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  • 1.
    Aalto, Janne
    et al.
    Finnish Defence Research Agency, (FIN).
    De Reya, Anthony
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Garb, Maja
    University of Ljubljana, (SVN).
    Giga, Sabir
    Lancaster University, (GBR).
    Goyne, Anne
    Australian Defence College, (AUS).
    Kalantzis, Eugenia
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    Kucera, Tomás
    Charles University, (CZE).
    Lekea, Ioanne
    Hellenic Air Forces Academy, (GRC) .
    MacIntyre, Allister
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    MacVean, Allyson
    Bath Spa University, (GBR).
    Morales, John
    US Centre for Army Profession and Ethics, (USA).
    Ness, Alisha
    US Army Research Institute, (USA) .
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    O´Keefe, Damian
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN) .
    Olsthoorn, Peter
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Reed, Esther
    University of Exeter, (GBR).
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Shackleton, Scott
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Shaughnessy, Stefanie
    US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, (GBR) .
    van der Linden, Naomi
    Australian Defence College, (NLD).
    Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership: Final report of Task Group HFM-3042023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership” shows that the ethical behavior of leaders is the most important factor in shaping an organization’s ethical climate. Representatives from ten countries, Canada, Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America participated in the research, with six (Canada, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden and the USA) able to collect data. The goals of RTG HFM-304 included identifying the individual, situational, and organizational variables predictive of ethical leadership, developing a model of ethical leadership, and collating best practice in military ethics education amongst NATO and Partner for Peace (PfP) countries. Findings evidence that ethical leadership is strongly associated with values, in particular with value achievement (e.g., setting high standards and striving for excellence) and person-environment fit. Leaders who have the ability to address an ethical dilemma tend also to be those with high standards, a firm foundation in values (such as helping others and generosity) and belief that their institution shares these values. To engender ethical cultures and attract, train and sustain principled leaders, there is a need for military institutions to emphasize values, reinforce ethical decision-making and promote and value-informed ethical leadership from the beginning.

  • 2.
    Dempsey, Elias
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönare i marinen, etisk försvarbart och taktiskt motiverbart?: En teorikonsumerande studie om drönare i marinen2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines tactical and ethical considerations for the implementation of drones in the Swedish naval forces. Research concerning ethics and the use of drones differ between being an accepted technology in warfare and an unfair advantage for the user. Research of tactical aspects in using drones show clear advantages for naval tactics. While several nations worldwide have adopted drones in their navy Sweden has not. By examining what considerations can be made concerning ethics and tactics, the implementation of drones can be made easier. 

    By applying an ethical perspective aspect for drones and one theory concerning the tactical aspect for naval warfare and applying these to different drones, this study examines whether drones can fulfill naval duties simultaneously as well as being ethical in their usage. 

    The analysis shows that unarmed drones can with ease solve the majority of tactical tasks ethically. Drones which are produced with weapon capability can theoretically complete all tactical assignments however, cannot be considered as being ethical. The findings show that armed drones are not considered ethical; un- armed drones can be exploited in the Swedish naval forces while being ethical and that ethical theory con- cerning drones in the armed forces needs developing in both war and peacetime 

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  • 3.
    Malm, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Historien om Masar -e Sharifs belägring - Postmodern etik och militär våldsanvändning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws from Zygmunt Bauman´s theory that a governmental policy of values can reduce the personal responsibility and moral choices for employees, to focus only on maintaining the government’s internal rules and regulations. The apparent risk with this type of moral attenuation is that the employee is deprived of the possibility to react morally on conduct of the government’s external misuse of power. In this study, this theory is connected to the Swedish Armed Forces’ policy of values, as these values do not include a critical standpoint for officers and soldiers. The policy is instead aimed at maintaining the internal rules and regulations of the Armed Forces, thus neglecting moral functions’ for officers and soldiers applicable to the use of force.The purpose of this study is to show how development of the current policy of values can make it possible to mitigate the risk of moral attenuation, by using a postmodern theory for ethics. The study analyses the decision to use force in Afghanistan, and finds that the ethics for military violence are based on a liberal ontology. With a postmodern paradigm on ethics, the study then criticizes the liberal ethics at hand for the use of force in Afghanistan.The study concludes that the policy of values set by the Swedish Armed Forces could be revised by adapting an ethical awareness to the risks of moral attenuation. Further, the study suggests that the policy should include the fact that the use of language can dehumanize groups of people, with the apparent risk that the use of force aimed at these people, is morally unsound.

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  • 4.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Teknik och etik: Ett självständigt arbete om obemannade flygande farkoster och deras militära nytta och moraliska dilemman2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, popularly known as drones, have been up to debate since the start of the war on terror, 11th September 2001, and there are still a lot of questions about their use and moral legitimacy. There are a lot of useful applications for this kind of vehicle for example, situational awareness, searching for lost people and attack missions. This study is going to investigate how these vehicles are being used within attack missions and and what their military utility are. Since there are a lot of different opinions on the system in war and conflict, the aim for this study is to make the ethics more concrete and evaluate what military utility this system gives.

    The moral aspects of UCAV, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle, in conflict and war differ a lot from person to person. Those who are against this kind of system mean that the UCAV, in itself, is a threat and not as much to how it is used. Supporters of the system, on the other hand, argue that similar tactics have been used in war since the 1960s hence the system does not need any change in ethics and morals. However the system has got a negative reputation because of they way it is being used.

    This study shows that it is morally right to use UCAVs when the conflict or war meets a majority of the seven criteria of Just War Theory. However it is not as simple as that, there are a lot more factors that come in play. The population of the nation and its interests in the conflict or war, the threat level and what kind of profit the nation will acquire through it are important factors. If all of these criteria are met then the use of UCAVs for attack missions can be seen as morally just.

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  • 5.
    Olausson, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    AUTONOMA VAPENSYSTEM: ARGUMENTATIONSANALYS AV DEN DEONTOLOGISKA ARGUMENTATIONEN2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ethical implications of autonomous weapon systems is a highly debated topic. While research and development of autonomous weapon systems is ongoing, non-governmental organizations seek to ban the technology. Ethicists give conflicting answers as to what is right and what is wrong. Although, arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems seem to dominate the debate, particularly when balancing deontological arguments that oppose autonomous weapon systems against those who advocate the technology. 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate deontological arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems using argument analysis. This is done in order to assess the deontological case for opposing autonomous weapon systems. 

    The findings of this study are that, although influential deontological arguments opposing autonomous weapon systems are more numerous than supporting ones, the deontological case for opposing autonomous weapon systems is weak in both tenability and relevance. The main tenability concerns are the application of theory in premises and conceptual incoherence. The main relevance concern is variations in the way autonomous weapon systems is defined. These weaknesses show that the analysed deontological arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems should not alone dictate the direction of the ethical debate. 

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  • 6.
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Bortom forskningsetiken skymtar omdömesförmågan2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Om Raul Wallenbergs relation till sin farfar Gustaf: Moraliskt mod och betydelsen av goda förebilder ur ett dygdeetiskt perspektiv2023In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 139-169Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Raoul Wallenberg is an important role model from the Second World War, and there are many testimonies about his actions and moral courage in historical literature. But the question remains: How did Raoul acquire his remarkable moral courage and firm leadership? One explanation is to be found in his relationship with his grandfather Gustaf, who was Raouls role model and mentor. He developed an individual education plan for his grandson, focusing not only on formal education but also on personal development including worldviews, people skills and practical and strategical leadership. The plan and the importance of role models are discussed from a virtue ethics perspective, with lessons learned about the development of moral courage. 

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