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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Job satisfaction as a form of organizational commitment at the military strategic level: A grounded theory study2017In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 25, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    It has been claimed that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude in organizational behaviour research. However, as most studies relate to lower hierarchical levels, the purpose of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among high-level managers, military leaders in this case.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A grounded theory approach was used. The empirical material is based on 12 interviews, two of which were with women. The informants had wide experience of a number of leadership positions as well as participation in international operations. Their ranks ranged from Colonel to Brigadier General and they represented army and naval units, the Armed Forces Headquarters and Swedish Defence University.

    Findings

    The qualitative analysis resulted in a theoretical model that describes the job satisfaction of military leaders at the strategic level, which concerns establishing and balancing organizational commitment. This means that top level managers develop, manage and recreate a “sense of oneness” between themselves and the organization – a strong identification that is established, challenged, changed, and renegotiated in a continuous process. Establishing and balancing organizational commitment is built on two overarching categories: keeping up the organizational image and responding to organizational greediness.

    Research limitations/implications

    Small sample, lack of representativeness, and lack of elaboration on possible gender-related aspects.

    Practical implications

    The suggested model may be valuable in educational settings when evaluating the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of high-level officers. The model may have practical implications when it comes to selection, retention and leader development of high-level military officers.

    Originality/value

    A new integrative, theoretical model of job satisfaction and organizational commitment of high-level officers is developed and discussed.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Åselis, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Swedish military officers through other nations' eyes: experiences related to leadership theory, stereotypes, identity and military contextual history2016In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 615-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Globalisation of working life means that many organisations are manned by people from different countries. A potentially critical factor is how members from various nations are looked upon by their partner countries. Such perception may be more or less accurate and affect organisational outcomes. The military is no exception as modern warfare is characterised by multinational composition of task forces. The aim of this paper was to gain a deeper understanding of how military officers from other nations perceive Swedish military officers and their leadership qualities in particular.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Interviews were conducted with 20 military officers representing ten nations. Interview questions were deduced from the Developmental leadership model. Responses were first coded inductively according to the constant comparative method. Generated categories were then deductively related to this leadership model.

    Findings

    The analysis resulted in positive and negative patterns. The positive picture included Swedish officers being perceived as calm, competent and generally good at exhibiting exemplary leadership behaviour, showing individualised consideration and creating an inspiring atmosphere. The negative side included opinions such as Swedish officers being too emotionally restrained, exhibiting poor self-confidence, discussing too much before making decisions and having difficulties giving negative feedback. The results are discussed in relation to the Developmental leadership model and the stereotype concept.

    Research limitations/implications

    Small sample size and a focus on military organisations imply a low degree of generalisability.

    Practical implications

    Three suggestions regarding Swedish officer education are presented: officer students should be given an increased awareness of how they are perceived by others, decision-making without group support and giving negative feedback in a constructive, straight forward, but still considerate way, should be practiced and more attention should be paid to emotion management.

    Originality/value

    The paper addresses an increasing tendency in work organisations – a multinational composition of the work force. The foundation of study in leadership theory and the stereotype concept is new.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Harem, T.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bakken, B.
    Indirect leadership under severe stress: A qualitative inquiry into the 2004 Kosovo riots2007In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 23-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical understanding of indirect leadership in a severely stressful peacekeeping context, focusing on the perspective of subordinates. Peacekeeping missions in recent decades have led to increased exposure to acute danger.

    Design/methodology/approach – Retrospective in-depth interviews were carried out with 17 Norwegian officers and soldiers, who were involved in the handling of a violent riot in Kosovo during a peacekeeping mission. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.

    Findings – A model emerged with three categories: Situational Characteristics, Organizational Characteristics, and the Commander's Intent. A related core category was labelled Subordinates' Appraisal or Sensemaking. During the climax of the riot, a strict following of the ordinary chain of command was impractical. Local initiatives at lower organizational levels were needed, but these, in turn, required competence and a trustful organizational environment.

    Research limitations/implications – Not representative of the entire population. Given the male-dominated military context under consideration, there could be no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences. The results related to a general model of indirect leadership and specific stress. Organizational theory-related additions and limitations are suggested.

    Practical implications – The proposed model may be a practical tool for management education.

    Originality/value – The study's identification of key aspects of indirect leadership in severely stressful contexts is a useful addition to the literature.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Contextual influences on leadership: Theoretical modelling and empirical tests2013In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: a theoretical model2010In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 412-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: Qualitative validation of an empirically grounded model2013In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is twofold: validation of a theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system, and methodological development by employing qualitative means for analysis.

    Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical model to be validated serves as a starting point for a qualitative reanalysis of logic-deductive character, aimed at verification of the pre-existing theory that is already discovered and developed. Data from three previously published case studies were used as a frame of reference.

    Findings – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies management system for disaster aid is validated in most respects. The qualitative testing for high trustworthiness proves reasonable with regard to selected reference studies.

    Originality/value – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid was mostly confirmed and partly modified when being compared to empirical data and models from three previous case studies. Also, the qualitative approach to validating the theoretical model is, to the best knowledge of the authors, new.

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