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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Informality and Peacebuilding: Field Notes on the Intrinsic Reproductive Principles of Informal Economic Practices in Post-Conflict Kosovo2016In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal economies' relevance for peacebuilding is widely acknowledged. By providing an alternative interpretation in relation to the view that informality emerges in post-conflict environments due to the state's institutional weakness, this article contends that in Kosovo the principles of informality and its reproduction are inherent to informality itself. The article turns to the analytics of Pierre Bourdieu in order to reveal aspects of Kosovar informality left unexamined by established approaches. It illustrates how intrinsic inequalities and power relations constitute and reproduce informal economic practices throughout a circular rationale. Rather than a direct function of state weakness, informality in Kosovo is an effect of agents' engagement in knowledgeable and everyday practices. Agents' susceptibility contributes to the temporary fixing of meanings and doings that enable differentiations yet also interdependencies between relatively powerful and relatively powerless businesses. The article reflects on the implications of an intrinsic rationale for the politics of informality within peacebuilding operations.

  • 2.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sweden's Participation in Operation Unified Protector: Obligations and Interests2014In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 642-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the necessary conditions behind the decision made by the Government of Sweden to participate with fighter jets in the monitoring of the no-fly zone over Libya in March 2011. The article identifies five explanatory factors whose presence was necessary for Sweden's military contribution: a feeling of moral obligation to intervene on the part of the government; the international legal foundation for the operation; strong leadership provided by NATO; broad parliamentary support; and the availability of military capabilities.

  • 3.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Soeters, Joseph
    Nederland Defence Academy.
    Reflections on Swedish Peacekeepers' Self-image and Dilemmas of Peacekeeping2010In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soldiers' self-images undoubtedly influence the way they recognize, perceive, plan and conduct their tasks. The article examines the self-image of Swedish peacekeepers in the UNMIL mission in Liberia and the UNMIK mission in Kosovo. The findings are based on interviews with 27 soldiers before, during and after deployment. Eleven dimensions of self-image were found, showing that the self-image refers almost entirely to the peacekeeping and not the war-fighting role. In addition, the Swedish soldiers hold themselves to be excellent peacekeepers. Departing from this observation, we discuss three dilemmas in peacekeeping that have implications beyond the Swedish armed forces. The argument is that being less self-referential may make peacekeeping more successful.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    A model for understanding stress and daily experiences among soldiers in peacekeeping operations1998In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on research that aimed to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the UN peacekeeping soldiers’ experiences of their daily service, from their own perspective, using a grounded theory approach. Study participants were Swedish UN peacekeeping personnel who served in former Yugoslavia from Autumn 1993 to Autumn 1995. A model was developed, according to which UN peacekeeping soldiers’ experiences of their daily service are formed by the dynamic interplay between external influencing factors and internal peacekeeping force factors. The external factors comprise: the service environment including the parties to a dispute, the media and the soldier's private social network. Most of the soldiers’ responses concerning the environment were about low‐intensity stress and fear of losing control of their aggressiveness. The internal peacekeeping force factors include the recruitment principles, the preparatory training, leadership issues and personal characteristics of the individual soldiers. The model indicates that internal factors can be modified in ways that might make it possible to reduce the impact of the external factors. The generalizability of the model needs to be evaluated in future studies involving different kinds of peacekeeping missions.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Swedish peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A quantitative analysis2001In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the prototypical peacekeeping soldier and his experiences, based on a sample of all male soldiers serving in mechanized infantry companies in the first four Swedish UN battalions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (N = 1,238). A questionnaire was administered as a part of the demobilization programme. The prototypical peacekeeper is male, 20–25 years old, single, serves in a mechanized infantry company, and is on his first UN mission. Four different types of motives for joining the service were identified. The degree of perceived family support co‐varied strongly with service experiences. Favourable evaluations of the service period were associated with good relations with commanders and peers, perceiving few tasks as boring, but also with a high exposure to stressful events. The positive association with stress exposure may be related to the fact that no Swedish peacekeepers were killed during this period, which in turn probably contributed to experiences of invulnerability among the exposed soldiers while also increasing their social status among peers.

  • 6.
    Kernic, Franz
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Karlborg, Lisa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Dynamics of Globalization and Regional Integration: South America and Peace Operations2010In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the late 1990s, research on peace operations has increasingly taken up strands of globalization theory to explain changes in the nature of international peacekeeping. This article examines the question of how the dynamics of globalization and regional integration have affected South America's role and involvement in peace operations. It argues that a transformational globalization theory helps to explain developments and structural changes in South America's global peace engagement. This theoretical framework allows identification of global trends that link international developments to the changing involvement, experience and role of South America in peace operations: a growing number and diversity of actors in the operational theatre; structural changes in South America's military organizations; an increased willingness to engage in bi- and multilateral cooperation, including training for peace operations; and processes of both fragmentation and integration.

  • 7.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Reactions and Performance of Swedish Peacekeepers in Life-Threatening Situations2002In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 133-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study maps reactions activated in peacekeeping personnel by life-threatening situations and explores how these reactions affect psychological functioning. In-depth interviews were carried out with 30 informants from the Swedish peacekeeping force serving in Bosnia between 1993 and 1995. All participants had experienced shooting incidents or other highly threatening events. Two models were formed. A descriptive model structures the content of the interviews according to the phase and type of situation from which they were mainly reported, as well as whether they were mainly reported by officers or privates. A theoretical model forms the basis for a discussion about the individual and situational factors that affect the specific reactions and how their interaction with role expectations affects performance. The informants were generally satisfied with their performance. Two factors associated with lower performance were either that the life-threatening situation implied loss of control or it demanded complex cognitive activity.

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