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  • 1.
    Aalto, Janne
    et al.
    Finnish Defence Research Agency, (FIN).
    De Reya, Anthony
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Garb, Maja
    University of Ljubljana, (SVN).
    Giga, Sabir
    Lancaster University, (GBR).
    Goyne, Anne
    Australian Defence College, (AUS).
    Kalantzis, Eugenia
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    Kucera, Tomás
    Charles University, (CZE).
    Lekea, Ioanne
    Hellenic Air Forces Academy, (GRC) .
    MacIntyre, Allister
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    MacVean, Allyson
    Bath Spa University, (GBR).
    Morales, John
    US Centre for Army Profession and Ethics, (USA).
    Ness, Alisha
    US Army Research Institute, (USA) .
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    O´Keefe, Damian
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN) .
    Olsthoorn, Peter
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Reed, Esther
    University of Exeter, (GBR).
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Shackleton, Scott
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Shaughnessy, Stefanie
    US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, (GBR) .
    van der Linden, Naomi
    Australian Defence College, (NLD).
    Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership: Final report of Task Group HFM-3042023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership” shows that the ethical behavior of leaders is the most important factor in shaping an organization’s ethical climate. Representatives from ten countries, Canada, Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America participated in the research, with six (Canada, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden and the USA) able to collect data. The goals of RTG HFM-304 included identifying the individual, situational, and organizational variables predictive of ethical leadership, developing a model of ethical leadership, and collating best practice in military ethics education amongst NATO and Partner for Peace (PfP) countries. Findings evidence that ethical leadership is strongly associated with values, in particular with value achievement (e.g., setting high standards and striving for excellence) and person-environment fit. Leaders who have the ability to address an ethical dilemma tend also to be those with high standards, a firm foundation in values (such as helping others and generosity) and belief that their institution shares these values. To engender ethical cultures and attract, train and sustain principled leaders, there is a need for military institutions to emphasize values, reinforce ethical decision-making and promote and value-informed ethical leadership from the beginning.

  • 2.
    Bendiksen, Roy Severeide
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operasjonell ildstøtte: Potensial for 9x styrkemultiplikasjon ved bruk av digital kommunikasjon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Militære operasjoner er i vedvarende endring, hvor en sentral utviklingstrend er bruk av tekniske hjelpemiddel. Dette har medført nye og mer effektive samhandlingsmåter og en påfølgende økning i innslag av fellesoperasjoner. Oppgaven handler om hvordan denne utviklingstrenden påvirker den operasjonelle ildstøttens bidrag til at landmakten kjerneoppdrag – å finne, binde og ramme motstan- deren. Dette tilnærmes gjennom å undersøke hvordan innføringen av digital kommunikasjon påvir- ker det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets potensial for å skape effekt i det militære spillerom.

    Oppgavens undersøkelse viser at digital kommunikasjon gir ytelsesforbedring gjennom kompresjon av tid, hvilket i tur muliggjør situasjonsspesifikk styrkemultiplikasjon gjennom ekspansjon av rom. Samtidig indikeres det at situasjonsspesifikke kombinasjoner operasjonell ildstøtte har potensial for 3x ytelsesbedring og opp til 9x styrkemultiplikasjon, hvilket betyr at man kan bruke mindre ressurser for å oppnå samme effekt eller de samme ressurser for å oppnå en større effekt! Realisering av potensialet for styrkemultiplikasjon setter økte krav til den metodiske målbekjempningsprosessen og da spesielt kunnskap om egne muligheter og begrensninger. Dette handler om operasjonskunst og peker på viktigheten av systemkompetanse i planlegging og utførelse av operasjoner.

    Innføring av digital kommunikasjon må ses i sammenheng med hvordan pågående utviklingstrend skyver på det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets sosio-tekniske balanse. Forståelse av fenomenet blir derfor viktig for videre funksjon- og kapabilitetsutvikling.

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  • 3.
    Brodrej, Pepule Majken
    Swedish Defence University.
    Potential AI Application In The Swedish Army And Its Relation To The Holiness Of Life: A study of army officers' narratives on the military experience in the face of AI2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines army officer's view of the social implications of AI within the Swedish Army, as well as what is required of researchers to understand the implications of AI. The thesis is based on an interpretive study of the army officers' narrative and is supported by contemporary research on AI for military use. The theoretical framework includes ideas on social contracts, transrational sentiments, emotions (like love) as meaning making, human life as Holy and bounded rationality. The theme of the Holiness of human life opens up a discussion about the value of trust, hope and love within the activities of the Swedish Army. The analysis describes how the view of AI is partly positive, while simultaneously containing skepticism and fear that technical optimism will lead to a destructive use of it. Participants in the study describe AI's rationality in contrast to human rationality, and war is presented as a non-rational social process. This leads the study to an interpretation of the meaning of the officers distancing and fear towards AI. It addresses the risks of a higher AI usage rate in war, which include; decision makers loss of credibility, devaluation of life and the appearance of war as nonsensical and meaningless, which could contribute to an indifference towards human life and suffering. The conclusion addresses human life as a human responsibility because its meaning and value is socially constructed, the benefits of exploring AI capabilities and the significance of understanding the social culture where the AI is to be used - as it affects the application outcome.

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    Potential AI application in the Swedish Army and its relation to the Holiness of Life - Pepule Brodrej
  • 4.
    Dempsey, Elias
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönare i marinen, etisk försvarbart och taktiskt motiverbart?: En teorikonsumerande studie om drönare i marinen2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines tactical and ethical considerations for the implementation of drones in the Swedish naval forces. Research concerning ethics and the use of drones differ between being an accepted technology in warfare and an unfair advantage for the user. Research of tactical aspects in using drones show clear advantages for naval tactics. While several nations worldwide have adopted drones in their navy Sweden has not. By examining what considerations can be made concerning ethics and tactics, the implementation of drones can be made easier. 

    By applying an ethical perspective aspect for drones and one theory concerning the tactical aspect for naval warfare and applying these to different drones, this study examines whether drones can fulfill naval duties simultaneously as well as being ethical in their usage. 

    The analysis shows that unarmed drones can with ease solve the majority of tactical tasks ethically. Drones which are produced with weapon capability can theoretically complete all tactical assignments however, cannot be considered as being ethical. The findings show that armed drones are not considered ethical; un- armed drones can be exploited in the Swedish naval forces while being ethical and that ethical theory con- cerning drones in the armed forces needs developing in both war and peacetime 

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  • 5.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Approaches to Operational Art Revisited: Theoretical and Practical Implications of Methodology2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, p. 1-32, article id 47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U.S. doctrines have introduced a third approach within Operational Art, called the design approach, which has evoked military professional and academic debate as well as influenced NATO doctrines. Allied Joint Doctrine for Operational-level Planning (AJP 5) states that a Force Commander should choose one out of three approaches when conducting Operational Art and conducting operational planning: a traditional (causalist), a systemic or a design approach. The difference between the causalist- and the systemic- approach concerns the clash between reductionism and holism, but the difference between the design- and the systemic- approach is methodologically vague. Hence the following question concerning methodology and Operational Art arises:

    What methodological implications could constitute an argument for choosing the design approach when conducting Operational Art within a battlespace?

    Neither NATO doctrine, planning framework nor previous research offer any explicit methodological argument for choosing, or preferring, the design- over the systemic- approach. This article concludes that one possible argument for preferring a design approach is adherence to value-focused thinking, but this requires that the Force Commander can and is willing to focus on stakeholders’ values within the battlespace. This conclusion is implied by two methodological implications identified and discussed in this article. If the design approach is to be a relevant option, then further conceptual development, experimentation and education is required. To conclude, NATO should review the description of their approaches within Operational Art since the argument for preferring one approach over another is lacking and this could hamper the Force Commander’s management of the battlespace.

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  • 6.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Operations planning revisited: theoretical and practical implications of methodology2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parts of NATO’s contemporary planning framework called the comprehensive operations planning directive (COPD), and parts of the operation-level planning process should be revised since they suffer from methodological inconsistency. This claim is defended by discussing contradicting methodological properties and heuristics applied when framing and managing a military problem in accordance with the COPD. The methodological inconsistency within the COPD; in other words, simultaneously applying contradictory methodological properties, implies one theoretical and three practical implications. The theoretical implication is summarised in a meta-theoretical framework and explained by discussing five methodological properties: non-linearity, emergence, independently changeable generalisations, invariance and boundaries. The three practical implications of methodology imply that methodology is guiding: the problem-frame, conceptual development and action. To improve military planners’ understanding and management of these four identified implications, NATO is recommended to develop a “handbook of methodology.” The purpose of such a handbook should be to emphasise the utility of methodology when planning military operations

  • 7.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Frågan om filosofins ursprung: Werner Jaeger, Erik Stenius och den moderna kulturkrisen2014In: Upplysningskritik: Till Bosse Holmqvist / [ed] Anders Burman & Inga Sanner, Stockholm/Höör: Symposion Brutus Östlings bokförlag, 2014, p. 99-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ers, Andrus
    Swedish Defence University.
    År Noll2013In: Glänta, ISSN 1104-5205, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gång på gång inleds historien på nytt. År noll postuleras och en ny början utlovas. Andrus Ers hämtar exempel från den franska respektive amerikanska revolutionen, liksom Röda khmerernas Kambodja, och menar att utropandet av historiens början, såväl som dess slut, är två sidor av modernitetens ansträngda förhållande till historien.

  • 9.
    Forss, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det var en gång ett slagfält: Konstruktioner, representationer och konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Det var en gång ett slagfält
  • 10.
    Fürst, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kümmel, GerhardSozialwissenschaftliche Institut der Bundeswehr (SOWI).
    Core values and the expeditionary mindset: armed forces in metamorphosis2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is quite some consensus that today’s international security environment has substantially changed following the end of the Cold War in 1989/90 and that this requires the transformation of modern armed forces from conventional ones to something else. This ‘something else’ may indeed be an expeditionary military. The military metamorphosis that is needed seems to be nothing less than a substantial overhaul of the armed forces in various dimensions. One obvious dimension is organizational structure. The second dimension is technology and especially armament technology where weapons and equipment need to be adapted to present-day conflict and combat challenges including a shift in focus of procurement policies. The third dimension rests with the assumption that the given, current security political landscape necessitates a change not only in the military’s organizational format and technological posture, but also in mindset. Changing the conventional military mindset towards one that is focused on expeditionary operations calls into question how such a transformation will influence the core values of the military. The fourth and final dimension is educating and training the soldiers because expeditionary operations call for additional skills and expertise compared to those required for a Cold War military mission.

    The contributions to this book focus on the mindset and the core values of an expeditionary military and take different avenues to approach these themes. At times, they also reach out into the other dimensions. The book is divided into two parts. The first part covers concepts and conceptual approaches, while the second part contains contributions that basically carry case-study character. The contributors belong to a wide range of academic disciplines, which allows for different avenues and perspectives on our topic, thus enriching our knowledge of the problems involved. The book is of great interest and relevance to academia, military practitioners and political decision-makers.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Artificiell intelligens och konstgjord moral2018In: Religion & Livsfrågor, ISSN 0347-2159, no 4, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Bör robotar få döda?: Etiska aspekter på militära autonoma system2017In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 1, p. 26-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two concepts are central in the debate regarding lethal autonomous weapon systems: autonomy and dignity. Autonomy is crucial when looking at the responsibility, particularly when autonomous systems become more advanced, and there is also an issue on whether they can be held responsible for their actions. But even if that is not the case, they may affect the responsibility of humans in the decision-chain. The other term, dignity, is used in the debate on whether autonomous systems should be allowed to make decisions on killing. The argument is that autonomous systems should not be allowed to kill, since they are not able to respect human dignity. My point is that these concepts need to be discussed more in anticipation of more advanced robots and autonomous weapon systems.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Den leende roboten2018In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 1, p. 51-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Robotar kan vara roliga. Samtidigt är det svårt att tänka sig att de skulle kunna programmeras för att få känsla för tillvarons absurditeter. Frågan är om en robot kan ha humor. 

  • 14.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Äkta robotar2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Karlsson, Klemens
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tai Khun Buddhism and Ethnic-Religious Identity2009In: Contemporary Buddhism, ISSN 1463-9947, E-ISSN 1476-7953, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Buddhist ethnic-religious identity expressed by the Tai Khun people of the Eastern Shan State of Myanmar. The author argues that they possess a double ethnic identity: on the one hand, they have an ethnic-political identity as a Shan people, while on the other hand, they have an ethnic-religious identity based on Yuan Buddhism and connected with the historical region of Lan Na. The article discusses the history, myth and cult of a Burmese Buddha image standing in the middle of the city of Chiang Tung and the ways in which religious visual culture expresses ethnic-religious identity.

  • 16.
    Lindquist, Rickard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Agera som vi lär: kräver det ett flexibelt ledarskap?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Lopez, Ignacio
    Swedish Defence University.
    Upplevelser av beslutsfattande under påfrestande förhållanden: En kvalitativ studie på sjukvårdsledare inom den prehospitala särskilda sjukvårdsledningen2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study medical incident commanders experiences of decision-making under demanding conditions within the special major incident medical management- and support team. The research questions consisted of which aspects medical incident commanders experienced as unfavorable and favorable for decision-making under demanding conditions. A total of 13 medical incident commanders were interviewed semi-structured with the support of the Critial Decision Method. The interview material has been data processed through a thematic analysis. This resulted in two main themes with seven subthemes that describe unfavorable and favorable aspects of medical incident commanders decision-making under demanding conditions. The main conclusion of this study is that experience is beneficial for decision making under demanding conditions. The other unfavorable and favorable aspects stand in contrast to each other.

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  • 18.
    Malm, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Historien om Masar -e Sharifs belägring - Postmodern etik och militär våldsanvändning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws from Zygmunt Bauman´s theory that a governmental policy of values can reduce the personal responsibility and moral choices for employees, to focus only on maintaining the government’s internal rules and regulations. The apparent risk with this type of moral attenuation is that the employee is deprived of the possibility to react morally on conduct of the government’s external misuse of power. In this study, this theory is connected to the Swedish Armed Forces’ policy of values, as these values do not include a critical standpoint for officers and soldiers. The policy is instead aimed at maintaining the internal rules and regulations of the Armed Forces, thus neglecting moral functions’ for officers and soldiers applicable to the use of force.The purpose of this study is to show how development of the current policy of values can make it possible to mitigate the risk of moral attenuation, by using a postmodern theory for ethics. The study analyses the decision to use force in Afghanistan, and finds that the ethics for military violence are based on a liberal ontology. With a postmodern paradigm on ethics, the study then criticizes the liberal ethics at hand for the use of force in Afghanistan.The study concludes that the policy of values set by the Swedish Armed Forces could be revised by adapting an ethical awareness to the risks of moral attenuation. Further, the study suggests that the policy should include the fact that the use of language can dehumanize groups of people, with the apparent risk that the use of force aimed at these people, is morally unsound.

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  • 19.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Systems Science for Defence and Security, Systems Science for Defence and Security Division.
    Can security be sustainable? Three perspectives on security and social sustainability: paradox, co-production, and deconstruction2024In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security and sustainability are prioritized goals in the “Western liberal” world. Maintaining democratic resources while simultaneously strengthening society’s ability to deal with security issues frmly resonates with ideals associated with social sustainability. However, merging normative theories like security and social sustainability produces conceptual difculties that are hard to resolve. Based on key literature in this feld and policy documents from the UN, this article uses conceptual analysis to investigate what boundaries and openings three distinct perspectives of the connection between social sustainability and security might produce. The perspectives chosen as illustrative tools are paradox, co-production, and deconstruction. The paradox perspective pronounces inherently divergent qualities of sustainability and security, which implies a trade-of situation. In contrast, the co-production perspective views social sustainability as a critical component in security issues, while security, in turn, is a prerequisite for sustainability. A third perspective, deconstruction, highlights underlying processes that produce and prioritize specifc meanings. The perspectives of paradox, co-production, and deconstruction identify how competing values operate in conceptual confgurations, highlighting the limitations and possibilities of security measures to accommodate values of social sustainability. Applying distinct approaches as illustrations for disparate ideological standpoints can deepen the knowledge of how multiple and occasionally competing outcomes are formed while considering the normative foundations enfolding inquiries of security responses to societal challenges

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Teknik och etik: Ett självständigt arbete om obemannade flygande farkoster och deras militära nytta och moraliska dilemman2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, popularly known as drones, have been up to debate since the start of the war on terror, 11th September 2001, and there are still a lot of questions about their use and moral legitimacy. There are a lot of useful applications for this kind of vehicle for example, situational awareness, searching for lost people and attack missions. This study is going to investigate how these vehicles are being used within attack missions and and what their military utility are. Since there are a lot of different opinions on the system in war and conflict, the aim for this study is to make the ethics more concrete and evaluate what military utility this system gives.

    The moral aspects of UCAV, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle, in conflict and war differ a lot from person to person. Those who are against this kind of system mean that the UCAV, in itself, is a threat and not as much to how it is used. Supporters of the system, on the other hand, argue that similar tactics have been used in war since the 1960s hence the system does not need any change in ethics and morals. However the system has got a negative reputation because of they way it is being used.

    This study shows that it is morally right to use UCAVs when the conflict or war meets a majority of the seven criteria of Just War Theory. However it is not as simple as that, there are a lot more factors that come in play. The population of the nation and its interests in the conflict or war, the threat level and what kind of profit the nation will acquire through it are important factors. If all of these criteria are met then the use of UCAVs for attack missions can be seen as morally just.

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  • 21.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Dick Harrison backar, men har fortfarande fel2011In: Vetenskap & historia, ISSN 2000-530X, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Hur kan Harrison tro på Jesus?2011In: Vetenskap & historia, ISSN 2000-530X, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Jesus: Han var inte ens en historisk person2011In: Vetenskap & historia, ISSN 2000-530X, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Olausson, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    AUTONOMA VAPENSYSTEM: ARGUMENTATIONSANALYS AV DEN DEONTOLOGISKA ARGUMENTATIONEN2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ethical implications of autonomous weapon systems is a highly debated topic. While research and development of autonomous weapon systems is ongoing, non-governmental organizations seek to ban the technology. Ethicists give conflicting answers as to what is right and what is wrong. Although, arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems seem to dominate the debate, particularly when balancing deontological arguments that oppose autonomous weapon systems against those who advocate the technology. 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate deontological arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems using argument analysis. This is done in order to assess the deontological case for opposing autonomous weapon systems. 

    The findings of this study are that, although influential deontological arguments opposing autonomous weapon systems are more numerous than supporting ones, the deontological case for opposing autonomous weapon systems is weak in both tenability and relevance. The main tenability concerns are the application of theory in premises and conceptual incoherence. The main relevance concern is variations in the way autonomous weapon systems is defined. These weaknesses show that the analysed deontological arguments opposing the use of autonomous weapon systems should not alone dictate the direction of the ethical debate. 

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  • 25.
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Not a proper crisis2015In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, E-ISSN 2053-020X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and qualifies the proposition that humankind’s recently acquired geological agency has brought about the convergence of Earth and human history. Contrasting a contemporary representation of human–nature interactions – the ‘Great Acceleration graphs’ documenting humanity’s post-war dominance – with an earlier perspective elaborated by Fernand Braudel, whose historical philosophy assigned physical geography powerful agency over human affairs, this article contends that ‘environmental crisis’ is a valid characterization of the post-1950 reordering of human–nature relations. Yet it is not a ‘proper’ crisis, as the environmental and climate crisis cannot be managed as a discrete event – as crises are often thought of today – in hope of restoring the status quo ante. Drawing on an older connotation of crisis, this article proposes a temporal conceptualization of environmental crisis, signifying a multi-decade historical period of reordering that spans the decline of the Holocene and advent of the Anthropocene. The intended and unintended consequences of human decisions will determine whether convergence, through reflexivity or coercion, results from this ongoing epochal transition.

  • 26.
    Roberts, Peder
    et al.
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Paglia, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Science as National Belonging: the Construction of Svalbard as a Norwegian SpaceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how science has been employed to establish, maintain, and contest senses of belonging on Svalbard, an Arctic archipelago administered by Norway since 1925 under an international treaty. The central argument is that the process of constructing Svalbard as a space belonging to Norway has long been intertwined with the processes of describing and representing the archipelago, and that participating in those processes has also permitted other states to articulate their own narratives of belonging— on Svalbard in particular and in the Arctic more generally. The concept of belonging is deployed to capture a sense of legitimate presence and stakeholdership that we do not believe can be adequately captured by the narrow concept of sovereignty. The article explores Norway’s historic and current use of science to validate (and even naturalize) its rule over Svalbard. At the same time, we argue that other states use science on Svalbard to articulate geopolitical scripts that portray them as stakeholders in an Arctic that is of trans-regional relevance due to the teleconnected effects of climate change.

     

  • 27.
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Bortom forskningsetiken skymtar omdömesförmågan2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Om Raul Wallenbergs relation till sin farfar Gustaf: Moraliskt mod och betydelsen av goda förebilder ur ett dygdeetiskt perspektiv2023In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 139-169Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Raoul Wallenberg is an important role model from the Second World War, and there are many testimonies about his actions and moral courage in historical literature. But the question remains: How did Raoul acquire his remarkable moral courage and firm leadership? One explanation is to be found in his relationship with his grandfather Gustaf, who was Raouls role model and mentor. He developed an individual education plan for his grandson, focusing not only on formal education but also on personal development including worldviews, people skills and practical and strategical leadership. The plan and the importance of role models are discussed from a virtue ethics perspective, with lessons learned about the development of moral courage. 

  • 29.
    Rosén, Malin
    Militärhögskolan Karlberg.
    Kosovointerventionen – illegal men legitim?: En fallstudie av NATO:s intervention i Kosovo med etiken i centrum2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots lagar, nationella som internationella, återkommer diskussionen om etik vid militära interventioner. Uppsatsen handlar om huruvida NATO:s intervention i Kosovo levde upp till etiska lagar kring militära interventioner samt om normativa teorier fortfarande är relevanta och lämnas utrymme idag.Syftet med uppsatsen är att se om det fortfarande finns utrymme idag för normativa teorier, såsom den etiska teorin just war theory, och om dessa är rimliga att använda. Uppsatsen använder fallstudien Kosovo som exempel och analyserar samtidigt hur denna intervention lever upp till de nio punkterna i teorin.Kvalitativ textanalys samt fallstudie av Kosovo har använts som metoder och just war theory har använts som teori.Resultatet visar att sju av nio punkter helt eller till stor del levdes upp till under NATO:s intervention i Kosovo, och att de resterande två till viss del levdes upp till. Undersökningen påvisar också att normativa teorier lämnas utrymme idag, och att teorin fortfarande kan vara relevant, om än med lite modifikation.

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  • 30.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Ctr Russian & Eurasian Studies, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carnage and Connectivity: Landmarks in the Decline of Conventional Military Power2017In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 290-291Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Simons, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Role of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia Since 1990: Changing Dynamics of Politics and Religion2009Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Sörenson, Karl
    KTH, (SWE).
    Deterrence Games for the 21st Century: Representation, Theory and Evidence2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deterrence is the backbone of military strategy. Dissuading an opponent from taking a specific action by threat of violence is the definition of deterrence. From the outset of the Cold War there has been a strong link between the study of deterrence and game theoretic analysis. There are compelling epistemic reasons for studying deterrence as a game. By doing so, the strategic interaction between actors is placed at the centre of the analysis, mapping the possible outcomes and revealing the strategies available to the actors. Discussions about various models’ appropriateness and model comparison therefore play a central role in deterrence research; from underlying assumptions and deterrence representation to theory and evidence. This dissertation treats aspects of all of these topics. Article I, “Prospects of Deterrence – Deterrence Theory – Representation and Evidence”, analyses the relationship between model and theory and what happens to a deterrence theory when the rationality assumption is switched to a prospect theoretical utility function. Article II, “A Misfit Model – Bounded Rationality and Deterrence Representation”, defends and remodels Schelling’s idea of irrational threats for effective deterrence. Article III, “Comparable Deterrence – Target, Criteria and Purpose”, treats the issue of how one can compare game theoretic models with one another and proposes a meta-model for how this can be done. Article IV, “Deterring the Dauntless – Appraising the Effects of Naval Deterrence against the Somali Piracy”, estimates whether and to what extent Somali piracy was deterred by the naval intervention.

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  • 33.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Department of Philosophy and History, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In Search of Lost Deterrence: Two essays on deterrence and the models employed to study the phenomenon2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To deter is central for strategic thinking. Some of the more astute observations regarding the dynamics of deterrence were made during the Cold War by game theorists. This set the stage for how deterrence has come to be studied. A strong methodological element like the research on deterrence’s reliance on game theory requires examination in order to understand what sort of knowledge it actually yields. What sort of knowledge does one acquire when deterrence is viewed through game theoretic models? How do they inform us about the phenomenon of deterrence? To understand the nature of a phenomenon through models requires idealization, which in turn presupposes assumptions. This licentiate thesis investigates the type of knowledge we attain when approaching deterrence from a game theoretic perspective. The two articles presented address two separate but related issues. The first article reviews a debate regarding which deterrence model best capture the phenomena of deterrence, i.e. how models can be compared to one and other. The article presents a framework for comparing models and then appraises how these different deterrence models inform us about deterrence. The second article uses one of the more central deterrence models in order to evaluate how and to what extent the naval operation Atalanta managed to deter the Somali piracy.

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  • 34.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    On Asymmetry in Goals2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an asymmetric game the payoffs, or goals, are different for the participants of the game. Allocation of resources, willingness to take risks, potential sub-goals etc, are all connected to the payoff of the game. This issue becomes pertinent when the players pursue goals which are incomparable with each other. In the asymmetric conflict of today this is indeed sometimes the case; in Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia the ends sought by the major stakeholders appear at times as incommensurable. This paper discusses the strategic implications of the differences in goals between actors when in an asymmetric conflict. To increase the understanding of what such a conflict could mean the concept of goal-asymmetric conflicts is introduced. The implication of this is then connected to the level of rationality between different actors in a goal asymmetric, and the possibility of what a more fundamental difference in goals means. A definition of a conflict-relation is also presented. In connection to this different sorts of values held by the actors in a conflict is elaborated upon.

  • 35.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistisk kulmination - en eller två sidor av myntet?: En betraktelse utifrån ett annorlunda perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistic Culmination – One or Two Sides of the Coin?

    An Observation From a Different Point of View

     

    Logistic culmination can be compared to a stretched rubber band. If combat units moves in direction away from the supplies the rubber band will gradually stretch. The rubber band will eventually burst and at that point the logistic culmination will be a fact. But if the rubber band was to be let go before bursting, it will instead be contracted. At the maximum contraction point the rubber band will for a split second be wider. Could this metaphor show that there exists an opposite way of reaching logistic culmination?

     

    This essay borrows an old culmination concept from astronomy and utilizes it within logistic culmination. Astronomic culmination has two underlying perspectives, the upper and lower culmination point, in contrast to logistic culmination which only has one perspective. These two points are connected by being each other’s opposites.

     

    By setting the current meaning of logistic culmination as the upper culmination point the author aims at finding out the lower culmination point and examines the connection between these two points.

     

    The examination is built on a statement that there exist two underlying perspectives within logistics, just as in astronomy with the upper and lower culmination point. If the examination of the concept will succeed a wider understanding of how logistic culmination occurs could be achieved. If the lower logistic culmination point can be verified it could mean that logistic culmination within military science can change, which also could affect military planning.

     

    The statement taken has with logic assumptions showed that there are two underlying perspectives in logistics just like astronomy. Logistic culmination as it is explained today has given only half of the meaning compared to how this concept ought to be viewed according to this essay. This essay gives the concept logistic culmination more precision compared to the former meaning.

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