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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Psychol & Social Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leaders as emotional managers: Emotion management in response organisations during a hostage taking in a Swedish prison2015In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how leaders manage their own and others' emotions in professional crisis management organizations during severely demanding episodes. The empirical case is a hostage drama that occurred in a small Swedish town. Although staff at the local prison were situationally prepared and trained in incident exercises, two inmates with knives fled the prison after taking a warden hostage.

    Design/methodology/approach - A grounded theory approach was used. In all, 14 informants from four Swedish authorities were interviewed on the basis of their involvement in the hostage drama.

    Findings - According to the analysis, an emergency response leader's emotion management is framed by an organizationally embedded emotional regime which is summed up in two core themes: focus on the task and do not let emotions interfere; and provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security. The leader's emotion management within this framework consists of two interdependent processes, one more organization oriented and one more individual oriented.

    Research limitations/implications - Small sample, lack of representativeness, and lack of illumination of possible gender-related aspects.

    Practical implications - The suggested model may be valuable in educational settings.

    Originality/value - A new integrative, theoretical process model of leadership and emotion management in complex, stressful operations.

  • 2. Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    Mearns, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Authentic leadership and its relationship with risk perception and safety climate2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how authentic leadership relates to risk perception in safety critical organizations (SCOs). It is hypothesized that authentic leaders influence risk perception through the mediating effect of safety climate.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a survey design, the variables were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 293 offshore oil installation workers from a single company.

    Findings – The authors’ findings show that follower ratings of authentic leadership are negatively related to risk perception and positively associated with ratings of safety climate. Controlling for personality characteristics and leadership responsibility among respondents, the results confirm the hypothesis in that safety climate mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and risk perception. Safety climate had the strongest relationship with risk perception when assessed as a higher order construct.

    Originality/value – This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between authentic leadership and safety. The results indicate that authentic leadership and safety climate are important factors that relate to risk perception in SCOs. The authors’ findings suggest that SCOs should consider recruiting and developing authentic leaders to foster positive safety climates and risk management.

  • 3.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Department of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Leadership: Is bad stronger than good?2016In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 690-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the thesis “bad is stronger than good” also holds true for a number of leadership issues, more specifically: trust in the immediate leader, emotional exhaustion, work atmosphere and propensity to leave.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Questionnaire responses were obtained from military personnel in Estonia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands (n=625).

    Findings

    – Multiple regression analyses revealed a certain pattern. Constructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with trust in the immediate supervisor and work atmosphere, than destructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours showed stronger positive associations with emotional exhaustion and propensity to leave, than constructive leadership behaviours showed negative associations. This suggests that constructive leadership behaviours possibly have a greater impact on positive phenomenon and/or phenomenon associated with work-related relationships. On the other hand, destructive leadership behaviours appear to have a greater impact on negative phenomena with a stronger personal meaning. The results also show that the passive forms of destructive leadership are the behaviours that had the strongest impact on the investigated dependent variables.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Limitations related to item construction, common method variance, response set tendencies, translation of the instruments, and lack of response rate are discussed.

    Practical implications

    – The results emphasize the importance of focusing on both constructive and destructive leadership at the selection stage, as well as during training of military leaders. Focusing on them separately obstructs optimal leader development and prevents leaders from gaining authentic self-knowledge. The results also point at the importance of including both aspects of leadership in leader evaluation processes.

    Originality/value

    – The use of both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours with respondents from multiple nations in the same analysis.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Cigars, whiskey, and winning: A qualitative analysis of Kaltman's analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant's leadership2002In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of successful leadership was developed using a qualitative research method in a reanalysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership. The model rests on a person by situation interactional perspective but has a person-oriented focus. It suggests that leader actions are affected by task-related competence, management competence, and social competence. These competencies, in turn, are affected by the leader’s physical shape, psychological base, and value base. The model was related to two leading models in the field: situational leadership and transformational leadership. The study constitutes an attempt to elicit tacit knowledge and put it into a scientific framework.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Jens
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Andersson, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Robertson, Ingemar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Michel, P-O.
    A comprehensive system for leader evaluation and development2003In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the development of a theoretical model for leader evaluation and development, an instrument based on this model, and a strategy for large scale implementation in the Swedish armed forces. The model rests on an interactional person by situation paradigm. It emphasises “developmental leadership”, which is inspired by transformational and functionalistic leadership approaches. The developmental leadership questionnaire (DLQ) was operationalised from the model and refined through structural equation modelling. The model and the DLQ will be used for three purposes: yearly evaluation of all personnel in the Swedish armed forces; yearly planning dialogues between each employee and his or her nearest supervisor; and a tool for leadership training. The implementation strategy includes an initial course in developmental leadership for all colonels. This is followed by the selection and training of local trainers, who, in turn, initiate the comprehensive programme locally. The system should be fully implemented by 2005.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destrudo-L: Development of a short scale designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours2012In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a short and easy to use yet psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure destructive leadership behaviours in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – First, examples of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context were collected using a qualitative approach. Second, these examples were operationalised and pilot tested, which resulted in a 20-item questionnaire called Destrudo-L. Third, data were collected from three Swedish military groups (n=428). Dimensionality of the instrument was analysed using structural equation modelling. Conventional psychometric assessments of reliability and validity were performed.

    Findings – A nested hierarchical model with a general factor and the following specific factors emerged: arrogant, unfair; threats, punishments, overdemands; ego-oriented, false; passive, cowardly; and uncertain, unclear, messy. Meaningful subgroup differences and relationships with a criterion variable (lack of motivation/propensity to leave) were found. More use of active forms was reported by subordinates of younger military commanders and more use of passive forms was marked by subordinates of senior military managers.

    Practical implications – The instrument is easy to administer and interpret (norm values are provided) and can be used in leader evaluation, as well as leader development, contexts.

    Originality/value – The main contribution is methodological – the development of a new scale. Additional findings are a strong positive correlation between active and passive forms of destructive leadership behaviours in a military context, as well as significant differences between groups with different ranks.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bakken, B.
    Indirect leadership: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 771-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of a previously developed model of indirect leadership (qualitative Grounded Theory case study) in a broader military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – The model was operationalised to specific questionnaires for high-level managers, middle-level managers, and lower-level employees. Data were obtained from 147 Norwegian and 134 Swedish military officers, representing all three levels, and serving in the Army and Air Force respectively.

    Findings – The theoretical model of indirect leadership was partly supported. Higher importance was attributed to image-oriented top-down influence, rather than to action-oriented influence via directly subordinate commanders, which may be understood using developmental, transformational, and authentic leadership formulations. Meaningful patterns of subgroup differences were obtained.

    Research limitations/implications – Indirect leadership is complex and bottom-up influences were not taken into account, not all aspects of the top-down influence process were covered, only military contexts were studied, and no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences was possible in this male-dominated context.

    Practical implications – The obtained support of the theoretical model legitimises its use as a tool in higher military management education and coaching.

    Originality/value – The measurement tools of indirect leadership and the quantitatively based support of a Grounded Theory model with a how-focus on indirect leadership.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.

    Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.

    Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.

    Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.

    Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

  • 9.
    Sandahl, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundin, Josi
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa Martha
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The experimental understanding group-and-leader managerial course: long-term follow up2019In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an experiential leader development course titled understanding group-and-leader (UGL).

    Design/methodology/approach – The study sample consisted of 61 course participants (the managers) and 318 subordinate raters. The development leadership questionnaire (DLQ) was used to measure the results of the course. The measurements were made on three occasions: shortly before the course, one month after the course and six months after the course.

    Findings – The managers’ self-evaluations did not change significantly after the course. However, the subordinate raters’ evaluations of their managers indicated a positive trend in the scales of developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership one month and six months after the course.

    Research limitations/implications – The study was based on a comparatively small sample with a number of drop-outs. The study lacked a control condition.

    Practical implications – From an organizational point of view, it could be argued that it is justifiable to send managers to such a course, as there is a good chance for an improvement in their leadership style as rated by subordinates.

    Social implications – The integration of group processes and leadership behavior in the context of experiential learning seems to be a fruitful path to leader development.

    Originality/value – Longitudinal studies on the results of experiential learning for managers are sparse. This is the first quantitative evaluation of a course that more than 80,000 individuals have taken.

  • 10.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa Martha
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sandahl, Christer
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Palm, Kristina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    The importance of confidence in leadership role: a qualitative study of the process following two Swedish leadership programmes2018In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 114-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of leadership programmes on leaders and co-workers, as well as which mechanisms are involved in the process.

    Design/methodology/approach – An analysis was done into 431 free-text answers to questionnaires given to 120 participants in two different leadership programmes and their co-workers six months after their participation, using a grounded theory inspired approach.

    Findings – The result is a model, linking internal psychological and external behavioural aspects, with the central outcome that leaders gained more confidence in their leadership role through theoretical models learned, and reflection.

    Research limitations/implications – The course participants as well as the co-workers seemed to experience a positive leadership development indicating a value of participating in the courses.

    Practical implications – Confidence in leadership role seems important for having positive outcomes of leadership. Although this needs further research, it is something organisations should consider when working with leadership questions.

    Social implications – The co-workers perceived their leaders to be calmer, more open for discussions, and willing both to give and receive feedback post training. There appears to be an increase in trust both in the leader and reciprocally from the leader in the co-workers.

    Originality/value – Until now there has not been any systematic research into the effects on participants and co-workers following the programmes, despite the fact that over 100,000 have participated in the courses.

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