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  • 1.
    Lilja, Jannie
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Intra-Ethnic Dominance and Control: violence against Co-Ethnics in the Early Sri Lankan Civil War2011In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 171-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some ethno-separatist wars, rebel groups direct a large share of violence against members of their own ethnic community. But why do rebels target the co-ethnics they claim to represent in the war against the government? Our aim in this paper is to provide the components for a conceptual framework that we assess using unique disaggregated casualty data on violence committed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against co-ethnic Tamils in territories claimed for the Tamil Eelam state in the early phase of the Sri Lankan conflict, 1985-88. We propose that there are two distinct processes of intraethnic violence: violence against co-ethnic civilians and violence against co-ethnic rivals. While the former aims at controlling the population to win the war against the government, the latter aims at establishing leadership dominance over the ethnic minority. We examine the role of ethnic homogeneity in shaping the use of violence directed against the two types of co-ethnic targets in the buildup phase of ethno-separatist war. We conclude that ethnic demographic structures matter for how the rebels treat co-ethnics in the early phase of war before they have established territorial control.

  • 2.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations2017In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hundreds of thousands of soldiers from different national contingents are deployed every year in multinational peace operations, no previous study has examined differences in peacekeeping practices along national lines. This paper first documents systematically differences in the way national contingents behave during peace operations in their respective area of operation. In a second step, it argues that these differences in behavior are largely consistent with the most important traits of each army's military culture. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted between 2007 and 2014 in Lebanon and Afghanistan, the paper shows how, within each mission, Italian soldiers prioritized humanitarian activities, while the French engaged in more patrolling activities, despite being both contingents deployed under similar conditions. These variations in behavior are consistent with the way French and Italian soldiers perceive the mission and context in which they deployed. And both the differences in behavior and perception are in line with the respective armies' military cultures. This paper contributes to the debate on the role of ideational factors in international politics and in particular to the ongoing discussion on strategic and military cultures.

  • 3.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Vennesson, Pascal
    S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Fighting and Helping?: A Historical-Institutionalist Explanation of NGO-Military Relations2014In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 582-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex humanitarian emergencies, why are NGO-military relations cooperative in some cases, yet deeply conflictual in others? Drawing on historical-institutionalist theoretical insights, we argue that NGOs and military organizations are embedded in, and responding to, domestic institutional configurations that define a set of political incentives and constraints, material and normative, which structures and influences the characteristics and outcomes of their relations. Counterarguments suggest that organizational differences and the nature of their missions affect NGO-military relations. Using fresh empirical evidence we assess these arguments by comparing the Italian and the French experiences of NGO-military relations during the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan and the UN mission in Lebanon (UNIFIL II) between 2007 and 2011. We find that domestic institutional configurations are not left behind when NGOs and military units deploy abroad. Rather, they shape NGOs' and militaries' capacity to work together instead of at cross purposes and ultimately influence the success of international action.

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