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  • 1.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    One crisis after another Municipal experiences of severe storm in the shadow of the tsunami2009In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical understanding of experiences of crisis management among municipal leaders Design/methodology/approach - A total of 16 chief officers and three politicians from three different municipalities were Interviewed concerning experiences of dealing with it severe storm Data were analyzed by a grounded theory approach Findings - Data analysis generated model Central to the model is all evaluation sphere, which reflects tension between everyday circumstances and crisis needs, between assessments of legislation and practices its it support or hindrance. and assessments of human vulnerability versus coping resources Manager characteristics, the societal context within which the event occurred, and crisis characteristics all Influence this evaluation sphere Particular stressors include the fact that the leaders themselves were personally affected by the storm, the difficult decisions and assessments that had to be made, the uncertainty of the situation and the timing, soon after the tsunami Crisis management, decisions and actions can be seen its formed from the evaluation sphere and the Influencing factors Research limitations/implications - The paper has a small sample and limited representativeness Generalizability of the model should be tested in other crisis events Practical implication - The model call be used its a tool to design exercises and its it guideline for authorities, in providing preparedness and crisis support Originality/value - The paper provides, a theoretical model highlighting the complex evaluations underlying managers' decisions and actions lit real-life situations

  • 2.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lull after the storm: municipal leaders reflect on multiple crisis experience2011In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 281-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to develop a theoretical understanding of how multiple crisis experience affects preparedness issues, and how the learning potential of municipal crisis experience can be developed. The focus is on municipal decision-makers.

    Design/methodology/approach - Two group interviews were conducted with a total of 13 municipal Chief Officers and Politicians. Data were analysed by a grounded theory approach.

    Findings - A theoretical model is presented, which includes both managers' views on their experiences related to preparedness and how development/revision of crisis can be explained. Experiences are not entirely positive or negative. Managers have developed a good preparedness in some aspects but they are also conscious about shortcomings in their preparedness. The model includes: level one, primary assessments, including strengths and limitations; and level two, reflection, where difficult choices and dilemmas faced are recalled, and future concerns are expressed.

    Research limitations/implications - The sample is small and range of experience is limited, since both municipalities studied have been fairly successful in their crisis management.

    Practical implications - The findings can be used to develop evaluation and application of crisis experience by individuals and in the crisis management system, and to develop exercises.

    Originality/value - The empirical data resulting from this study show the complexity in crisis experience, the need for better evaluation and the value of group reflection in evaluation.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Schyberg, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Crisis management at the government offices: a Swedish case study2015In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 542-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of crisis management at the Swedish Government office level in an international crisis by using a multiperspective approach, and paying particular attention to factors contributing favorably to the management process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption on Iceland in 2010 was accompanied by an ash cloud that caused serious air traffic problems in large parts of Europe. Interviews were conducted with seven high-level informants at the Swedish Government offices and two informants at the Swedish Aviation Authority. An interview guide inspired by governance, command and control, and leadership perspectives was used.

    Findings

    A Crisis Coordination Secretariat, organizationally placed directly under the prime minister, coordinated the operation. A combination of mandate (hard power) and social smoothness (soft power) on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat contributed to confidence building and a collaboration norm between the ministries, and between the ministries and their underlying agencies. Preparatory training, exercises and a high level of system knowledge on part of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat – contextual intelligence – also contributed to a favorable crisis management.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study relies on retrospective self-report data only from a limited group of informants making generalizations difficult.Practical implications– The organizational positioning of the Crisis Coordination Secretariat directly under the prime minister gave its members formal authority. These members in turn skillfully used social flexibility to build confidence and a will to collaborate. This combination of hard and soft power is recommended.

    Originality/value

    The multiperspective approach used when designing the interview guide and when interpreting the responses was new as well as the focus on factors contributing to crisis management success.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centre for Public Health Research, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Preparing for disaster: Public attitudes and actions1997In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigates what people are prepared to do in the way of disaster preparation, and examines how these assessments may be related to personal factors and attitudes. Draws on a theoretical model of the area, developed in a previous study using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Surveys 925 persons representative of the Swedish population between the ages of 16 and 74. Data were collected in a postal questionnaire. Shows that the preparations for disasters which had been carried out by the greatest number were installation of smoke detectors, participating in practice at school or work, and learning first aid. The least performed preparations included joining a voluntary organization or training programme, stocking up with tinned food at home, taking extra insurance, and learning how to deal with psychological crisis reactions. Finds considerable subgroup differences; and that the two key dimensions of the model - sense of personal meaningfulness and societal commitment - account for the differences. Suggests actions to be taken by the Swedish authorities.

  • 5.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Leadership in complex rescue operations: A qualitative study2006In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 15, p. 576-584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Leadership in complex, stressful rescue operations: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2011In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to explore the universality of a qualitatively (grounded theory) developed model of leadership in complex and/or stressful rescue operations.

    Design - The model was operationalised and tested on leaders (n = 385) from the ambulance service, the police force, and the rescue services in Sweden. A questionnaire was operationalised from the codes and categories of the previously developed model.

    Findings - The study showed that the most important factors in explaining the outcome of complex rescue operations were organisational climate before the incident, positive stress reactions, and personal knowledge of the co-actors during the episode. Cases where the leader appraised that the situation could not be resolved with the available resources were characterised by less favourable ratings, irrespective of whether humans were perceived as being threatened or not. The strength of this controllability aspect was interpreted in terms of a professional action-oriented identity.

    Research limitations/implications - The results were affected by a high dropout rate and the fact that there were comparatively few large-scale rescue operations.

    Practical implications - The results may be valuable in both training and exercises with rescue operation commanders.

    Originality/value - The paper presents a validation of a new, integrative, theoretical process model of leadership in complex, stressful rescue operations.

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