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  • 1.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Gustafsson, J. E.
    Ullstadius, E.
    Item sequencing effects on the measurement of fluid intelligence2000In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 145-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions of the concept of intelligence typically emphasize two aspects, the ability to solve complex problems (the complexity aspect) and the ability to acquire new knowledge (the learning aspect). Complexity has been the most emphasized aspect in the psychometric approach to research on intelligence. The study investigated whether a change of test item sequencing, intended to increase test complexity, would cause increased involvement of general intelligence (G). Three types of problem-solving items (Groups, Series, and Bongard) were administered in a sequence (the homogeneous treatment, n = 363). In the treatment intended to increase complexity, items of different types were presented by turns (the heterogeneous treatment, n = 1,778). Three reference tests measuring verbal, spatial, and reasoning ability were used in the analysis. Contrary to what was expected, the items presented homogeneously showed higher G loadings. The reason for this might be that in the reasoning tests used, processes of learning took place from one item to another, and that the high-G individuals could take better advantage of this opportunity in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous treatment. The consequences of the results for testing in general and for computer adaptive testing in particular are discussed.

  • 2. Rigas, G
    et al.
    Carling, E
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Reliability and validity of performance measures in microworlds2002In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 463-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research with microworlds enable us to study complex mental processes in semantically rich but standardized environments, under more realistic conditions than ordinary tests do. Moreover, adapting the microworlds to the needs of mental testing may increase our ability to predict success in real life pursuits [Rigas, G., & Brehmer, B. (1999). Mental processes in intelligence tests and dynamic decision making tasks. In P. Juslin & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: Neo-Brunswikean and process-tracing approaches (pp. 45-65). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.]. Yet earlier studies have found no relations between intelligence test scores and microworld performance. The relationships between two real time dynamic decision making tasks (microworlds) and one intelligence test were investigated. The participants interacted with eight NEWFIRE scenarios, four COLDSTORE scenarios, and completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). The composite scores of performance in the two microworlds were sufficiently reliable. APM was a predictor of success in these two microworlds. Statistically significant increases in R 2 were obtained. Methodological problems in research with microworlds are discussed and changes related to the adaptation of microworlds to the needs of mental testing are proposed.

  • 3.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet.
    Weinhall, Lars
    Stockholms universitet.
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970-19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 1, no 41, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2-1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects.

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