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  • 1.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Folkrättsligt ansvar och svenska styrkors utövande av våld och tvång: vad innebär den svenska Irakinsatsen?2016In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 1, 38-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Protection of Human Rights and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security: Necessary Precondition or a Clash of Interests?2015In: Promoting Peace through International Law / [ed] Cecilia M. Bailiet & Kjetil Mujezinovic Larsen, Oxford University Press, 2015, 109-129 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Harrison Dinniss, Heather
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The Nature of Objects: Targeting networks and the challenge of defining cyber military objectives2015In: Israel Law Review, ISSN 0021-2237, E-ISSN 2047-9336, Vol. 48, no 1, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber warfare and the advent of computer network operations have forced us to look again at the concept of the military objective. The definition set out in Article 52(2) of Additional Protocol I – that an object must by its nature, location, purpose or use, make an effective contribution to military action – is accepted as customary international law; its application in the cyber context, however, raises a number of issues which are examined in this article. First, the question of whether data may constitute a military objective is discussed. In particular, the issue of whether the requirement that the definition applies to ‘objects’ requires that the purported target must have tangible or material form. The article argues on the basis of both textual and contextual analysis that this is not required, but it contends that it may prove to be useful to differentiate between operational- and content-level data. The second part of the article examines the qualifying contribution of military objectives such as their nature, location, purpose or use, and questions whether network location rather than geographical location may be used as a qualifying criterion in the cyber context. The final part of the article addresses the question of whether the particular ability of cyber operations to effect results at increasingly precise levels of specificity places an obligation on a party to an armed conflict to define military objectives at their smallest possible formulation – that is, a small piece of code or component rather than the computer or system itself. Such a requirement would have significant implications for the cyber context where much of the infrastructure is dual use, but the distinction between civilian objects and military objectives is a binary classification.

  • 4.
    Harrison Dinniss, Heather
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The regulation of cyber warfare under the jus in bello2015In: Cyber Warfare: A Multidisciplinary Analysis / [ed] James A. Green, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, 1, 125-159 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the legal issues raised by the use of cyber operations during armed conflict.

    Although none of the laws governing the conduct of hostilities address cyber operations explicitly, the laws are framed in general terms that may be interpreted to incorporate technological advances. This chapter thus explores the way in which those laws may be adapted and applied.

    The chapter first considers the general applicability of the jus in bello to cyber operations.  It then turns to the crucial principle of distinction, and assesses how this is to be applied in the cyber context.  In particular, this section of the chapter assesses what may be targeted i.e., what constitutes a ‘military objective’, the issue of ‘dual use’ objects in the cyber context and the prohibition on indiscriminate attacks.  The chapter then considers the various ways in which the principle of precaution may be relevant to cyber-attacks.  It also provides an examination of a number of jus in bello requirements for measures of special protection, and assesses how these rules are relevant to cyber warfare.  The final section turns to IHL’s restrictions on the ‘means and methods’ of warfare, including – but not limited to – the law of weaponry.

  • 5.
    Harrison Dinniss, Heather
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Soldier 2.0: Military Human Enhancement and International Law2016In: International Law Studies, ISSN 2375-2831, Vol. 92, 432-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in technologies that could endow humans with physical or mental abilities that go beyond the statistically normal level of functioning are occurring at an incredible pace. The use of these human enhancement technologies by the military, for instance in the spheres of biotechnology, cybernetics and prosthetics, raise a number of questions under the international legal frameworks governing military technology, namely the law of armed conflict and human rights law. The article examines these frameworks with a focus on weapons law, the law pertaining to the detention of and by “enhanced individuals,” the human rights of those individuals and their responsibility for the actions they take while under the influence of enhancements.

  • 6.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Article 28: Retained Personnel2016In: Commentary on the First Geneva Convention: Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field / [ed] International Committee of the Red Cross, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, 764-785 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. General Issues2015In: The Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations / [ed] Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 2, 35-62 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Operational Detention and the Treatment of Detainees2015In: The Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations / [ed] Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 2, 518-532 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Sources of the Law of Armed Conflict2016In: Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict / [ed] Rain Liivoja, Tim McCormack, London / New York: Routledge, 2016, 71-88 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations (2nd ed)(contributor)2017Other (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The Beneficiaries of the Rights Stemming from Common Article 32015In: The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary / [ed] Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, Marco Sassoli (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 433-447 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kleffner, Jann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The protection of humanitarian personnel in IAC/NIAC: the law and current challenges2016In: The Distinction between International and Non-International Armed Conflicts: Challenges for IHL?: 38th Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law (Sanremo, 3rd-5th September 2015) / [ed] Marchand, Carl & Beruto, Gian Luca, Milano: FrancoAngeli , 2016, 200-206 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Kleffner, Jann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Garraway, Charles
    Applicability and Application of International Humanitarian Law to Enforcement,  Peace Enforcement and Peace Operations2015In: The Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations / [ed] Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 2, 147-152 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kleffner, Jann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Garraway, Charles
    International Humanitarian Law in Self-Defence Operations2015In: The Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations / [ed] Terry Gill and Dieter Fleck, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 2, 236-239 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Kleffner, Jann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Nollkaemper, AndréPlakokefalos, Ilias
    The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law: International Military Operations cluster (Chapters 23-30)2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Longworth, Sally Alexandra
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    The law of occupation and gender2015In: IHL and gender - Swedish experiences / [ed] Cecilia Tengroth and Kristina Lindvall, Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Red Cross and Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs , 2015, 30-37 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Winther, Pontus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen och möjligheterna att möta påverkanskampanjer från främmande makt: Delrapport 2 (2016) på uppdrag av Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delstudien Yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen och möjligheterna att möta påverkan från främmande makt redogör övergripande för de möjligheter och begränsningar som yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen innebär för svenska myndigheter och andra allmänna organ att möta främmande påverkanskampanjer. Delstudien är den andra i studien Möta påverkan, som beställts av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB).

1 - 17 of 17
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