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  • 1.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Decision-making style: habit, style or both?2004In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 931-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relations between individual decision-making styles as measured by the General Decision-making Style (GDMS) test, developed by Scott and Bruce (1995), and some mental abilities theoretically related to decision-making. Participants were 206 Swedish military officers from all services. The multiple regression analysis showed that the Rational, Dependent and Avoidant, but not the Intuitive and Spontaneous decision-making styles could be partly predicted from scores on the Self-esteem Scales (Forsman & Johnson, 1996) and from scores on the Action Control Scales (Kuhl, 1994). The result indicates that decision-making style is not only reflective of habits and thinking practices as proposed in earlier research. Decision-making style also involves basic self-evaluation and the general ability to initiate and maintain intentions (i.e. self-regulation). This calls for a wider definition of the term decision-making style, a holistic definition that takes the whole individual into consideration.

  • 2. Ullstadius, E.
    et al.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Gustafsson, J. E.
    Multidimensional item analysis of ability factors in spatial test items2004In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 1003-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two strategies for solving spatial test items, drawing differently on general ability and visualization, have been shown. These strategies may not only be a matter of individual predilection, but item features may lend themselves more to one or the other strategy. Newly developed techniques for factor analysis and the Mplus program allows items to be analysed as categorical variables together with summarized test results as continuous variables, which enables analyses of the dimensionality of single test items. Five spatial tests in the Computerized Swedish Enlistment test battery were analysed for a representative sample of 18-year old male conscripts (n = 14,925). The items were fitted one by one for each of the five spatial tests together with the rest of the tests into a hierarchical model of intellectual abilities with general (G), verbal (Gc'), spatial ability (Gv') and test specificity (Tspec') as latent variables. All models showed good fit and the items were found generally to load higher on G than on Gv', except for some of the items on the test with limited response time. No systematic increase in G loadings with increasing item difficulty, indicating a shift to an analytical strategy, was revealed.

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