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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Risk and Safety Attitudes Among Conscripts During Compulsory Military Training2011In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 659-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine relationships between individual characteristics, leadership, group cohesion, and risk and safety attitudes among Swedish conscripts (N = 389). The longitudinal questionnaire study revealed positive associations between safety-specific leadership and safety attitudes, while safety skepticism and leadership promoting risk taking were associated with stronger attitudes of necessary risk taking. Attitudes of unnecessary risk taking, on the other hand, were negatively related to safety-specific leadership and group cohesion, but positively associated with safety fatalism and leadership promoting risk taking. Decreases in safety attitudes were found between basic and unit training. The results highlight the importance of a balanced leadership.

  • 2. Eid, J.
    et al.
    Johnsen, B. H.
    Brun, W.
    Laberg, J. C.
    Nyhus, J. K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Situation awareness and transformational leadership in senior military leaders: An exploratory study2004In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 203-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the relationship between leadership style and operational readiness in a sample of senior Norwegian military officers (N = 43), who participated in a 1-week joint staff exercise. Leadership style was measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-45), and indicators of operational readiness included situation awareness and interpersonal influence. Transformational leadership emerged as a predictor of situation awareness (R2 = .33) and interpersonal influence (R2 = .25), with intellectual stimulation as the only significant predictor among the facet subscales. Some possible theoretical and methodological implications for future research are also pointed out.

  • 3.
    Estrada, Armando X.
    et al.
    Washington State Univ, Dept Psychol, Vancouver, WA USA.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sexual Harassment and its Impact for Women Officers and Cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 162-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the incidence, dimensions, and impact of sexual harassment on women officers and cadets in the Swedish military (N = 324). We expected that harassment rates for direct measures would be lower than for indirect measures; hostile environment harassment would be more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment would negatively influence women's job-related outcomes and their psychological and physical health. We found that harassment rates for direct measures were lower than indirect measures; hostile environment harassment was more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment was associated with decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work group effectiveness, and psychological and physical health. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of our findings for studying harassment across cultures.

  • 4. Estrada, Armando X.
    et al.
    Olson, Kristine J.
    Harbke, Colin R.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Evaluating a Brief Scale Measuring Psychological Climate for Sexual Harassment2011In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 410-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the measurement properties of the psychological climate for sexual harassment (PCSH) questionnaire with data from women officers (n = 311) in the Swedish Armed Forces. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a two-factor solution assessing risks and seriousness/actions associated with sexual harassment episodes described the underlying pattern of correlations among items. Correlational and regression analyses showed that ratings of perceived intolerance for sexual harassment were associated with high ratings of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and (positive) mental health; and decreased ratings of psychological distress. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of our findings for future research.

  • 5.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military Leaders' Adaptability in Unexpected Situations2017In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 245-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates adaptability among lower-level military leaders in unexpected threatening situations. Two studies were performed. In the first, a grounded theory approach was used, and 16 Swedish officers and soldiers with experience from international peacekeeping operations were interviewed. A model was developed based on the results. In Study 2, the model concepts from Study 1 were operationalized into a questionnaire and data was obtained from 102 respondents from the Swedish Armed Forces who had recently served in Afghanistan. Based on Study 1, the model suggests that the key aspects of adaptive leadership in such circumstances are 2 balancing acts. One is how subordinates handle structure/following rules versus their own initiatives/freedom of action. The other concerns the balance between individual decision making versus group input. Both are affected by availability of time, resulting in a favorable/unfavorable outcome. The hypotheses from Study 1 were partly confirmed in Study 2.

  • 6.
    Ivarsson, Sophia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Estrada, Armando Xavier
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Understanding men's attitudes toward women in the Swedish armed forces2005In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 269-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined attitudes toward women in the military in a random representative sample of 1,320 male officers from the Swedish Armed Forces. We expected age, education, rank, years of military service, sexist beliefs, and interpersonal contact to correlate with men's attitudes toward women in the military. Correlational analyses indicated that individuals expressing more positive attitudes toward women in the military tended to be younger, more educated, and higher in rank, were less likely to endorse sexist ideologies, and had greater interpersonal contact with women in the military. Regression analyses showed that education, rank, sexism, and contact emerged as the best predictors of these attitudes. Further examination of the effects of contact on these attitudes indicated that the quality of the contact experience was uniquely important in understanding men's attitudes toward women in the military. We discuss the implications of these findings for promoting greater acceptance of women in the military.

  • 7. Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    et al.
    Eid, Jarle
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Leadership and Ethical Justice Behavior in a High Moral Intensity Operational Context 2010In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between moral behavior in a high moral intensity context and leadership behavior in Norwegian naval officer cadets (N = 82). Peer ratings of leadership behavior were used as predictor variables, and ethical justice behavior, defined as the disclosure of sensitive information in a demanding prisoner-of-war exercise, was used as an outcome measure. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that transactional leadership explained 19% of the variance in ethical justice behavior, whereas transformational leadership did not augment this effect. However, in a model including all facets of the full range of leadership model, 25% of the variance in leaders' ethical justice behaviors was accounted for, with high scores on the transformational facet of Intellectual Stimulation (β = -.45, p < .05) and low on Individual Consideration (β = .44, p < .05) combined with high scores on the transactional facet Contingent Reward (β = -.68, p < .01) as significant predictors. The present data indicate that there is a strong component of ethical behavior embedded in both transactional and transformational leadership.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Implementation of developmental leadership in the Swedish armed forces2006In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 18, p. S103-S109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of behavioral research on military systems design is often limited. Typically, military, technical, economic, and political systems designers are more influential. The implementation of a new leadership model-developmental leadership-in the Swedish Armed Forces may constitute an exception. The aim of this article is to describe and evaluate the implementation process and its effects. The new leadership model is now well on the way to full-scale implementation. The conclusion is that an interplay between structural aspects (limited organization size and the formal authority of the supreme commander) and behavioral and attitudinal aspects (internal and external change agents) contributed to this outcome.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Personality, appraisal and cognitive coping processes, and performance during various conditions of stress1989In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 167-182Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the relationships between personality factors, situation- specific appraisal and coping processes, and psychomotor performance during calm and stressful conditions. Eighty-nine Swedish male conscripts (M age = 19.6 years) constituted the sample. The performance task was to shoot down 10 enemy aircraft on an anti-aircraft artillery simulator. The task was carried out three times-in calm conditions, noisy conditions, and noisy conditions with sleep deprivation (27 hr). Performance deteriorated as suc- cessive stressors were added. Personality factors showed weaker relationships with performance than situation-specific appraisal and cognitive coping in- dicators. The relative importance of personality factors increased when stres- sors were added. Appraising the performance situation as a challenge was associated with positive thinking and good performance; appraising the sit- uation as a threat was associated with negative thinking and poor perform- ance. A considerable cross-situational, intraindividual performance stability was found, and a subgroup of consistently well-performing subjects was iden- tified. These individuals had low scores on trait anxiety and high scores on achievement, order, and intraception.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bartone, P. T.
    Bos-Bakx, M.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Eid, J.
    Jelusic, L.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moelker, R.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bartone, J.
    Forsythe, G.
    Pruefert, A.
    Wachowicz, M.
    Leader development in natural context: A grounded theory approach to discovering how military leaders grow2006In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 18, p. S69-S81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increasing number of programs that aim to develop or educate leaders, the underlying processes involved in leader development or growth are not well understood. This study was undertaken to discover what factors or processes are involved in leader development for junior military officers, from their own perspective and in the natural context of their career and life experiences. Military officers (N = 51) from 5 different countries were interviewed using a standardized approach, and interview transcripts were analyzed according to the constant comparative method of grounded theory, as elaborated by Glaser and Strauss (1967). Consistently across the 5 countries, the core of the process model of leader development is the social interaction between the young officer and his or her significant others (soldiers, peers, and superiors). In the favorable case, officers end this process feeling secure, being able to flexibly adapt their overt behavior on an underdistanced–overdistanced continuum according to situational demands, and have a firm professional identity.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hayward, Brent
    Appraisal and coping processes immediately before ejection: A study of Australian and Swedish pilots1990In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 2, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on appraisal and coping processes among military pilots during ejection episodes. A total of 49 ejection episodes were reported by 24 pilots from the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and 24 pilots from the Swedish Air Force (SAF). Two clusters of coping strategies were identified- instrumental self-management and emotional self-management-and both forms of coping were clearly related to effective problem solving. The emotional self-management strategies suggest an effective block of disturbing thoughts and emotions. Good performance was associated with challenge appraisals and considerable use of instrumental self-management. Poor performance was associated with appraising the episodes as irrelevant or threatening. Ejections caused by technical malfunctions were handled more effectively psychologically than were ejections caused by human errors. Only minor differences were found between the Australian and Swedish samples.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Michel, P-O.
    Lundin, T.
    Systematic Assessment of Mental Health Following Various Types of Posttrauma Support2000In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different forms of support (peer support, ventilation or defusing led by the ordinary group leader, and more formal debriefing sessions led by an external counselor) on mental health following traumatic experiences, using a prospective study design. The sample consisted of a Swedish battalion (N = 510), which was part of NATO’s implementation force in Bosnia in 1996. Preservice assessment was made of personality, sense of coherence, and mental health. One third of the soldiers experienced traumatic situations during their service. Results showed that poor mental health after service was related more to preservice mental health and sense of coherence than to trauma exposure and posttrauma support. Peer support followed by a defusing session had a positive effect on postservice mental health, although this did not apply to the individuals with the worst preservice mental health. The value of formal debriefings could not be evaluated due to insufficient data.

  • 13.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Social desirability in personality testing of military officers2001In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency among Swedish military officers to answer in a socially desirable way when taking some personality tests was investigated. Participants were 216 Army, Navy, and Air Force captains. The test used for measuring social desirability was the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) and a subset of those test items. Data revealed a strong tendency among the officers to answer in a socially desirable manner compared to earlier data from testing with the M-C SDS and compared to data from a sample of Swedish students of economics. M-C SDS correlated significantly with all 3 of the personality tests used. The comparably strong tendency to answer in a socially desirable way could be due to in part a need for many individuals to "look good" and in part due to difficulties of applying a 5-step Likert scale to the items of the M-C SDS.

  • 14.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, C.
    Military observers' reactions and performance when facing danger2004In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 211-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some groups have to face threats and dangers professionally with maintained cognitive functioning, which implies a need to know both the extent to which maladaptive reactions occur and the factors that may affect it. This study examines self-reported reactions and performance when facing risks and dangers on peacekeeping observer missions. The sample consisted of 154 military observers. A self-made questionnaire, including the General Health Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, was used. We found that feelings of invulnerability were common in relation to mission risks. In a specific danger incident, most participants subjectively performed well, although partial loss of cognitive functioning was reported in half of the cases and severely dysfunctional reactions in about one tenth. Cluster analysis showed that self-reported cognitive limitations in danger incidents were related to 2 factors: complicating situational factors, such as high levels of threat, complex decision demands, and minor control possibilities; and individual vulnerability factors, such as general worry and anger, low SOC, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms.

  • 15.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstad universitet, Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Rydstedt, Leif
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Job satisfaction among Swedish soldiers: Applying the Job Characteristics Model to newly recruited military personnel2018In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A professional military organization was introduced in Sweden in 2010. This means that the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) need to attract and employ soldiers, and to retain them within the organization. This scenario creates new types of challenges in manning the organization. The transition to an all-volunteer force puts job satisfaction in focus in order to retain personnel. This cross-sectional study of the relations between working conditions and job involvement among 300 recently employed soldiers showed that the dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model related significantly to job satisfaction and work motivation and (negatively) to turnover intentions from the SAF. The results further showed that all the critical psychological states contributed independently to the variance in the outcome variables.

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