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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    The Swedish Reserve Officer: Filling Vacancies or Using Competences2011In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 284-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the reserve force's role in and contribution to the new Swedish expeditionary armed forces. Survey data were obtained from 418 reservists. The results show that reserve officers are well educated and hold high positions in the civil society. According to the reserve officers themselves, the Armed Forces do not ask for their nonmilitary competence. The discontent with this situation is greater among the younger reservists as opposed to the older ones. Four different opinions on the need for the reserve officers are suggested. First, reserve officers are requested to fill vacancies, that is, a volume regulator. Second, the reserve officers are needed because they have unique competences other than military that are used by the armed forces. Third, reserve officers are needed from an economic point of view. Finally, reserve officers contribute to the civil- military relationship. However, when using a framework intended for regular officers, the contribution of the reserve officers' civil professional competence has not been recognized.

  • 2.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Weibull, Alise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sociology at military academies: The Swedish case2008In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 91-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illustrates the role of sociology at the Swedish military academies. Finding a suitable balance between theoretical and practical education seems to have been a major thread in Swedish officer education from the eighteenth century to the present day. The emphasis has been on education that is closely linked to military war positions, with extensive elements of combat planning and carrying out military operations. But as tasks have changed, areas such as leadership and organizations have become more important, and the positions of sociological theories and perspective have gradually increased. The belief put forward here is that the demand for sociology will increase for two reasons: the current struggle to make Swedish officer education more university-like and, more important, the need for sociological knowledge that will grow the more the Defense Forces will be engaged in the international arena.

  • 3.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Organized Armed Groups as Ruling Organizations2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 606-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the cohesion of organized armed groups (OAGs) have made great progress, but they have mostly focused on units fighting for modern Western states. I argue that the study of OAGs that contain their own legitimacy requires a broadened theoretical framework. Such groups may be conceptualized as “ruling organizations” in Max Weber’s terminology. Examples of such groups range from early medieval warbands to modern militias and guerrillas. Members of ruling organizations obey commands for a combination of three reasons: rational, traditional, and charismatic—these in turn form the basis of the legitimacy of the organization. Pinpointing the foundations of obedience in a group provides us with another way of emphasizing weak points that we want to either target or reinforce. This study contributes theoretically to the study of cohesion by linking it to theories of legitimacy in political orders.

  • 4.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Generic Pedagogic Model for Academically Based Professional Officer Education2019In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 333-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the end of the Cold War, many European countries cut back so heavily on defense expenditure that they lost their capacity to defend themselves. This resulted in greater need for improved cooperation and interoperability among member states’ armed forces. One important attempt to improve the understanding and interoperability among the European Union (EU) nation’s armed forces was taken in 2008 by the creation of the European Initiative for exchange of young officers aimed to make the officer education in Europe more transparent and convergent with each other. This article presents a proposal for a generic pedagogic model for an academically professional officer education that can improve understanding and interoperability among the EU nation’s armed forces. The model helps to facilitate a process of professionalization of the military profession with an officer education that can meet the requirements of higher education systems as well as the demands of the military profession.

  • 5.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Civil–Military Control over the Swedish Military Profession: An Analysis from the Perspective of Officer Rank and Officer Education2011In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 135-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil-military relations and the autonomy of the military profession in Sweden have varied over time depending on the perceived level of external threats. In this article, we set out to conduct an analysis of Swedish civil-military relations over a period of more than twenty-five years from 1984 to 2011. Our analysis is made from the perspective of civil-military control of (1) the military officer rank system and (2) the professional officer education system, for all three services. The analysis is based on Samuel Huntington's and Morris Janowitz's theoretical discussion of "objective" and "subjective" civilian control over the military and will give answers on how the Swedish armed forces have been effected by objective and subjective civilian control during the late Cold War era and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The findings of this study confirm the assumption that civil-military relations vary over time because of perceived external threats but also because of new threats, new tasks, and increased globalization and cooperation in multinational international operations.

  • 6.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Team Learning and Leadership in Multinational Military Staff Exercises2017In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 459-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation in multinational military operations is one of the main tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF), which means that Swedish officers need to be able to meet international military staff standards. For this reason, the SAF and the Swedish Defence University organize an annual international staff exercise which aims to train officers in and increase their knowledge of North Atlantic Treaty Organization staff methods and procedures. The essence of successful staff work is good leadership and effective team work. In this article, we present findings from three staff exercises that have significant impact on leadership and possibilities for good team learning that relate to a team learning model. These findings have great potential to be of value in planning and improving leadership education and training in both military and civilian contexts.

  • 7.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    What Motivates Swedish Soldiers to Participate in Peacekeeping Missions: Research Note2011In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 1, no 37, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last ten years, the Swedish Armed Forces has undergone a transformationin its shift toward worldwide peacekeeping operations. Subsequently, the Swedishgovernment is moving away from conscription to an all-voluntary recruitment system.This transition may lead to substantial challenges in recruiting new soldiers for theArmed Forces as well as for peacekeeping operations. A key to successful recruitment is understanding what motivates young men and women to participate in peacekeepingoperations. This research note addresses questions about what motivated Swedishpeacekeeping soldiers to join the 5th mission to Liberia and the 14th mission toKosovo in 2006. Fabrizio Battistelli’s motivation typology, paleomodern, modern, andpostmodern, is used in the analysis. The results show that all three motives were represented but that postmodern motives were by far the most common motivator

  • 8.
    Ilmari, Kähkö
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion2019In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue dedicated to broadening the perspective on military cohesion from the narrow focus on 20th and 21st Western state militaries and the microlevel. The special issue emphasized the need for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion: In order to understand the majority of armed groups in the world, it is necessary to investigate macro- and mesolevel preconditions of microlevel cohesion. Such preconditions include the existence of states, nations, and modern military organization. These are specific to modern, Western contexts, and rarely feature in historical or non-Western cases. In many cases, investigating these preconditions requires qualitative methods. In a critical response, Siebold contested some of the arguments of the special issue, claiming that our argument was exaggerated and our methodologies inadequate. In this reply, we seek to clarify some of the issues and arguments at stake.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    The role of peacekeepers in the 1990s: Swedish experience in UNPROFOR1997In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 451-&Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a development towards more complex forms of UN peacekeeeping. One example of this is the UN mission in former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR), to which Sweden has contributed troops since 1992. A questionnaire study was conducted to gain information about the role of peacekeepers in this new kind of UN mission. The study includes data from four Swedish mechanized infantry battalions, which were deployed in Bosnia for six months each, from autumn 1993 to autumn 1995. The questionnaire was completed by a total of 3,505 persons in connection with the Swedish UN personnel demobilization procedures. This article presents some of their views and experiences and discusses these in relation to the role of peacekeepers in the 1990s.

  • 10.
    Petersson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Defense Transformation and Legitimacy in Scandinavia after the Cold War: Theoretical and Practical Implications2011In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 701-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how defense transformation in Scandinavia has been legitimized and which legitimacy it enjoys. The overall result is that it does not have unambiguous support. There are, however, similarities and differences, both between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members Denmark and Norway and nonaligned Sweden, and between the NATO members. Theoretically, the alliance members should be more willing to transform-even if it implies a "denationalization" of defense. In Denmark, that is, with some reservation, the case but not in Norway. Nonaligned Sweden should, according to the same logic, be resistant to downsizing the armed forces and gearing them for NATO expeditionary war fighting operations. However, that is not the case. A consequence of the negative attitude toward the transformation is less influence, resources, freedom of action, and so on, for the defense forces in general, and an even more lukewarm attitude toward conducting combat operations in a NATO context in particular.

  • 11.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    What Peacekeepers Think and Do: An Exploratory Study of French, Ghanaian, Italian, and South Korean Armies in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon2014In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 199-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory article points out how armies differ in the performance of their daily military activities during a peacekeeping mission and analyses the role of contrasting perceptions of the mission operational environment in explaining this variation. As a first step, this article documents systematic variations in the way French, Ghanaian, Italian, and Korean units implement the mandate of the UN mission in Lebanon in their daily military activity. Second, it shows that the four armies also interpret or “construct” the operational environment differently and in a way that is consistent with their different military behavior. Third, preliminary evidence suggests that previous experiences of each army influence the way in which the operational environment is constructed. Data were collected combining participant observation in Southern Lebanon with questionnaires and interviews. This article thus builds on sociological works on different operational styles but takes a methodological approach closer to that in security studies.

  • 12.
    Schiff, Rebecca L.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Concordance Theory in Pakistan: Response to Zulfiqar Ali2016In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 226-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Zulfiqar Ali's article regarding concordance theory in Pakistan, Dr. Ali asserts that concordance theory does not explain domestic military intervention in Pakistan. He also suggests that concordance theory superimposes a Western theoretical model on Pakistan, like Huntington's theory of objective civilian control. In response to Dr. Ali's claims, this article reiterates how concordance theory can in fact explain why Pakistan has suffered from domestic military interventionthe alienation of the Bengali community and subsequent lack of agreement among the three concordance partners being one significant factor. Additionally, Huntington's theory focuses on institutional and dichotomous civil-military relations, grounded in the post-World War II US case study. By contrast, concordance theory views the relationship between military and society from both cultural and institutional perspectives and embraces those indigenous qualities that may encourage or discourage domestic military intervention.

1 - 12 of 12
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