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  • 1.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bandlitz-Johansen, Rino
    Norweigan Defence University College, (NOR).
    Waller, Gudmund
    Norwegian Royal Naval Academy, (NOR).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Moral stress and coping: Relationship with long-term postitive reactions and PTSD indication in military personnel2022In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 672-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between moral stress reactions and resulting coping efforts in severely morally challenging situations. Long-term positive reactions and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators following morally challenging situations are also studied. The sample consisted of cadets and officers (n = 332) from Norway and Sweden. Long-term positive reactions were found to be associated with limited moral stress reactions during the challenging episode and frequent use of acceptance and positive reappraisal coping strategies. Long-term high scores on a PTSD indicator scale covaried with high scores on Openness, a strong moral stress reaction, and frequent use of instrumental coping strategies. The main conclusion is that the immediate moral stress reaction and coping strategies following morally challenging situations appear to be related to both positive long-term reactions and to indicators of PTSD.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moral stress in international humanitarian aid and rescue operations: A grounded theory study2011In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanitarian aid professionals frequently encounter situations in which one is conscious of the morally appropriate action but cannot take it because of institutional obstacles. Dilemmas like this are likely to result in a specific kind of stress reaction at the individual level, labeled as moral stress. In our study, 16 individuals working with international humanitarian aid and rescue operations participated in semistructured interviews, analyzed in accordance with a grounded theory approach. A theoretical model of ethical decision making from a moral stress perspective was developed. The practical implications of the study are discussed.

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