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  • 1.
    Adielsson, Ludvig
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Grundutbildning för rekrytering till marina insatsstyrkan2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Basic training to be recruited to the naval rapid reaction forces.

    This paper examines if there might be a need of change in the basic training so that the conscripts in the Swedish navy will be better prepared to be recruited to the naval rapid reaction forces. It also examines if the way to recruit personnel to the naval rapid reaction forces needs to be changed. To show how well the system, as it is today, works, a case study have been made on the Swedish naval mission, ML, in Lebanon during 2006-2007. It presents experiences from the mission that later has been analyzed with the help of parts of the educational material that is used in the basic training.

    By this research it has emerged that changes could be made in the basic training to better prepare the conscripts. One example of the suggestions that has evolved is that to a greater extent involve international regulations and procedures in the basic training. Suggestions to change the way of recruiting personnel has also evolved and one example of such a suggestion is that the recruiting process could include a test where the person’s physiological suitability is being tested. A test similar to the one the Air force let’s you do before becoming a pilot.

  • 2.
    Agrell, Wilhelm
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Essence of Assessment: Methods and Problems of Intelligence Analysis2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sense, I have written this book to summarize and clarify problems that I have been working on and researching in different ways since the beginning of the 1970s. However, the main aim, and my aspiration, is obviously for the book to contribute to an increasingly more essential awareness of and discussion on the opportunities and problems of analysis methods. The book is aimed at students and those interested with no previous experience or prior knowledge of intelligence as well as those on the analytical treadmill. At its very best, the methodological discussion has this natural universality. Wilhelm Agrell has a twin academic background in history, and in peace and conflict research. Since 2006 he is the first Professor in Intelligence analysis in Sweden. He has written extensively on military R&D, security policy, regional conflicts and the role and transformation of intelligence. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences, and of the advisory board to the Swedish Security Service, and Visiting professor at the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the National Defence College. Sir David Omand is Visiting Professor at King's College, London. He was the first UK Security and Intelligence Coordinator, responsible to the Prime Minister for the professional health of the intelligence community, national counter-terrorism strategy and "homeland security". Sir David served for seven years on the Joint Intelligence Committee. He was Permanent Secretary of the Home Office from 1997 to 2000, and before that Director of GCHQ.

  • 3.
    Algebäck, Pontus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmaktsteori i cyberrymden: En fallstudie av Wardens teori på cyberattacken Stuxnet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    John A. Warden III is renowned as one of the theorists closest to devising a new paradigm in air power. His praised theory about the enemy as a system has showed applicable on terrorist organizations amongst other areas.

    The most recent developed domain for warfare is the so-called “cyberspace”. There is an on-going debate concerning the importance and definition of this domain and furthermore what potential and challenges it withholds as a future arena for warfare. Some claims that a cyberattack can’t be seen as an act of war due to its lack of physical violence.

    Previous research show however a lack in application of theories within this domain. This thesis therefore aims to examine to which extent Warden’s theory of the enemy as a system could be applied to the cyberattack known as Stuxnet.

    Results show that Warden’s theory have some applicatory power on the cyberattack Stuxnet, although primarily in an indirect aspect. This study therefore shows an ability concerning the theory’s applicatory power on other areas than air power.

    The findings of the research regarding previous arguments about cyberwar also states that a cyberattack now could be seen as physical violent.

  • 4.
    Allerman, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigföringens grundprinciper i nutida marina insatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay starts out in the problems that have risen involving military science and modern warfare. The principles of war were selected as the topic of research and through a discussion the thesis question was set out to be:

    Which differences can be found between the theoretical explanations of the principles of war and the application that is made within the Swedish surface warfare system today?

     Limitations were set to be the Swedish surface warfare system, peacekeeping operations, and the operational and tactical levels of warfare. Since academics argue which the “real” principles of war are, this essay defined them as the ones found in the Swedish Maritime Operational Doctrine. These principles are: define an objective and stand true to it, good morale, offensive action, security, surprise, organization, concentration of forces, economy of force, tactical adaptation and organisation.

    Through a qualitative method, including the techniques interviews and literature studies, the essay formed a basis for theory and empirics. A critical discussion concerning sources, as well as the terms validity and generalisability, concluded the method chapter. The theory chapter presented the theoretical picture of the selected principles from the selected literature. Following chapter provided a historical example and the modern views of each principle.

    Through a discussion, five of the ten principles were accepted as applicable today. The other five, define an objective and stand true to it, offensive action, concentration of force, surprise, and security were determined to differ, each in its own way, from theory. Hence, a further study upon the subject was suggested to investigate the same topic on alternate arena as well as a closer look upon the four differing principles.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Bernt
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ytstridskrafternas utveckling mellan 1990 och 2010: Vilka drivkrafter har varit avgörande?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dynamisk operationsvärdering2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Operations assessment: focus on reality rather than the plan2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 2, 056Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since no plan survives contact with reality, during the execution of a military operation it might be necessary to re-plan the operation. In order to decide whether, and when, re-planning should be initiated a feedback process is needed that provides the commander with information about the progress of the operation, and an assessment of whether the operation is leading towards the overarching goals or not. The operations assessment process is part of such a feedback process.

    The current method (in e.g. NATO) operations assessment is focused on the accomplishment of planned actions and on the effects in the operational environment system. A data collection plan is established during development of the operational plan which specifies which and how data should be collected. Thus the “questions” the operations assessment process poses towards the environment are tightly connected to critical elements of the operational plan.

    If the plan, however, starts to become obsolete due to unforeseen changes in the operational environment, there might be a risk that the assessment process, grounded in the plan, neglects information that is critical for decisions about re-planning. This paper suggests an alternative approach to operations assessment that is based on an idea of separating the operations assessment plan from the operational plan. Such a separation would focus the assessment process on the evolving operational environment, thus reducing the risk that unanticipated threats, or opportunities, will be overlooked and re-planning is overdue.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-20152016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Utvärdering av MSB Operativt beslutsstöd, ver 0.7: -Upplevd användbarhet i ett aktörsinternt scenario med oerfarna användare -Kompatibilitet med Försvarsmaktens Svensk planerings- och ledningsmetod2016Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Krav och designkriterier gällande framtida ledningssystem2016Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Arby, Nathaniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur utvecklas den svenska minröjningsfunktionen inom marinen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this essay is to examine the development of the Swedish mine warfare branch both tactical and technical and how these two components are combined to maximize the effect. The essay also analyses the midlife upgrade of the MCMV Landsort class towards the MCMV Koster class.

    This essay will describe on the basis of the Swedish doctrines and mine warfare textbooks how the naval tactics and technology function as a foundation for development of new means in the duel against the sea mine.

    The sea mine is a weapon system that has been used during several centuries and has sunk more tonnage than all other weapon systems together. As long as there have been sea mines, there has also existed its counterpart, the mine counter measures.

    The Swedish MCMV’s technological and tactical developments strive towards fulfilling the six mandatory functions in warfare, command, effect, protection, mobility, intelligence and endurance. The modern MCMV develops toward a more secure and efficient unit.

  • 12.
    Aringer, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring, en militärteoretisk revolution?: En granskning av den begreppsteoretiska diskussionen och fallet Rysslands intervention i Ukraina och på Krim2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The previous definitions of war have become outdated and several theories claim their place  in the theoretical debate of the future wars. One of them, Hybrid Warfare have had a great impact   and are now being incorporated into doctrine by several nations and military organizations, even though the theory is criticized. This thesis aims to clarify the discussion surrounding this theory and at the same time make a contribution to the theoretical debate. By extracting key signatures of Hybrid Warfare and testing them on the Russian intervention in the Ukraine and the Crimea the thesis seeks to answer if this conflict really is a case of Hybrid Warfare, as it is portrayed.  The theoretical debate is the main focus of the thesis and the case study of the Ukraine concludes     that evidence within the conflict categorizes it as a case of Hoffman´s Hybrid Warfare. The later chapters argue that these findings strengthen the debate in favour of Hoffman´s theory and ads another empirical factor to the discussion of the understanding of future conflict. Ended by thoughts of how the results can affect the future of the military profession. 

  • 13.
    Atterland, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Understödjande infanteri: En organisatorisk tillgång eller belastning för ett specialförbandssystem?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband nyttjas allt mer i dagens konflikter och det organisatoriska innehållet i specialförbandssystem skiljer sig åt, där vissa länder har utökat sitt system med lätt infanteri i en understödjande roll. Detta skapar ett behov för Sverige att analysera andras erfarenheter avseende nyttjande av understödjande infanteriet.

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med ökad förståelse avseende de för- och nackdelar som uppkommer på taktisk nivå när understödjande infanteri nyttjas vid specialoperationer.

    Denna studie använder ett teoretiskt analysramverk bestående av McRavens teori och de principer han har utvecklat kring specialoperationer.

    Undersökningen visar sammanfattningsvis att understödjande infanteriet bidrar till en in-satsstyrkas samlade effekt och förmåga, samt att de möjliggör för kärnförbanden att lyckas med huvuduppgiften. Resultatet i en specialoperation påverkas genom samtliga prestationer av den personal och de förbandsenheter som ingår i specialoperationen.

  • 14.
    Atterland, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UPPROR I FÖRORTEN?– EN HOTFÖRSTÅELSE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 9: Teori och metod2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet militärteknik utgår från att tekniska system är officerens arbetsredskap och att en förståelse för och kunskap om dessa verktyg är central för att kunna utöva professionen framgångsrikt. Denna nionde volym av Lärobok i Militärteknik, benämnd Teori och Metod, behandlar centrala begrepp, teorier och postulat samt metoder för värdering av teknik och består av ett antal texter författade av 16 forskare och lärare vid den militärtekniska avdelningen. Volymen riktar sig främst till de som inlett sin officersutbildning och utgörs till stora delar av ett kompilat av publicerade och opublicerade militärtekniska texter och kan sägas utgöra militärteknikens ”state of the art”.

  • 16.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    FOI.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    FOI.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    FOI.
    Industristrategier för en osäker framtid - scenarioplanering för försvarsindustri i Sverige2002Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Baehrendtz, Ludvig
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur används stridsflyget i Afghanistan?: Och tillämpas de lärdomar som Corum och Johnson har dragit avseende användandet av luftmakt inom irreguljära konflikter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 7 oktober 2001 startade kriget i Afghanistan, en konflikt som idag har pågått i nästan 12 år. Målet med operationen var att driva den talibanska ledningen från makten, samt att tillfångata Usama bin Ladin och andra ledare inom al-Qaida och därmed få ett slut på den säkra tillflyktsort som al-Qaida och andra terroristgrupper haft i Afghanistan.

    Corum och Johnson är två militärteoretiker som har forskat inom användandet av luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Dessa två har i sin bok Airpower in Small Wars formulerat 11 lärdomar som de anser att man bör ha i beaktning då man använder luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Fem av dessa lärdomar går att applicera direkt vid en analys på stridsflygsfunktionen, medan de andra sex behandlar områden som strategi, lufttransport och utbildning.

    I analysen framkommer det att vissa av dessa fem lärdomar går till stor del att skönja i hur stridsflyget har använts i kriget i Afghanistan, medan andra har tillämpats i mindre omfattning. De två punkter där utvecklingspotentialen bedöms vara hög avseende nyttjandet av stridsflyget är inom Undvika civila offer samt Använda markmålsoperationer vid konventionell krigföring. De tre andra lärdomar som har använts i analysen; Viktig roll för tekniskt avancerade flygsystem och vapen, Väl tillämpad jointförmåga samt Irreguljära krig är underrättelseintensiva ser man användas i större utsträckning, dock med visst utrymme för förbättring även här.

  • 18.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, 264-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 19.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledningsfilosofi i luftvärnet: Uppdragstaktik - Från decentralisering till centralisering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale, an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfil our will.

    The aim of the action in war is to disarm the enemy. If our opponent is to be made to comply with our will, we must place him in a situation which is more oppressive to him than the sacrifice which we demand. Every change in this position which is produced by a continuation of the war, should therefore be a change for the worse. Many theories and doctrines are based on this truth. To succeed to place our opponent in an adverse situation one must lead the battle and do it faster than the opponent. This is also what Colonel Boyd saw in his studies of the air fights during the war in Korea. The OODA loop or Boyd’s cycle is now a basic theory of maneuver warfare. William S. Lind writes in his handbook in maneuver warfare that the purpose itself of maneuver warfare is to go through the OODA loop faster than your enemy. As remark number 1 in the guidance for succeeding with that task, Lind state that only a decentralized force can go through the cycle of decision fast. This conclusion can be found in all doctrines and handbooks in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). Mission type tactics with decentralized control is ordered, or recommended and described in all service doctrines. It is the base for command and control within the whole organization. In all doctrines and regulations in the SAF there are exceptions when mission type tactics with direct control is preferred or an imperative necessity.

    After closer inquiries one can see that sometimes mission type tactics are carelessly used to describe both a philosophy and a method. After several years of service within the Ground Based Air Defense troops, my experience is that mission type control is not used as much as centralized control. This entails very little space for subordinated to take any initiative in the air war. Is that desirable, inevitable or on the whole consistent with mission type tactics? Is it possible that the GBAD with its unique position in both the ground- and air troops can go through the OODA loop faster than its opponents without decentralized control, as Lind alleged as rule number 1?

    Through a elucidation of mission type tactics as both philosophy and as a method, a comparison between how airpower and maneuver theory treat mission type tactics and together with the conditions for GBAD the answer to how the GBAD can apply mission type tactics will be found. Mission type tactics is a sine qua non for the GBAD in order to be able to use centralized control and to lead through command. Detailed guidance is right now inevitable and necessary with the conditions now at hand. At the same time the ability for the GBAD to be effective in the air is founded through the mission type tactics.

  • 21.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftvärn, defensiv luftmakt och tröskeleffekt : Luftvärnets förmåga att höja tröskeleffekten och bidra till avskräckning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns inga vetenskapliga belägg huruvida luftvärn kan bidra till att avskräcka en utmanare. Bristen på kunskap kring detta kan kopplas till bristen på forskning kring defensiv luftmakt då det i luftmaktskretsar främst varit offensiva teorier om luftmakt som härskat.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka kausala samband mellan nyttjande av luftvärn och en ökad tröskeleffekt i syfte att avskräcka en utmanare.

    Utgångspunkten är duellen mellan luftvärn och offensiva luftmaktsresurser i kampen om luftherravälde. Resultatet visar att det finns ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga att bestrida en utmanares luftherravälde och ökade genomförandekostnader för en utmanare vid utövandet av luftmakt, med ökad tröskeleffekt som följd. Ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga och en lägre grad av luftkontroll för utmanaren att genomföra luftoperationer ifrån kan inte påvisas.

    Undersökningen visar även på ett möjligt kausalt samband mellan att uppträda med kombinerade luftvärnssystem och höjda genomförandekostnader för utmanaren.

    Resultatet ger insikt i hur luftvärn kan påverka en tröskeleffekt och bidra till avskräckning samt utökar teoribasen för defensiv luftmakt med ett luftvärnsfokus.

  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Golanhöjderna, den strategiska betydelsen 1967-19732009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this essay is the strategic importance of the Golan Heights during the period 1967-1973, specifically targeting the following questions;

    -          Why were the heights strategically important?

    -          What are the gains of either of the states in controlling the Golan Heights?

    A theoretical framework based on Jerker Widén´s and Jan Ångström´s Militärteorins grunder (The fundamentals in Military Theory) and its chapter regarding the strategic context will be used as an analytical framework.

    The framework has been applied on the specific conditions of the Golan Heights during a given and limited period of time; stretching from 1967 to 1973, however, the study will not deal with the war of attrition in 1970 as the impact on the Golan Heights and the surrounding geographical strategically important area was limited if at all. The two wars waged during this particular time are used in an attempt to give a somewhat objective picture of the strategic importance of the area.

    The conclusions are that the importance of the Golan heights during the selected period was significant as the Golan Heights provided a “strategic lock” both ways and provides a favourable area to deploy artillery, intelligence and surveillance sensors.

  • 23.
    Berlin, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmaktsteoriers koppling till svensk doktrin: En kvalitativ undersökning av svensk doktrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces doctrine does not disclose where the knowledge about the use of airpower was acquired. Earlier research supports the fact that doctrine needs to contain theory to support its legitimacy.  The purpose of this study is to examine whether the doctrine contains air power theory. The author believes that increased internationalization may have caused international air power theories to have been integrated in the doctrine. 

    The research was conducted as a qualitative research of the Swedish air force doctrine documents. The research intended to see if the air power theories of John Warden and Shaun Clark have influenced the doctrine. 

    The result of this study shows that the ideas of Shaun Clarke had a much higher presence than the ideas of John Warden. The study has shown that the Swedish air force doctrine has theoretical support. The study concludes that internationalizing has affected but not to the point where the Swedish air force blindly copied air power theories without it suiting the Swedish air force.

  • 24.
    Bjursten, Fanny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fungerande multinationell försvarslogistik - verklighet eller vision?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate and assess the interoperability of the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organizations with Nato. The paper also seeks to identify differences in interoperability within the dimensions of organization, behaviour and logistics, and evaluate the possibilities of streamlining cooperation.

    The study is based on Michael Codners theory Dimensions of Multinational Interoperability. The analytical tool that is used in the research paper is based on the OIM model, which was developed to measure organizational interoperability in a military context. The study´s findings indicate significant differences of interoperability in the three dimensions of organization, behavioural and logistics. In addition, the study shows that the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organization is more interoperable in the dimensions of organization and logistics and less so with regard to behaviour. To attain a higher level of interoperability the two organizations must have a more unified aim regarding the logistics organizations. 

    The study recommends an analysis of the technical dimension of interoperability, which was not analysed in this study, in order to gain a greater overall picture of the Swedish Armed Forces interoperability with Nato regarding logistics. Furthermore the study recommends conducting a more detailed analysis of each of the dimensions in order to achieve greater understanding of each one.

  • 25. Björklund, Gabriel
    Robert Pape och Falklandskriget - En teoriprövande enfallsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robert A. Pape, an American political scientist, have created a universally known theory about how to successfully conduct military coercion. In his comprehensive quantitative research from multiple cases of coercion Pape’s conclusion is that the denial strategy of air power is what historically have been working. From his cases where he draws his conclusion there is one case missing. Pape has excluded the case of the Falklands war. According to some researchers, the Falklands war which was won by Great Britain, had a successful outcome due to their utility of the air power. This essay aims to test if Papes theory of military coercion has the potential to explain the victory of Great Britain in the Falklands War. By conducting a single case study by means of a qualitative text analysis, the answer is to be found.

    The results shows that Great Britain mainly used a denial strategy with the air powers. The Falklands war could have been predicted by this usage. Although it is a conventional conflict, involving both the navy, army and the airforce, it is hard to believe it was only because of the air powers the war was won. The use of a denial strategy can therefore not explain the victory for Great Britain, but it can be a part of the explanation.

  • 26.
    Blix, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framgång med vilseledning: En uppsats om framgångsfaktorer inom militärvilseledning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    General Sun tzu said ”All warfare is based on deception.” This quote acknowledges the importance of deception in warfare. History is filled with examples of deceit and deception in war. But what is it that makes a deceptive operation successful?

     

    This thesis is a single case study and the purpose is to recognize the key factors for success in a deceptive operation, by analyse of a deceptive operation during the second world war named Mincemeat. It is of great importance to know the methods and principles behind deception. First of all it may provide helpful knowledge for planning of such operations. It might also decrease the risk of being misled by your enemy.

              

    The choice of operation Mincemeat is based on the fact that it is known to be one of the most spectacular and successful deceptive operations. Instruments for evaluation have been two theories about deception, Dewar’s six principles and Bell & Whaley’s theory of cheating. With these two theories the study resulted in six key factors, which made the operation a success.  

  • 27.
    Blomqvist, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATO:s misslyckande att undvika civila dödsfall i Libyen 20112015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study revolves around the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector in Libya 2011. The military campaign was executed under a UN mandate to protect the Libyan civilian population. Despite the mandate civilians died because of NATO bombings. The purpose of this study is to identify inadequate measures in avoiding civilian casualties during the operation and to continue to work towards minimizing civilian casualties caused by military organizations in international interventions.

    Early in the operation, NATO’s objective altered from protecting the civilians to over­throwing the Libyan regime. At the same time NATO changed its military targeting. This study concludes that the alteration of the primary objective to have increased the risk of harming innocent civilians in the area of operation because the protection of civilians became a secondary objective.

  • 28.
    Blomqvist, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Likformighet i ledning?: Hur omhändertar försvarsmakten begreppet ledning?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att analysera hur försvarsmakten omhändertar krigsvetenskapens variabler för ledning –teknik, människa och metod– i dess tre nivåer; den militärstrategiska, den operativa samt den taktiska.Metoden som används utgörs av en kvalitativ metod som analyserar försvarsmaktens inriktande och styrande dokumentation.Resultatet visar att försvarsmakten till stor del omhändertar krigsvetenskapens teorier om ledningssystem.Det finns idag en otydlighet hur begreppet ledning omhändertas av försvarsmakten. Från att historiskt varit en egenskap hos en befälhavare har ledning i nutid utvecklats till något som har karaktäriserats till att utgöra ett system där människor möter metoder och teknik med syfte att skapa en planerad samordning av en given verksamhet med givna komponenter i en mer eller mindre känd kontext. Ledning inom försvarsmakten definieras olika beroende på vilket reglemente, doktrin eller anvisning som behandlar området.Forskningsmässigt är ämnesområdet är relativt nytt, även om företeelsen ledning troligvis har funnits så länge som människan har ägnat sig åt strid och krigskonst. Genom systematisering, vetenskapligt intresse och inte minst en teknisk utveckling, har behovet av att studera krigets ledning ökat för att kunna behålla och utveckla krigföringsförmåga.

  • 29.
    Blysa, Gustav
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kombinerad bekämpning som metod för verkan: Lätt infanteritaktik under brittiska markoperationerna i Falklandskriget2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has investigated how a light infantry force has used combined arms during an amphibious operation, specific factors related to the operations character affecting the possibility to develop combined arms have also been highlighted. The case chosen for the study was Parachute Regiments actions during the three battles of Darwin – Goose Green, Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge during the Falklands War. As a analytical tool Robert Leonhard’s theory about the three principles of combined arms was used together with indicators borrowed from the theory about the warfighting functions purposes of fires.

    Two of the battles were found to be only partially characterized by Leonhard’s first two principles, complementary systems and dilemmas. The third principle about favorable terrain was neglected. The third battle was throughout characterized by the first two principles and to a larger extent than the former by the third principle.

    The dissertation concludes that light infantry can use combined arms during amphibious operations. The battles studied were, however, often characterized by unfavorable disposition of the force which affected the possibilities to use combined arms. Leonhard´s third principle was usually neglected. The most important amphibious aspects affecting the possibilities to combined arms were found to be naval gunfire support, light field artillery and the scarcity of light all-terrain vehicles.

  • 30.
    Bogg, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Amerikanska armén under operation Desert Storm och tillämpningen av manöverkrigföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Boyle, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilseledning: Med bluffen som vapen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most efficient countermeasures towards deception is awareness and knowledge that in fact deception is being performed. Hence, if the general level of knowledge within the main population of Sweden would be higher, it would probably hamper the effects of a deception operation if the population anticipated it. In order to counter deception, awareness that one could be encountered to deception and analyze the incoming information accordingly is a major protection. Furthermore in combination with mental awareness the counterdeception actions need to be managed from a central Swedish national level and well-coordinated between authorities within the governmental structures. This is in order to fully cover the wide spectra of channels of information that probably will be used within deception operations toward Sweden.

    The primary objective within a deception plan is to manipulate a human mind, not the technical sensors or systems.  Therefor the reasonable best way of counteract deception should lie within preparing the human mind. But paradoxological, the more aware one´s mind is regarding deception, the more one´s mind will discover deception.

  • 32.
    Brehag, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    TAKTIK: Inblick i den oväntade kraften hos taktisk kultur2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are those who argue that tactical decisions more often then not are based on a subconscious force - despite factors like the opponent’s forces, own strengths and physical geography; to name a few factors which generally form the base for a tactical decision. This subconscious force may be of a cultural kind and therefore it is perceived natural. Something that is perceived as natural is not subject to deliberate reflection and therefore this hidden element is allowed to control its members. This aspect is the focus of this thesis.

    This thesis intends to highlight this feature, this tactical culture that seems to grasp and control decision makers at all levels. The dilemma is its nature, and the issue is to be aware of its impact. The thesis attempts, from a hermeneutic perspective on understanding, to form and implement a theory of tactical culture in order to understand tactical culture. To frame tactical culture, the thesis takes its starting point from the wide field of research concerning strategic culture. The aim is to illustrate tactical culture and demonstrate its impact on decision makers.

    The result clearly shows the need to create awareness and understanding of tactical culture. The thesis highlights possible sources of tactical culture and how these can be understood. The thesis also demonstrates the need to relate to tactics as a mental process, separated from practical techniques.

  • 33.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Vad kan man åstadkomma med ledning när man möter en överlägsen fiende?2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Toward an understanding of the commander´s "coup d´oeil"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Britz, Malena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sveriges återtåg till närområdet2015In: Internasjonal Politikk, ISSN 0020-577X, E-ISSN 1891-1757, Vol. 73, no 3, 423-431 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Broholm, Axel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Syrienkonflikten i svensk dagspress2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Burenius, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kvinnor i internationella insatser?: En undersökning om hur kvinnligt deltagande kan påverka internationella insatser.2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if deployment of women improves an operation’s chances of success. Since 1980 traditionally male roles within the Swedish Armed Forces have been avalible for women. In spite of this fact, deployment of women in international military operations are not very common.

    The method used in this essay is a case study. The author has studied a Swedish operation in Afghanistan in 2006, where the commander decided to form a MOT (military observation team) only with women. The main purpose with this team was to gather intelligence from the local population. Earlier operations in the country clearly showed that male soldiers were experiencing difficulties in interacting with local women. During seven months the team, MOT Juliette, worked in the area and found out that the presence of women considerably contributed to the success of the operation.

    To acknowledge the need to increase the proportion of women in the work of war and conflict, the UN Security Council has adopted a number of resolutions where the two most important are 1325 and 1820.

    The results of the study show that women have an important role in international operations. Not just to gather intelligence, but also to act as role models for the women in the country.

  • 38.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Varför ubåtsfrågan blev en fråga: En undersökning av de statliga offentliga utredningarna2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Osäkerheten kring undervattenskränkningarna som skedde i Sverige under 80-talet har skapat många teorier, rykten, hypoteser och frågor. Forskare och tre statliga utredningar har försökt utreda vad som hände, men med olika resultat. Något som är väldigt intressant är att det ur samma material kan skapas så pass olika motiv till undervattenskränkningarna. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka hinder som förelåg i de tre olika utredningarna för att finna motivet till undervattenskränkningarna i de två incidenterna U-137 och Hårsfjärden. Utifrån en egen skapad definition av hinder, har den använts som en metod i uppsatsen för att analysera de tre utredningarna. Med hjälp av kunskapsteorin har uppsatsen gjort ett försök till att belysa ubåtsfrågan ur ett nytt perspektiv. De hinder som identifierades i utredningarna var bland annat militärens bristfälliga förmåga att bedriva ubåtsjakt och hanterandet av förhören vid U-137. Utifrån detta har inte tillräckligt med information kunnat samlas in och det som samlats har varit svårt att tyda eller har blivit förstört.

  • 39.
    Carlén, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lokal överlägsenhet: Myt eller nyckeln till seger på taktisk nivå inom markarenan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte är att undersöka det kausala sambandet mellan lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå inom markarenan. Detta sker genom att begreppen lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå analyseras och diskuteras. Uppsatsen har som ambition att även göra dessa begrepp mätbara för att testa det kausala sambandet i en fallstudie bestående av två fall; slaget vid Suomussalmi och slaget vid Golanhöjderna. 

    Uppsatsen visar att det i de valda fallen föreligger ett samband mellan lokal överlägsenhet och seger på taktisk nivå inom ramen för de definitioner som är gjorda i uppsatsen. Vidare redovisas den problematik som normativ forskning inom krigsvetenskapen är behäftad med. Uppsatsen resultat kan m.h.t. detta ej anses påvisa ett generellt kausalt samband.

  • 40.
    Carlén, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridskraft: en analys av begreppet Fighting power2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen tar sin övergripande utgångspunkt i vår förståelse för teorier inom militärteorin. Det föreligger flera utmaningar vid tolkning av teorier. Exempel på detta kan utgöras av författarens och betraktarens förförståelse, språkliga eller vetenskapsteoretiska perspektiv. Därmed kan också följdfel uppstå i doktriner och riktlinjer.  I det specifika utgör J.F.C Fuller och Martin van Creveld teorier om fighting power empiri när de anlyseras genom en metateoretisk ram bestående av förståelse – förklara och uppifrån – nedifrån kompletterad med en analys avseende krigföringsnivå.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att skapa en större förståelse för begreppet fighting power genom att analysera den vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkten hos Fuller och Creveld. Vidare syftar uppsatsen till att skapa förståelse för att fighting power inte kan betraktas isolerat utan som del av ett större sammanhang.

    Uppsatsen resultat visar hur Fuller och Creveld har olika utgångspunkt när de skapade sina teorier. Fullers teori utgår från ett förklaringsinriktat uppifrånperspektiv och Crevelds från ett förståelseinriktat nedifrånperspektiv. Vidare visar uppsatsen hur båda teorierna främst omfattar den taktiska nivån trots skillnaderna i deras framställning. Uppsatsen påvisar också vikten av de olika förhållningssätten för att kunna förstå fighting power i ett sammanhang för att därmed kunna omsätta detta i doktrinära eller taktiska riktlinjer. Avslutningsvis diskuteras giltigheten i den svenska beskrivningen av krigföringsförmåga (pelarmodellen) utan att betrakta det i ett större sammanhang.

  • 41.
    Carne, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teorier om krig eller krig om teorier?: En militärteoretisk fallstudie av kriget i Bosnien- Hercegovina 1992-19952014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att förstå krigets väsen är ett tidlöst och viktigt problem, inte minst i den tid vi lever. Det är av stor vikt att kunna definiera krig och härigenom skilja det från andra typer av konflikter. Denna problematik kommer på ett tydligt sätt i fokus bland annat när det gäller tillämpligheten av krigets lagar. Carl Von Clausewitz är en teoretiker som i hög grad kommit att prägla vår förståelse av krigets karaktär och väsen och han ges fortfarande ett relativt stort utrymme i bland annat militära utbildningssammanhang. Det finns dock problem kopplade till Clausewitz, bland annat är hans teorier intimt förknippade med begreppet staten. Denna uppsats syftar till att bidra till en vidgad förståelse av moderna krig och konflikter. Författaren vill uppnå en mer nyanserad förståelse av fenomenet krig genom att problematisera Clausewitz teoribildning. Resultaten visar att vi måste vara öppna för en vidare tolkning utifrån perspektiven krigföringens karaktär, de krigförande parterna och krigföringens syfte.

  • 42.
    Cayirci, Erdal
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Bruzzone, Agostino
    University of Genova, Italy.
    Longo, Francesco
    Mobile and Distributed Systems Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita di Messina, Italy.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    A Model to Describe Hybrid Conflict Environments2016In: 6th International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop (DHSS 2016) / [ed] Bruzzone, Agostino & Sottilare, Robert, Rende: CAL-TEK S.r.l. , 2016, 52-60 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the definition, implementation and testing of a model to describe Hybrid Conflict Environments. Without the need of citing specific cases or countries, it is clear that hybrid strategy and warfare are becoming more important. A hybrid strategy can affect policy makers, military operations, economics and financial trends, intelligence and legal activities as well as information and media. A conceptual model is introduced to define and to gain further insight into hybrid environments. The model is then implemented and tested by running experiments to provide evidence on its relevance. Finally, results are presented and discussed.

  • 43.
    Christensson, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Prickskytt i en lågintensiv konflikt: En undersökning av skillnaderna mellan den svenska prickskyttefunktionen i Sverige och Afghanistan2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay was written by Claes Christensson, during his sixth and final semester atKarlbergMilitaryAcademy. The essay is an exam in the final course at theNationalDefenceCollege basic officers program. Before entering the program, Christensson served fifteen months conscription in Arvidsjaur at the Army Ranger Battalion (ARB). Christensson was a sniper squad leader and is himself also a trained sniper.

    Today the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) takes part in different conflicts around the world. This essay focuses on the SAF contribution to the asymmetric conflict currently taking place inAfghanistan. In today’s conflicts where insurgents cannot fight using conventional warfare, other means and methods are instead used. A problem for COIN forces is the fact that insurgents hide among the civilian populace. A sniper can however, with high precision, both destroy enemy personnel or locate and distinguish insurgents from civilians.

    The purpose of this essay is to determine how snipers are being used by highly experienced officers when training at the ARB. These experiences will then be compared to how snipers are being utilised in the Swedish contribution to ISAF (called FS19) at the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Mazar-i-Sharif in northernAfghanistanbetween April and October 2010.

    The method of this essay will be a comparison between the ARB and FS19. Commanders will be subjected to a questionnaire and answer a number of questions, based upon four subjects. The subjects are psychological effect, risks, function and organisation linked to the sniper concept. The result of this essay shows that snipers were not nearly as often being used during FS19 than during exercises at ARB. The apparent reason for this was the increased risk and that commanders from FS19 preferably used them as sharpshooters. Soldiers with sniper rifles were being used to destroy enemy personnel with high precision and to determine civilians from enemy personnel.

    The conclusions are that if snipers are to be used in the proper fashion, the dedicated posting needs to be implemented in the SAF contribution to ISAF. Moreover, both snipers and commanders need to train applicably to get the full understanding of the effects a sniper can have and to gain confidence in the sniper as a concept. Furthermore, the Personnel Recovery ability needs to improve so that commanders can utilise the sniper concept in high risk operations.

  • 44.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Hur kan Sverige bli medlem i Nato?2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no Nr 4, 132-137 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Pooling, Sharing and Specializing: NATO and International Defence Cooperation2013In: NATO beyond 9/11: The Transformation of the Atlantic Alliance / [ed] Ellen Hallams, Luca Ratti and Benjamin Zyla, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 178-197 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article has mapped and analyzed internationaldefence cooperation with an emphasis on developments in NATO. In the mapping ofthe processes of defence cooperation initiatives in NATO after the Cold War and9/11, we concluded that there has been a steady stream of capabilitycatalogues, coordination measures and creation of joint ventures. In theanalysis we noted the different types of defence cooperation initiatives(sharing of capabilities, pooling of capabilities, role- and task sharing,co-development, and pooling of acquisitions), the character of the process(sequential and repetitive), and the dynamic and conditions (trade off dynamicsinfluenced by perceived gains, degree of solidarity, strategic similarities,degree of common understanding of political investment, and geographicproximity). The final part of the text elaborated on the potential consequencesof international defence cooperation; in this part we concluded that the threecategories, that might well mirror the future of the transatlantic securityarchitecture, are minimal defence cooperation, flexible defence cooperation orregional defence integration.

  • 46.
    Cristoffersson, Tommy
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Första Gulfkriget2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Dahlgren, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ryska markstridskrafters förmåga på taktisk nivå under Georgienkriget2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I augusti 2008 utspelades ett litet, men betydelsefullt krig mellan Ryssland och Georgien. Ryssland vann kriget övertygande, men ändå beordrades en nästan total omstrukturering av de ryska väpnade styrkorna. Den nya idén var att initiativ och beslutsfattning skulle tryckas ned på brigad- och bataljonchefer och mycket pekar på ett införande av manöverkrigföring på den taktiska nivån, likt länderna i väst. I den här uppsatsen undersöks vilka förutsättningar som fanns för ett eventuellt införande av manöverkrigföring på den taktiska nivån. Med utgångspunkt i just manöverteorin genomförs en fallstudie av Rysslands senaste reguljära krig, Georgienkriget. Uppsatsens resultat visar att de ryska väpnade styrkorna har stora hinder att överkomma om manöverkrigföring framgångsrikt ska kunna införas på den taktiska nivån. Brister i framförallt officerarnas utbildning måste åtgärdas, men även utrustningsmässigt finns stora brister som försvårar ett eventuellt införande.

  • 48.
    Darnolf-Lindskog, Nic
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den nekande operationskonsten i Bosnien och Kosovo2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo named Deliberate Force and Allied Force took place in 1995 and 1999. Both operations show clear signs that the use of air power was the main contributor to the outcome of the operations. Earlier research states that there are signs of coercive air power in both of these operations but fail to explain in what way. The purpose of this essay is to examine if Robert A. Papes theory about denial strategy in air operations can explain the different outcomes of the operations as the operation in Bosnia took 21 days and the operation in Kosovo took 78 days to reach its designated goals. This essay will also test Papes Theory on what constitutes a successful air campaign by comparing the two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo.

    The result supports Papes theory and shows that operation Deliberate Force acted according to Papes theory on denial in five out of six parts, excluding the strategic interdiction. Whereas operation Allied Force acted according to the theory as well but in a smaller extent. It can be argued that there are other background factors that also contributed to the outcome of the operations but by looking at the usage of the air power in both operations it shows that by acting accordingly to Papes theory the outcome was a success. By supporting Papes theory this essay adds to the earlier research a wider knowledge about coercive air power in military interventions.

  • 49.
    de Waern, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Computer Network Attack som olovligt våld: en fråga om association, effekt, aktör och mål2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Estland 2007 utbröt vad som kommit att kallas ”Cyberwar I”, vari ett stort antal centrala myndigheters, tillika finansiella institutioners servrar attackerades av massiva så kallade Computer Network Attacks (CNA), utfört av framförallt ryska aktörer. Estland protesterade högljutt, men frågan huruvida CNA är att beteckna som olovligt är allt annat än klar. Prövningen sker mot den folkrättsliga regimen Jus ad Bellum, och huruvida metoden uppfyller vissa centrala begrepp. Men hur skall denna regim appliceras CNA?

    De frågeställningar som avses besvaras är: hur kan CNA utgöra våld eller hot om våld i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 2(4) samt hur kan CNA utgöra väpnat angrepp i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 51? Detta avses göras genom en studie inbegripande flertalet folkrättsliga experters teorier på området CNA och våldsanvändning, samt applicering av desamma på en fallstudie av händelserna i Estland 2007.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att flertalet variabler har bärighet i hur CNA kan uppfylla artiklarnas centrala begrepp, vari frågan om association, effekt, aktör och mål tydligast faller ut. I en efterföljande diskussion påvisas dock hur variablerna endast är att betrakta som indicier på hur CNA kan klassas så som olovligt, varvid endast statspraxis kan ge den slutgiltiga bedömningen.

  • 50. Dicander, Jonatan
    Pansar i Anfall och Försvar: De grundläggande förmågorna i svenska reglementen under det tidiga kalla kriget2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish armoured warfare rapidly developed during the 1950’s and 1960’s. It evolved from being a mere substitute for heavy cavalry in southern Sweden, into one of the main foundations of the army base organisation. This thesis is about the development of regulations and statutes that came about due to large changes in the organisation of the armoured corps.

    The goal of this thesis is to analyse the use of different base abilities of different regulations and statutes during a time when the Swedish Armoured Corps went through a period of major change as vehicles and equipment were developed. Differences and similarities are highlighted, as well as the changes to the organisation that occurred over the two decades, as possible explanations to the changes. The method that is used is a comparative method based on a qualitative text analysis. The fundamental capabilities theory have been used as the instrument for the analysis. The case studies are based on two different regulations and statutes published in 1956 and 1966 respectively.

    The results show that almost all the principles from the theory of fundamental capabilities are found in the material. Furthermore the results show that despite organisational differences there were similarities between the combat techniques of each organisation. One of the major differences was the way in which the tanks were used. The author draws the conclusion that the infantry’s mobility and level of protection is the limiting factor.

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