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  • 1.
    Arve, Sten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Learning the lesson of an intelligence failure?2020In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 123-125Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna essä tar utgångspunkt inom teoribildningen rörande ”Intelligence Failure” och hävdaratt det går att fastställa om en organisation har ”lärt av sina misstag” utifrån tre undersökandeperspektiv. Först kan man undersöka organisationens erfarenhetshantering, vilket gerunderlag av formell karaktär. Här lyfts exempel från Försvarsmaktens erfarenhetshanteringfram. Därefter kan man undersöka organisationens reformering utifrån olika utkast om”Intelligence Failure” exemplifierade av Zegart, Betts och Bar-Joseph & Kruglanski. Slutligenkan man undersöka organisationens prestationer över tiden och därigenom få underlag omeffekten av lärandet. Det finns dock flera historiografiska utmaningar med att dra slutsatserutifrån fallstudier och varje perspektiv ovan bidrar helt eller delvis med underlag, beroendepå det särskilda fallet. I kombination formar de emellertid ett stabilt ramverk för undersökningarsom kan påvisa om en organisation ”lärt av sina misstag”.

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    Intelligence Failure and Lessons Learned Methodology
  • 2.
    Arve, Sten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The UK assessment failure on Iraqi: Why did it happen and what may we learn from it?2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 103-112Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik (Dov)
    et al.
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Eyes Wide Shut: How Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Exposes and Exploits Western Vulnerabilities2017In: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 1526-0054, E-ISSN 2471-8831, no January 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Russian National Security Strategy aims to achieve autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law, and global trade. By applying a holistic mix of military, political, and economic means to weaken the West, Russia is working hard to strengthen its own role as a global player. Militarily, Russia makes good use of Hybrid War against its Western neighbors, as seen in its intervention in Syria and in its efforts to undermine NATO and the EU.

  • 4.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik Dov
    et al.
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Hybrid Wars: The 21st Century’s New Threats to Global Peace and Security2018In: Civil-Military Cooperation and International Collaboration in Cyber Operations, Dahlonega, Georgia: University of North Georgia Press , 2018, no 1, p. 52-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses a new form of war, ‘Hybrid War’, under inclusion of aspects of ‘cyber-terrorism’ and ‘cyber-war’ before the backdrop of Russia’s ‘Ukrainian Spring’ and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It discusses the findings of an on-going Hybrid Threat project by the Swedish National Defence College. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional approaches to war and peace and its perceptions will have to change in the future.

  • 5.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Agder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige, Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The EU and the growing number of complex security threats2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Niklas Nilsson, Lars Oxelheim, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer, (SWE).
    Borg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, (SWE).
    Assembling European health security: Epidemic intelligence and the hunt for cross-border health threats2019In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The securitization of health concerns within the European Union has hitherto received scant attention compared to other sectors. Drawing on the conceptual toolbox of actor-network theory, this article examines how a 'health security assemblage' rooted in EU governance has emerged, expanded, and stabilized. At the heart of this assemblage lies a particular knowledge regime, known as epidemic intelligence (EI): a vigilance-oriented approach of early detection and containment drawing on web-scanning tools and other informal sources. Despite its differences compared to entrenched traditions in public health, EI has, in only a decade's time, gained central importance at the EU level. EI is simultaneously constituted by, and performative of, a particular understanding of health security problems. By 'following the actor', this article seeks to account for how EI has made the hunt for potential health threats so central that detection and containment, rather than prevention, have become the preferred policy options. This article draws out some of the implications of this shift.

  • 8.
    Berenskötter, Felix
    et al.
    Department of Politics and International Studies, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom, (GBR).
    Nymalm, Nicola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    States of ambivalence: Recovering the concept of ‘the Stranger’ in International Relations2021In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revisits and revives the concept of ‘the Stranger’ in theorising international relations by discussing how this figure appears and what role it plays in the politics of (collective) identity. It shows that this concept is central to poststructuralist logic discussing the political production of discourses of danger and to scholarship on ontological security but remains subdued in their analytical narratives. Making the concept of the Stranger explicit is important, we argue, because it directs attention to ambivalence as a source of anxiety and grasps the unsettling experiences that political strategies of conquest or conversion, including practices of securitisation, respond to. Against this backdrop, the article provides a nuanced reading of the Stanger as a form of otherness that captures ambiguity as a threat to modern conceptions of identity, and outlines three scenarios of how it may be encountered in interstate relations: the phenomenon of ‘rising powers’ from the perspective of the hegemon, the dissolution of enmity (overcoming an antagonistic relationship), and the dissolution of friendship (close allies drifting apart). Aware that recovering the concept is not simply an academic exercise but may feed into how the term is used in political discourse and how practitioners deal with ‘strange encounters’, we conclude by pointing to alternative readings of the Stranger/strangeness and the value of doing so.

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  • 9.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Eriksson, Josefina
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Making the most of the frame: developing the analytical potential of frame analysis2018In: Policy Studies, ISSN 0144-2872, E-ISSN 1470-1006, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 109-126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frame analysis has been developed and applied across contexts in several disciplines such as policy analysis, where the perspective has proven fruitful to carve out essential differences in the construction of meaning and to understand the responsiveness of the strategic use of ideas. However, this article argues in line with other scholars that the analytical potential of frame analysis is not fully utilized in most empirical studies. The article addresses two points of critique raised against frame analytical perspectives: the limited view of the framing process and the limited understanding of frame effects. We suggest two analytical dimensions that help to develop the analytical potential of frame analysis in policy analysis and beyond: firstly, the institutionalization process of frames which can capture the struggle of meaning within policy processes and also distinguish between the varying influences of different frames over space and time. Secondly, the extension of frame effects that through a reconceptualization of frame effects can capture how a frame has an effect on actors other than the audience and beyond its immediate purpose.

  • 10.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 11.
    Bohman, Viking
    et al.
    Utrikespolitiska Institutet, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Nymalm, Nicola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Kinesiska investeringar i Sverige: från framgång till fara?2020In: Internasjonal Politikk, ISSN 0020-577X, E-ISSN 1891-1757, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China’s direct investment in Sweden surged in 2017 and 2018 due to a number of large acquisitions, mostly in the automotive industry. At the same time, the public debate on Chinese investments has become more critical since 2017, when they were typically seen in a positive light. Throughout 2018 and 2019, a number of actors in government authorities, political parties, the media and civil society have described China’s investments as a potential security threat. Although less prominent in the public debate, business representatives have also become increasingly vocal about potential security risks associated with Chinese investment. The Swedish view of China seems to be aligning with what the EU has called its new “more realistic” approach to Beijing. Meanwhile, a number of policy processes have been launched which are likely to lead to the strengthening of existing legal frameworks to scrutinise Chinese investment and activity in Sweden, especially concerning critical infrastructure such as telecommunications networks, but also more generally concerning companies whose activities are regarded as sensitive from a security perspective.

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  • 12.
    Borg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Below the radar: Examining a small state’s usage of tactical unmanned aerial vehicles2020In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an extensive and rapidly growing body of literature on armed Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) focused on the US War on Terror. However, smaller Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for military use, or what this paper refers to as tactical UAVs utilised by small states, have received much less scholarly attention ̶ despite their rapid proliferation in the last decade. In order to start rectifying this dual neglect of more limited UAVs employed by small states, the paper makes an empirical contribution to the study of tactical UAVs. Drawing on a substantial number of interviews and studies commissioned by the Swedish Armed Forces, the paper examines the Swedish UAV program, which is in certain ways representative of a smaller state’s efforts to incorporate UAVs into its armed forces. The paper argues that it is crucial to think in terms of systems rather than the UAV as a free-standing resource to be used on its own. If utilized along with other ISR assets, tactical UAVs may have a significant role to play in asymmetric conflicts.

  • 13.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Re-thinking operational depth—A source of power2021In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 387-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article addresses the inferior actor problem of handling a limited physical operational depth in relation to a superior antagonist. It argues that operational depth from an inferior perspective is better viewed as a source of power, a flexible asset constructed from available skills- and resources. It suggests that ambitions to create- or extend an actors operational depth is better approached in abstract terms from the angles: physical-, temporal, and cognitive, whereas the former two offers the more traditional perspectives, while the latter offers an auxiliary approach to better exploit possibilities from an inferior perspective beyond physical space- and resources.

  • 14.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Effective Learning at the Swedish Defence University: This chapter describes the practical application of Matrix games to higher education in Sweden2018In: The Matrix Games Handbook: Professional Applications from Education to Analysis and Wargaming / [ed] John Curry, Chris Engle and Peter Perla, The History of Wargaming Project , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter specifically adresses a generally percieved underlying challange of any educational game, namely the issue of educational effectiveness. This question is, however, almost impossible to answer, since it is dependent on context as well as a myriad of variables such as learning objectives, student background and educational theory like belief in active learning. From this perspective, the inclusion of the issue of educational effectiveness in this chapter is thus based on the experience with the game design and subsequent implementation of the two Matrix Games of Bellum Balticia and the Fictive Republic.

  • 15.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Wargaming Section.
    Instructor Buy-In: Pitfalls and Opportunities in Wargaming2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Krigsspel är en fundamental del av militär utbildning. Likafullt är krigsspel kontroversiellt, med återkommande cykler av uppskattning och ogillande. Krigsspel kan definieras som en betingad interaktion med mänskliga spelare som påverkar simulerade militära aktioner. Syftet med denna text är att undersöka och förklara hur militära instruktörer mildrar sina bekymmer med att handha ett krigsspel. I texten analyseras relevanta skrifter om utbildningsspel för att belysa frågan om instruktörer och krigsspel. Denna metod kompletteras av ny och explorativ forskning, som inbegriper grundad teori, avseende det substantiella empiriska området krigsspel för militär utbildning. Militära instruktörer använder sig av tre strategier för att uppnå instruktörs-acceptans (instructor buy-in). En majoritet av instruktörerna verkar sträva efter att undvika explicit spelifiering (gamification). Detta undvikande utgör en förklaring till att vissa krigsspel inom militär utbildning förändras eller upphör. Av denna anledning är det vitalt att militära instruktörer har en förståelse för instruktörs-acceptans för att stärka praktiken krigsspel.

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  • 16.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Krigsspel som metod2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén och Niklas Wikström, Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 255-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 18.
    Elin, Norrman
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces (SWE).
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Military Strategic Communication at the Tactical Level in Counterinsurgency Operations: The case of Sweden in Afghanistan2020In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 19-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will investigate the implementation of strategic communication at the lower segment of the military hierarchy in counter-insurgency (COIN) operations. It focuses primarily on the experiences of communicating strategically at the tactical level in manoeuvre forces, using Sweden in Afghanistan as a case study. Findings reveal that the tactical level often distances itself from the communicator tasks, arguing that this belongs to other units or personnel. However, the tactical level also pinpoints the vital role they play in shaping attitudes and beliefs in the area of operations. The results thus indicate a type of cognitive split in the perception of the communicator role among the manoeuvre forces. Furthermore, the study reveals several obstacles in effectively executing strategic communication in the military domain. The most prominent areas are contradictions in messages due to force-protection measures and lack of synchronization.

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    Military_Strategic_Communication_at_the_Tactical_Level_in_Counterinsurgency_Operations_KKrVAHT
  • 19.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Military operations planning and goal-management: a philosophical perspective: thoughts on how decision theory and ethics can help improve military goal-management2019In: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, E-ISSN 1488-559X, Vol. 19, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and reviews some previous research concerning what we denote as ‘goal-management’, in other words how to set, apply and evaluate goals when conducting military operations planning. We aim to explain and answer the following question:

    • In what way could a review of previous philosophical thoughts on goal-management, decision theory and ethics improve contemporary military operations planning concerning goal-management?

    We suggest a guideline (a planning tool) for how to conduct goal-management when planning military operations and exemplify our guideline with two fictive examples concerning the development of an Operational advice and Appreciation of Rules of Engagement. The paper concludes that the application of decision theory and ethics, i.e. important parts of philosophy, can contribute to military operations planning by focusing on three perspectives: an axiomatic, an ethical and a deliberative perspective.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Josefina
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, (SWE).
    Larsson, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    How platforms facilitate collaboration across organizational boundaries: fighting human trafficking in Sweden2020In: Policy sciences, ISSN 0032-2687, E-ISSN 1573-0891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of collaborations and partnerships that engage a variety of actors from both the public and private spheres has drawn attention during the last decade as a promising strategy for combatting trafficking and improving assistance to victims of trafficking. This article investigates the Swedish Civil Society Platform against Human Trafficking as an example of successful collaboration between civil society actors. The aim is to explore how the platform as a distinct organizational form is capable of dealing productively with some of the challenges facing internal and external collaboration. We utilize interviews with key actors and a study of policy documents as we argue that the modularity and flexibility of the platform organizational form are key factors in its success. While it is a robust type of organization that may be regarded as a trustworthy partner, it also permits its member organizations to continue functioning as independent entities.

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  • 21.
    Finlan, Alastair
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Critically engaging the concept of joint operations: Origins, reflexivity and the case of Sweden2021In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 356-374Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 22.
    Friedner Parrat, Charlotta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Change in International Society: How Not to Recreate the 'First Debate' of International Relations2020In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 758-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The English school of international relations is in large parts focused on the study of historical change; at the same time, however, it is remarkably unclear on how to understand change in between the idealist belief in progress and the realist eternal cycles of recurrence. This article seeks to avoid this dead end by questioning the school's understanding of change as a commonsensical concept. It is argued that change would be better understood as composed of three facets: one ontological (what is change?), one explanatory (what causes change?), and one normative (is change desirable?). This metatheoretical reconceptualization of change permits cross-checking the three facets against each other for internal coherence, but most importantly, it makes visible the underlying assumptions used to study change, so that ideas of history, causes, and normative ideals can be openly scrutinized, questioned, and defended rather than treated as self-evident. The resulting suggestion of an internally metatheoretically coherent understanding of change in international society signifies a much-needed addition to the English school tool-kit. It brings a promise of a significant metatheoretical overhaul of the theory, which, if taken up, will open up new horizons for the school. In addition, it opens up similar metatheoretical inquiries into other international relations theories’ views of change.

  • 23.
    Friedner Parrat, Charlotta
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Spandler, Kilian
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Using the English School to Understand Current Issues in World Politics2021In: International Society: Trends in European IR Theory / [ed] Navari, Cornelia, Cham: Palgrave Pivot, 2021, 1, p. 145-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter asks in what way the English School (ES) is a helpful framework for addressing questions that are likely to concern International Relations researchers in the years to come. We draw on recent scholarship to demonstrate the utility, often underestimated, of the English School in making sense of topical issues in world politics. We revisit research on, first, the role of emerging powers and the future of world order; second, globalization and regionalization; and third, European security and Brexit. In each case, the ES sensitivity to nuance and its historical awareness make sense of the complexity and apparent contradictions of ongoing transitions. We conclude that the unique theoretical, conceptual and methodological approach of the English School makes it an essential resource for understanding and critically investigating current world politics.

  • 24.
    Friedner Parrat, Charlotta
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Spandler, Kilian
    University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Yao, Joanne
    Queen Mary, University of London, (GBR).
    The English School as a theory and a scholarly community2020In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 483-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming customary to define the English School (ES) as a group of scholars participating in a common inquiry related to a few central concepts, notably that of international society. Although the roots of the ES are often attributed to the British Committee on the Theory of International Politics, it is now said to be more of an open society of impersonal ties rather than an exclusive community based on personal relations. But how true is that assertion? If the School is theoretically open to anyone, why are its members predominantly male, white and Western? In this piece, we discuss three obstacles that prevent the ES from becoming a more inclusive venture.

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  • 25. Frisk, Robert
    et al.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    From Samurais to Borgs: Reflections on the importance of Intelligence Ethics2021In: The international journal of intelligenca and counter intelligence, ISSN 0885-0607, E-ISSN 1521-0561, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 70-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Book review of Nationalizing the past: Historians as nation builders in modern Europe2016In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 260-265Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Book review of  År noll: Historien om 19452016In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 744-746Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bordieuan Field Theory as an Instrument for Military Operational Analysis2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book uses Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory as a lens through which to examine military operations. Novel in its approach, this innovative text provides a better, more nuanced understanding of the modern ‘battlespace’, particularly in instances of prolonged low-intensity conflict. Formed in two parts, this book primarily explores the scope of Bourdien theory before secondly providing a detailed case study of the Yugoslavian succession war of 1990-1992. Gunneriusson suggests that although theories do not necessarily provide answers, they do help us ask better questions. This volume suggests news lines of interdisciplinary investigation that will be of interest to members of armed forces, practitioners from NGOs, and policymakers.

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  • 29.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Fältanalys och fältövningar2018In: Militära Arbetsmetoder: lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Thunholm, Peter; Widén, Jerker; Wikström, Niklas, Malmö: Universus Academic press , 2018, p. 313-329Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångsläget för texten är att terräng är en viktig del av fältövningar och att terrängen kan ses från olika perspektiv. Syftet med föreliggande text är att visa på att den för krigföring så viktiga terrängen kan problematiseras och teoretiseras för att ge fruktbara idéer på dess användande, dess natur men också analys av den.

  • 30.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bachmann, Sascha Dov
    Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.
    Western Denial and Russian Control: How Russia’s National Security Strategy Threatens a Western-Based Approach to Global Security, the Rule of Law and Globalization2017In: Polish Political Science Yearbook, ISSN 0208-7375, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors.

  • 31.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Lindahl, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Defensiven: begrepp och doktrinbakgrund2018In: Tankar om defensiven / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2018, Vol. Bihäfte, p. 32-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I DENNA ARTIKEL kommer defensiven att belysas utifrån två olika perspektiv och genom två historiska exempel tagna från första respektive andra världskriget. Inledningsvis betraktas defensiven utifrån försvararen perspektiv och med ett exempel från Estland (Narva) 1944. Efter en historik bakgrundsbeskrivning, där bl a doktrinutvecklingen beskrivs, följer ett avsnitt avseende doktrin- och reglementsjämförelse mellan dåtida tyska och nutida svenska reglementen. Vi har i den delen valt att som metod söka efter vissa militärteoretiska indikatorer – fyra typiska begrepp inom defensiv och offensiv strid – för att diskutera likheter och olikheter mellan dåtid och nutid. De fyra valda begreppen är eldens (verkans) betydelse, terrängens betydelse, djupets betydelse och slutligen reservernas betydelse. Jämförelsen appliceras sedan på det taktiska exemplet innan denna del avslutas med en kort sammanfattning.

  • 32.
    Göransson, Markus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    The Interview as a Cultural Performance and the Value of Surrendering Control2020In: Doing Fieldwork in Areas of International Intervention: A Guide to Research in Violent and Closed Contexts / [ed] Berit Bliesemann de Guevara and Morten Bøås, Bristol, UK: Bristol University Press , 2020, p. 49-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Göransson, Markus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Understanding Russian thinking on gibridnaya voyna.2021In: Hybrid warfare: security and asymmetric conflict in international relations / [ed] Mikael Weissmann, Niklas Nilsson, Björn Palmertz & Per Thunholm, London, New York, Oxford, New Dehli, Sydney: I.B. Tauris, 2021, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 34.
    Göransson, Markus Balázs
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, (SWE).
    Hultin, Lotta
    House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, (SWE).
    Mähring, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation and Swedish Center for Digital Innovation, Stockholm, (SWE).
    ‘The phone means everything.’: Mobile phones, livelihoods and social capital among Syrian refugees in informal tented settlements in Lebanon2020In: Migration and Development, ISSN 2163-2324, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 331-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of mobile phones in livelihood creation among Syrian refugees in informal tented settlements in Akkar Governorate and the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon. Drawing on forty-five interviews with Syrian refugees and ten interviews with aid workers, the study highlights the importance of mobile phones in reviving, maintaining and leveraging social capital for the purpose of securing livelihoods in a context of precarity and restricted movement. We find that mobile phones offer important means for reviving social networks in exile, managing supportive relationships that have been established in Lebanon and liaising with employers. As such, they constitute important tools for coping with a context shaped by legal exclusion, restricted movement, police harassment, decentralised aid provision and a geographical dispersal of support networks, even as they remain a costly investment with uncertain returns.

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  • 35.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, (SWE).
    Ha, Thao-Nguyen
    Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Everyday Perspectives on Security and Insecurity in Japan: A Survey of Three Women’s Organizations2022In: Social Science Japan Journal, ISSN 1369-1465, E-ISSN 1468-2680, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 29-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing research on Japanese security focuses mainly on the nation state and conceives of male elites as the key bearers of relevant knowledge about the phenomenon. This article problematizes these biases by zeroing in on women’s everyday-oriented perspectives, which fall outside the scope of security politics as traditionally conceived. More specifically, it analyzes the rich material provided by a survey of the members of three major Japanese women’s organizations, using a mixed-method approach premised on statistical methods and qualitative content analysis. The results show that the Japanese women in our sample accommodate and reproduce content from dominant elite views about security and insecurity. However, they also challenge and at times ignore these perspectives by identifying a host of other insecurities as more pressing in their daily lives, notably those related to environmental degradation and Japan’s political development.

  • 36.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Allt bör göras för att bygga relationer med Nordkorea2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    et al.
    Japaninstitutet, Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige; FU Berlin.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Tøffere press og sanksjoner mot Nord-Korea er ineffektivt og kanskje også kontraproduktivt2017In: Verdens gang, ISSN 0806-0894, article id 9 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section. Swedish Defence University.
    AI, Autonomy and Airpower: the End of Pilots?2019In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 337-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military pilots have long been central to airpower projection in both combat and non-combat operations. While the historical and contemporary roles of military aviators have been examined extensively in previous scholarship, the present study distinguishes itself by evaluating the future prospects of military aviators. By so doing, it argues that technological advances in autonomy and artificial intelligence (AI) will most likely lead to the development of pilotless aerial vehicles (PAVs), if current technological and social trends persist. In this new order, the military pilot will become a thing of the past.

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  • 39.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Air Power in Humanitarian Intervention: Kosovo and Libya in Comparative Perspective2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It would be hard to overstate the importance of air power in humanitarian intervention (HI) and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). Yet, the role of air power in HI and R2P has been understudied. This article seeks to remedy the lack of systematic investigation. It does so by developing a framework for assessing the effectiveness of air power during military operations in HI and R2P and applies it to NATO’s air campaigns in Kosovo (Operation Allied Force) and Libya (Operation Unified Protector). Upon examination NATO is revealed to have fared better in Libya than Kosovo in positively accomplishing its stated humanitarian objectives, minimizing collateral damage and reducing the costs for the interveners, all of which are aspects considered by the model. The relative effectiveness of Operations Unified Protector is generally attributed to geography, diplomacy and technology. It is argued that better ground support, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and burden sharing are needed to enhance the utility of air power in HI and R2P even further.

  • 40.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Decapitation in Libya: Winning the Conflict and Losing the Peace2017In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Fully integrated content analysis in international relations2017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 447-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content analysis has once again come to the forefront of discussions regarding methods in International Relations (IR). The first wave of content analysis in IR lasted from the 1940s to the 1960s and was marked by a commitment to quantitative and manual analyses. The second wave of content analysis appeared around the third millennium and continues to pervade the discipline also proceeds in a predominantly quantitative manner but emphasizes computer-assisted analysis rather than manual analysis. Critics and advocates of the method alike have, highlighted numerous shortcomings with these approaches. In order to address these limitations, the present investigation argues for a fully integrated content analysis that has the potential to ameliorate the identified weaknesses that have hitherto plagued the method. It accomplishes this task by combining all facets of the method: quantitative, qualitative, manual, and computer-assisted content analyses within a single research project.

  • 42.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Intelligence and Diplomacy in the Security Dilemma: Gauging Capabilities and Intentions2018In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 519-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining whether the opposition is benign or malign is central to the security dilemma. In this context, states have to decide whether the military capabilities of others are for defensive or offensive purposes. Despite the importance of this issue, states’ use of intelligence and diplomacy to gauge others’ capabilities and intentions and its implications for exacerbating, ameliorating and escaping the security dilemma have hardly been addressed. The few who have engaged with the topic have only done so superficially. This article engages with the subject matter at length and argues that both intelligence and diplomacy are double-edged swords in the security dilemma. Intelligence is particularly useful in attaining information regarding the capabilities of others and diplomacy is of great value in acquiring information about their intentions. Yet, they are both prone to error. The best prospects of mitigating and escaping the security dilemma are therefore by utilizing intelligence to gauge others’ capabilities and diplomacy to decipher their intentions, even though these efforts may instead end up aggravating the security dilemma dynamics due to mistakes.

  • 43.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Sweden's Coronavirus Strategy: The Public Health Agency and the Sites of Controversy2022In: World Medical & Health Policy, ISSN 2153-2028, E-ISSN 1948-4682, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 507-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the vast majority of Western countries, Sweden left large segments of the society open instead of imposing a lockdown to combat the spread of the coronavirus. As a result, the Swedish COVID-19 measures, largely devised by its expert agency on health, garnered widespread international attention. Despite the global interest in the corona strategy of the Public Health Agency of Sweden (PHAS), there are currently no systematic studies on their COVID-19 policy. The present investigation focuses on the controversies that have characterized PHAS' work with reference to risk assessments, facemasks, voluntarism, testing, and the protection of the elderly during the pandemic. Overall, this inquiry demonstrates that PHAS' risk assessments were initially overly optimistic and their facemask recommendations in conflict with large segments of the scientific community for an extensive period. Yet, their voluntary measures worked moderately well. In their testing, PHAS did not manage to deliver on their promises in time, whereas several measures implemented to protect the elderly were deemed inadequate and late. 

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    Sweden's Coronavirus Strategy
  • 44.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section. Swedish Defence University.
    Swedish Air Power History: A Holistic Overview2018In: Air Power History, ISSN 1044-016X, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 7-14-Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 45.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The ethics of Carr and Wendt: Fairness and peace2018In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical realist writings of E.H. Carr and constructivist publications of Alexander Wendt are extraordinarily influential. While they have provoked a great number of reactions within the discipline of International Relations, the ethical dimensions of their works have rarely been studied at length. This article seeks to remedy this lack of examination by engaging in an in-depth scrutiny of the moral concerns of these two mainstream International Relations scholars. On investigation, it is revealed that Carr demonstrates a strong commitment to the ethical principle of fairness and Wendt a moral concern for the prevention of the use of organized violence. These concerns are shared by Rawlsians and cosmopolitans in International Relations, and these findings may thereby encourage closer engagement between these diverse communities that rarely speak to one another and strengthen disciplinary research on morals.

  • 46.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The Past, Present and Future of Realism2018In: Realism in Practice: An Appraisal / [ed] Davide Orsi, J. R. Avgustin & Max Nurnus, Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing , 2018, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The Underdog’s Model: A Theory of Asymmetric Airpower2021In: Air & Space Power Journal, ISSN 1555-385X, E-ISSN 1554-2505, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 6-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Berenskotter, Felix
    SOAS University of London, Politics and International Studies, London, (GBR).
    Friends in war: Sweden between solidarity and self-help, 1939-19452021In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the assumption that friends support each other in times of war. Picking up the notion that solidarity, or 'other-help', is a key feature of friendship between states, the article explores how states behave when a friend is attacked by an overwhelming enemy. It directs attention to the trade-off between solidarity and self-help that governments face in such a situation and makes the novel argument that the decision about whether and how to support the friend is significantly influenced by assessments of the distribution of material capabilities and the relationship the state has with the aggressor. This proposition is supported empirically in an examination of Sweden's response to its Nordic friends' need for help during the Second World War - to Finland during the 1939-1940 'Winter War' with the Soviet Union, and to Norway following the invasion of Germany from 1940 to 1945.

  • 49.
    Hickman, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Weissmann, MikaelSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Bachman, Sascha-DominikBournemouth University.Gunneriusson, HåkanSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Thunholm, PerSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hybrid Threats and Asymmetric Warfare: What to do?2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international security environment has seemingly departed from a post-cold war period of everlasting peace and has instead evolved into a volatile and increasingly grey area of war and peace. Security challenges arising from both hybrid wars and hybrid threats are high on security agendas in Sweden and Europe as well as internationally. However, despite the attention there is a lack of research that addresses how such “new” wars and threats should be handled. While studies do exist on specific issues, a comprehensive approach to how hybrid wars and threats are to be handled is still lacking. This is particularly the case when it comes to the sharing of experiences between states. This workshop constituted a first step towards developing such a comprehensive approach.

    The workshop’s aim was to be a bridge across disciplinary boundaries as well as between researchers and practitioners within and outside Sweden; integrating each group’s extensive experiences and knowledge into a coherent whole. Besides producing and disseminating new knowledge, the intention of the workshop was to establish a foundation for long-term collaboration; the first step in the creation of a European Network on Hybrid Warfare Capabilities that can work across borders and link state of the art of research and practice.

    Although mainly a scientific workshop, a number of practitioners were invited, with a mix of presentations by academics and practitioners. This was intended to foster innovative and reflective discussions across the academic-practitioner divide. The workshop also aimed to develop new ideas associated with hybrid threats/warfare in order to facilitate future cooperation

    These proceedings include a summary of the key points made by the presenters, along with conclusions and policy recommendations derived from the ensuing discussions. Conference programme and a list of abstracts for the papers and presentations can be found in the appendix.

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  • 50.
    Hulterström, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    "Svensk marintaktik - existerar det någon sådan?" Tänkvärt men missvisande - ett genmäle2020In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 3, p. 267-272Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This text is a rebuttal to Niklas Wiklunds remarks on Swedish research and training in naval tactics, presented in his article ”Svensk marintaktik – existerar det någon sådan?” in Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet – Kungl. Örlogsmannasällskapet, nr 6 2019. It claims that although Wiklund’s remarks are thought-provoking and may serve as a basis for discussion, they are also misguided. Wiklund’s mistake is an inadequate analysis of tactics and a misconception regarding scholarly research. This text posits that an analysis of tactics must include an analysis of tactical knowledge and what it means to know tactics. Furthermore, it urges that the Swedish Armed Forces and the Swedish Defence University coordinate their efforts to develop tactical knowledge.

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