts and planners who will become more aware of the activities in which they are engaged and of the limits and possibilities within different ways of thinking

  • 26.
    Hamann, Eduarda
    et al.
    Brazilian Research Network on Peace Operations (REBRAPAZ), (BRA); Fundação Getúlio Vargas, (BRA).
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    O preparo de civis para operações de paz da ONU: A experiência brasileira no "Exercício Viking"2022In: Azul da cor da paz? Perspectivas e debates sobre as operações de paz da ONU / [ed] Geraldine Rosas Duarte, Letícia Carvalho, Belo Horizonte: PUC Minas, 2022, p. 405-431Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current multidimensional peacekeeping operations, UN civilian staff perform core substantive tasks, from facilitating peace processes to organising elections and from monitoring human rights abuses to reforming the security sector. Moreover, Special Political Missions and Good Offices Engagements are civilian-only peace operations dedicated to conflict prevention, peacemaking, and post-conflict peacebuilding. Still, the training of civilian staff lags behind their military and police counterparts. There are very few available courses and training opportunities, as well as standardized training materials. In this book chapter, we discuss how civilian training can be improved. In particular, we build on Brazil’s recent experiences at Exercise Viking – the largest multidimensional simulated exercise in the world – and suggest that greater integration with existing, often military, training infrastructure may be the way forward.  

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  • 27.
    Harig, Christoph
    et al.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, (DEU).
    Jenne, Nicole
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, (CHL).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Operational experiences, military role conceptions, and their influence on civil-military relations2022In: European Journal of International Security, ISSN 2057-5637, E-ISSN 2057-5645, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable amount of research within security studies has explored the military’s increasingly diverse and multifaceted tasks. However, this debate has been disconnected from the literature on civil-military relations to the effect that we still lack knowledge about how and why these operational tasks have consequences for the relations between the armed forces, civilian authorities, and society at large. In order to provide for a better understanding of these effects, this introduction to the Special Issue debates the concept of operational experiences to capture how the military’s routine activities affect the equilibria, logics, and mechanisms of civil-military relations. The article then provides an overview of the Special Issue’s six contributions, whose diverse and global perspectives shed light on different aspects of the relationship between military missions and the military’s roles in society and politics. Among other factors, they highlight role conceptions - the military’s shared views on the purpose of the institution - as crucial in shaping the dynamic relation between what the military does and what place it occupies within the state and society. The article concludes by describing potentially fruitful areas of future research.

  • 28.
    Harig, Christoph
    et al.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, (DEU).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Knocking on the barracks’ door: How role conceptions shape the military’s reactions to political demands2022In: European Journal of International Security, ISSN 2057-5637, E-ISSN 2057-5645, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 84-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic research on civil-military relations often assumes that dangers for democracy and civilian control mainly emanate from the military’s predisposition of ‘pushing’ its way into politics. Yet, civilian control frequently is a precondition for governments’ moves of ‘pulling’ the military into roles that may potentially be problematic. These can include the military’s involvement in political disputes or internal public security missions. Notwithstanding its empirical relevance, little academic work has been devoted to understanding how ‘pulling’ works. In this article, we aim to provide a first, exploratory framework of ‘pulling’ that captures the dynamics of the military’s reactions and indirect consequences for civil-military relations. We identify three analytically distinct phases in which pulling occurs. First, politicians initiate either operational or political pulling moves. Second, we situate the military’s reaction on a spectrum that ranges from refusal to non-conditional compliance. This reaction is driven by the military’s role conceptions about appropriate missions and their relation to politics. In a third phase, the military may slowly start shifting its role conceptions to adapt to its new roles. We illustrate our argument with case studies of two different instances of pulling: operational pulling in the case of France (2015-19) and operational - then-turned-political - pulling in the case of Brazil (2010-20).

  • 29.
    Honig, Jan Willem
    et al.
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Breda, (NLD), King’s College London, (GBR).
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    An Exemplary Defeat: The West in Afghanistan, 2001-20212023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 989-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western defeat in Afghanistan was due to an inadequate process of strategic reflection informed, first, by an overestimation of the attractiveness of the Western political agenda to Afghans and, second, by overconfidence in the effectiveness of its military approach. As a corollary, popular support for the Taliban was underestimated. The insurgents possessed a degree of what we term strategic cohesion-a sociopolitical and military embeddedness within society-that produced a far stronger strategic effectiveness than we could replicate in our Afghan allies. Furthermore, a military-professional mindset underestimated the degree to which political considerations permeated the battlefield. The political effect of military actions was insufficiently integrated into strategic practice. Specifically, the linchpin officer in staff planning and field operations in Western armies struggled to act as what we term strategic colonels. In both respects, the war continues to offer important lessons for Western involvement in future conflict, including with Russia and China.

  • 30.
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Proxy War Termination2023In: Routledge Handbook of Proxy Wars / [ed] Assaf Moghadam; Vladimir Rauta; Michel Wyss, Routledge, 2023, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research to date has focused on understanding why states use proxies and the impact this indirect conflict strategy has had on various conflict dynamics. Much less thought has been devoted to the more pressing and policy-relevant question of what makes some proxy relationships endure while others break down. In this chapter, I review relevant research on this topic and present a framework that outlines various ways in which proxy relationships are terminated.

  • 31.
    Karlén, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Rauta, Vladimir
    University of Reading (GBR).
    Dealers and Brokers in Civil Wars: Why States Delegate Rebel Support to Conduit Countries2023In: International Security, ISSN 0162-2889, E-ISSN 1531-4804, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 107-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External state support to non-state armed groups is commonly seen as a direct relationship between a state sponsor and a rebel group. But powerful states often use third-party states as conduits of military aid. These intermediary states are secondary, subordinate principals that are part of extended chains of “dual delegation.” Because intermediaries are likely to have their own separate agendas, powerful states often face a double principal-agent problem when providing material support to rebel groups. The difficulties and problems associated with controlling the agent are reflected in the relationship between the principal and the intermediary. States need to identify the alignment of interests at an early stage, or risk strategic failure. There are two ideal types of intermediaries—dealers and brokers. Case studies of the United States’ support to the Mujahideen in Afghanistan and to UNITA in Angola (channeled through Pakistan and Zaire, respectively) demonstrate that intermediaries affect the provision of external support. States engaging in counterterrorism need to look beyond sponsors of terrorism and explore the role of all states involved in the process of conflict delegation. That states use intermediaries when providing support to non-state armed groups indicates that holding states accountable for violating the nonintervention principle under international law should be reconsidered.

  • 32.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Ambiguity and Methodological Transparency in the Study of Civil War: An Answer to Themner’s ‘Lingering Command Structures’ in Liberia2022In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers who study civil wars and other armed conflicts are bound to face ambiguities. This article continues the discussion about research brokers in conflict zones that started in a 2019 special issue of Civil Wars and scrutinises the finding that Liberian wartime command structures continue to linger in informal guises long to the post-conflict. Absent transparent acknowledging of the ambiguities it glosses over, past scholarship risks a far too neat story that imbues arguments with untested assumptions. The result neither captures the complexity of contemporary realities of Liberian former combatants nor helps Liberia to move forward from its difficult past.

  • 33.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Culture and Ethnography in Understanding the War in Ukraine2022Other (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Explaining the Finnish – and Swedish – Ascent to NATO2023In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 134-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been a year since the Russian invasion of Ukraine started. It is clear that the impact of this war goes far beyond Ukraine. We already know that it will have long-lasting consequences for the regional and global economy, in particular for energy and food security. The war is reshuffling old geo-political arrangements and alliances. It is also shaping the political landscapes of European states: international relations, inflation and migration are increasingly becoming key topics in national elections.

  • 35.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    ‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks2022In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article draws from military sociology to revisit past portrayals of Liberian former combatant networks and assesses four central assumptions connected to them: that formal wartime command structures continue as informal networks long after the end of the war; that former combatants are united by a wartime identity and form a community to an extent separated from the surrounding society; that wartime experiences have had a major disciplining effect on former combatants; and that former combatants are both good mobilisers and easy to mobilise in elections and armed conflict alike. Finding limited evidence close to two decades after the end of war to support these assumptions, I ultimately ask whether it would be more productive to both theory and Liberians alike to widen investigation from former combatants to structural issues that affect many more in the country.

  • 36.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Sodan teoria ja Venäjän sota Ukrainassa 2013–20222023In: Finnish Review of East European Studies, ISSN 1237-6051, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 4-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of war and Russia’s war in Ukraine 2013–2023

    Why is it easier to recognise Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 as war in comparison to the fighting in Donbas that begun in the spring of 2014? The simplest answer to the question can be found in our way of understanding war as large-scale interstate violence to disarm our opponents, as envisaged in the earlier works of Carl von Clausewitz. Until 2022, the war in Ukraine was considered too limited, and because of its politics, ambi-guous. This resulted in the passivity of Western countries. Theoretically, attempts were made to add prefixes to war to distinguish it from the “traditional” war described above. However, Clausewitz’s unfinished theory is contradictory: war can be understood to constitute both violence and politics. Clausewitz’s later theory allows an understanding of war as a broader and more political phenomenon. The modern concept of strategy – which focuses on the relationship between goals, means and ways – also derives from Clausewitz. Clausewitz’s theory emphasises war as a political instrument. His theory consists of concepts that form an analytical framework which can be used to understand, and ultimately win, wars. Various concepts of war are used in a chronological analysis of the situation in Ukraine, which spans from the end of 2013 to early 2023.

  • 37.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    The utility of ethnography for understanding (the Russo-Ukrainian) war2022In: HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, ISSN 2575-1433, E-ISSN 2049-1115, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 677-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russo-Ukrainian war raises the question about the utility of ethnography in understanding interstate war. As anthropologyand sociology have historically punched below their weight when it comes to understanding interstate war and warfare, much ofthe academic study of war has been occupied by political science. In this article I discuss why this is unfortunate, yet not inev-itable. I also discuss three strengths of ethnography in studying war. First, ethnography helps us to restore ambiguity into po-larized understandings of war. Second, ethnography can assist us in understanding strategy because of its focus on people andthe societies we constitute. Third, ethnography helps with the ethical responsibility of giving war a human face. I conclude byarguing that war is too important to be left to generals and political scientists, but that this is inevitable if ethnographers con-tinue to distance themselves from the study of war.

  • 38.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Kankainen, Ville
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    On Wargames and War: Modeling Carl von Clausewitz's Theory of War2023In: Representing Conflicts in Games: Antagonism, Rivalry, and Competition / [ed] Björn Sjöblom, Jonas Linderoth, Anders Frank, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stated purpose of Carl von Clausewitz’s magnum opus On War, in which he presented the most comprehensive theory of war to date, was educational. Clausewitz saw that proper education departed from theory and concepts, which students were encouraged to reflect over and clarify. Although their common use in pedagogy, wargames often continue to struggle with incorporation of the seven factors always present at war in Clausewitz’ theory – violence, friction, chance, politics, trinity, victory and ethics. As a result, many games offer a rather conventional understanding of war that does not match reality. This chapter investigates how Clausewitz’s theory of war has been modelled in two popular ‘commercial-off-the-shelf’ tabletop wargames: Twilight Struggle and Paths of Glory. Based on an analysis of how the seven concepts of war have been modelled in these games, the chapter discusses how Clausewitz’s theory of war can be used to improve the pedagogy of war.

  • 39.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Identity, Disciplinarity and Doctoral Education: The Case of War Studies2023In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 13-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Krigsvetenskaplig forskning är central för vår förståelse av krig och krigföring och utgör denvetenskapliga grunden för officersutbildningen i Sverige. När Försvarshögskolan startade sitt doktorandprogram i krigsvetenskap hösten 2019 var en milstolpe uppnådd för studiet av krig och krigföring i Sverige. En framgångsrik forskarutbildning i krigsvetenskap garanterar en kontinuerlig tillväxt av forskare med expertkunskap om krig och försvar i en svenskkontext. En framgångsrik forskarutbildning kräver dock att doktoranden socialiseras in i en forskningsmiljö, och problem i socialiseringsprocessen riskerar leda till att doktoranden inteklarar att slutföra sin utbildning. I denna artikel analyseras förutsättningarna för en framgångsrik socialiseringsprocess för doktorander i krigsvetenskap i Sverige. Utifrån teorier om disciplinäritet, d v s vikten av det akademiska ämnets (disciplinens) roll i socialiseringsprocessen, analyseras debatten om krigsvetenskapens natur. Enligt resultaten är krigsvetenskap både interdisciplinärt, d v s en blandning av flera vetenskapliga ämnen, och transdisciplinärt, d v s har en nära relation till praktiken. Detta riskerar att försvåra doktorandernas socialiseringsprocess. Flera förslag för hur handledare och forskningsmiljön i övrigt ska kunna motverka dessa problem på bästa sätt diskuteras i artikeln.

  • 40.
    Larsson Gebre-Medhin, David
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Kriget i Tigray: Är fred möjligt?2022Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Ljungkvist, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Joint Warfare Division.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Den ömsesidiga relationen mellan städer och krig, krig och städer2023In: Kosmopolis, ISSN 1236-1372, Vol. 53, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har eskalerande urbanisering och väpnade konflikter i städer kommit att uppfattas som en allt viktigare global säkerhetsfråga, både bland forskare och praktiker. Samtidigt är det empiriskt välbelagt att städer alltid har formats av krig och krigföring, och krig och krigföring alltid har formats av städer. Trots detta är samtida krigsvetenskapliga och västerländska militärstrategiska diskussioner om krig, fred och säkerhet i relation till städer och det urbana ofta onyanserade och baserade på ett binärt tänkande. Syftet med den här artikeln är att genom en bred forskningsöversikt belysa och exemplifiera den ömsesidiga relationen mellan krig och städer, och därmed bidra till en fördjupad och mer nyanserad samtida diskussion om krig i och mot städer, samt till en fördjupad förståelse för stadens dubbla konstruktion och funktion som en miljö som både är konstituerad av och konstituerande för militärt våld. Dylik fördjupad förståelse är angelägen även i relation till samtida fredsforskning rörande post-konfliktstäder och urbant fredsbyggande.

  • 42.
    Meier, Vanessa
    et al.
    Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford, (GBR).
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Pettersson, Therése
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Croicu, Mihai
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    External support in armed conflicts: Introducing the UCDP external support dataset (ESD), 1975–20172023In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 545-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present the most up-to-date, fine-grained, global dataset on external support in armed conflicts: theUCDP External Support Dataset (ESD). The dataset encompasses data on states and non-state actors as bothsupporters and recipients and provides detailed information on the type of support provided to warring parties inarmed conflicts between 1975 and 2017. We use it to highlight three broader trends in the provision of externalsupport: (1) a dramatic increase in the number of external supporters, (2) a larger share of pro-government interventions, and (3) the rise of direct military intervention as the predominant mode of external support. In conclusion,we identify several avenues worthy of future inquiry that could significantly improve our understanding of externalsupport in armed conflicts. 

  • 43.
    Michaels, Jeffrey H.
    et al.
    Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, Barcelona, (ESP).
    Ford, Matthew
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Grand Strategy or Grant Strategy? Philanthropic foundations, strategic studies and the American Academy2023In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 764-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between Strategic Studies and the American academy has always been a tenuous one. Tolerated when fully funded, the field quickly lost its place on campus when it failed to attract grant money. Only with the support of philanthropic foundations did it manage to gain a foothold in American universities. What emerges from our investigation is how the field has feasted during times when foundation money was available and suffered periods of famine when these funds were withdrawn. In addition, we show that during and immediately after the Cold War, the political interests of philanthropic foundations were broadly balanced. By contrast, over the last two decades, the field has been increasingly linked to financial support provided by politically right-leaning foundations. This is happening while funding from more centrist and left-leaning foundations has become much less prominent. When looking ahead at the field’s future health, we cannot but help be concerned about the implications of this development.

  • 44.
    Passarelli Hamann, Eduarda
    et al.
    REBRAPAZ, (BRA).
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    A participação de civis em treinamentos conjuntos para operações de paz: O patamar alcançado pelo Brasil no Exercício Viking 20222023In: A participação do Brasil no Exercício Viking (2022): Considerações para futuras simulações sobre operações de paz / [ed] Eduarda Passarelli Hamann and Guilherme Dias, Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Network on Peace Operations , 2023, p. 118-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, for at least 15 years, civilians have participated in a series of training sessions for UN peacekeeping operations, generally organized by military personnel. Most of the time, this participation has been secondary. In 2022, Brazil once again hosted a remote site of Exercise Viking: this is an international mega-training, assisted by computer, which aims to prepare civilians, police and soldiers to be deployed in missions by international organizations in unstable contexts, including peacekeeping operations. By describing the participation of civilians in this Exercise and comparing it with the previous edition, from 2018, the article aims to demonstrate that, in contrast to the participation of civilians in other trainings in Brazil, Viking 22 broke with the existing paradigm by offering a opportunity to insert civilians in joint training, thus becoming an important precedent for future exercises on peace operations.

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  • 45.
    Petersson, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Airpower and territorial control: Unpacking the NATO intervention in Libya2023In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Petersson, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Looking to the Skies: Operation Unified Protector and the Strategy of Aerial Intervention2023In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 813-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the different ways in which an intervener can use airpower to enhance a rebel organization’s ability to capture government-held territory? Multiple studies have analyzed how foreign airpower can be employed as a counterinsurgency tool, intended to reduce the frequency and lethality of insurgent attacks. However, many civil wars are fought conventionally, and non-state actors can benefit from military interventions that helps them to overcome the advantage in capabilities often enjoyed by their government adversaries. I analyze how airpower can be used in support of a rebel organization engaged in a conventional civil war, contributing to its ability to produce salient battlefield information. I argue that that an intervener can employ direct attack against heavy weapons and anti-aircraft assets, and interdiction of command and control capabilities and logistics, in order to diminish the government’s advantage in conventional capabilities. In doing so, foreign airpower contributes to the rebels’ ability to capture territory, a crucial intermediary goal and source of battlefield information when attempting to impose defeat on the government. Through a quantitative case study of Operation Unified Protector and the 2011 Libyan Civil War, I find that coalition airstrikes against the Libyan government’s heavy weapons, logistics, and anti-aircraft assets contributed to the Libyan rebels’ ability to capture territory. By contrast, strikes against the government’s command and control capabilities had no effect.

  • 47.
    Puumala, Eeva
    et al.
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    Vastapuu, Leena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Kynsilehto, Anitta
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    Muuttuva maailma ja Ukrainan sodan globaalit ulottuvuudet2022In: Kosmopolis, ISSN 1236-1372, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Riquier, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, (SWE).
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    War in the breadbasket: Landmines and food security in Ukraine2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Russia’s withdrawal from the Black Sea grain deal in July 2023 and any further reduction of Ukrainian grain exports are likely to have serious implications for both Ukraine’s agricultural sector and economy and for food security far beyond Europe’s borders, driving up food prices and hindering humanitarian agencies’ ability to respond to food crises. However, the war has not only impacted Ukraine’s ability to export food but also its food production. Extensive contamination with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) could keep large areas of agricultural land out of use, potentially for many years, jeopardizing both domestic and international food security. As the Ukrainian government readies a new mine action strategy, it should consider how to address important concerns about the regulation and prioritization of humanitarian mine action.

  • 49.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Rietjens, Sebastiaan
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Meaning making in peacekeeping missions: mandate interpretation and multinational collaboration in the UN mission in Mali2023In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 53-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peacekeeping helps to prevent conflict and to protect civilians. But how does it work to achieve those aims? Notwithstanding a growing recognition that peacekeeping mandates alone do not directly determine what actually happens in the field, we still know little about how-once deployed-military units translate an ambiguous mandate into action. In this paper, we focus on one dimension of peacekeepers’ behavior that has become increasingly important, namely, how peacekeepers relate to other military units with whom they are supposed to implement their mandate. We systematically document how mandate interpretations emerge and how they influence peacekeepers’ understanding of other troops they work with. Central to this is peacekeepers’ meaning making, a concept we borrow from the sociological literature, which refers to the common and human process through which individuals give meaning to their surrounding context. Drawing on nearly 120 interviews with peacekeepers deployed to the United Nations (UN) mission in Mali (2014-2019), we identify three different ways by which peacekeepers interpret their mandate and interact with other contingents: Voltaire’s garden; building bridges; and othering. Acknowledging peacekeepers’ agency and the social dimension of peacekeeping has important implications for both scholarly and policy debates.

  • 50.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Measuring restraint against humanitarian norms: the case of landmines and similar explosive devices2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some non-state armed groups more violent than others? Why do some groups resort to inhumane means and methods of war while others restrain from doing so? In trying to answer these questions, a growing number of scholars and practitioners have focused on the drivers of restraint behaviour. However, defining and measuring restraint can be challenging. In this post, Henrique Garbino, Doctoral Candidate at the Swedish Defence University, discusses how we can define and measure restraint focusing on the use of landmines and similar explosive devices by non-state armed groups. This post is based on Henrique’s recent article, “Rebels Against Mines? Legitimacy and Restraint on Landmine Use in the Philippines,” published in Security Studies on 23rd June 2023. 

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