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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Blaming and shaming in the shadow structure: individual resistance towards genderequality work as expressions of social conflict2023In: Feminist Media Studies, ISSN 1468-0777, E-ISSN 1471-5902, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores individual resistance related to a military organization’s gender equality work as expressed in online contexts. Resistance is explained as expressions of wider social conflicts, grounded in experiences of threats towards military masculinities, challenged by societal and political transformation processes perceived as feminine. The data consists of defence-related blogs and comments. A thematic analysis finds that individual resistance can be understood as blaming and shaming strategies. Five sub-themes are identified: blaming the “feminised” organization, blaming and shaming women’s abilities to serve, individualisation of structural problems, verbal violence and violations, and objectification of men working with and supporting gender equality initiatives. The analysis exemplifies how social conflict is transferred to organizations through individual resistance. As gender equality policies are questioned, organizations need to confront resistance also within the online context.

  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Krekula, Clary
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Faculty of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Managing visibility and differentiating in recruitment of women as leaders in the armed forces2018In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 534-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment is one of the Swedish Armed Forces’ (SAF) main challenges today. Recruiting more women into the organization is one of the organization’s aims, as well as providing them with more opportunities for career development. The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of how female military officers perceive barriers and advantages on their way to higher leadership positions. A total of 10 women from a variety of backgrounds and positions in the armed forces were interviewed. Their ranks ranged from Captain to Colonel and they represented army, naval units and air force. The interviews were analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main themes: Supporting visibility of women as leaders and differentiation of women as leaders. The former concerns positive strategies on an individual and organizational level that support an increase in the number of female leaders in the SAF, and is a way of responding to political incitements and the SAF’s fundamental values. The second concerns ways how women are portrayed as different and divergent from the male standard. The suggested model may be valuable in recruitment, educational settings and leader development of high-level military officers from a gender perspective.

  • 3.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Becoming a Swedish military ranger: a grounded theory study2016In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 34-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The armed forces in virtually all countries are traditionally male-dominated organisations. Military rangers constitute an elite unit whose chief skills and capabilities centre on unconventional warfare and intelligence gathering in enemy territory, as well as conducting low-intensity warfare. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the process of becoming a military ranger and what it means to be one in this context from a masculinity perspective. The study was carried out with informants from three military ranger units in Sweden: the Army’s ranger battalion, parachuting rangers from an airborne battalion and intelligence battalion, and coastal rangers. In total, 28 informants participated in the study. All of them were men. A qualitative analysis resulted in a model where the core variable was labelled on becoming a ranger through reproducing masculinity as a form of emotional regime. This core variable is built up by three different strategies, each of which contains a number of actions: building social identity by means of coolness strategies, observing symbols and rituals to build a sense of pride and building cohesion to maintain group intimacy, and emotionally exclude the external environment

  • 4.
    Anctil Avoine, Priscyll
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Insurgent peace research: affects, friendship and feminism as methods2022In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 435-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affect and friendship change the way we think about research (epistemology) and conduct research (methodology). This article accounts for affect and friendship as feminist methods in peace research. It argues that affective feminist conversations, practices and actions through friendship can drastically modify how we think about peace. Based on fieldwork conducted in Colombia (2019 and 2022) with female ex-guerrilleras from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Farc-ep), it (1) draws upon the concepts of camaradería and being insurgent proposed by the women of the Farc-ep to (2) trace how affect and friendship can change the way we do peace research. Ultimately, the article proposes four aspects for the adoption of friendship as a method in peace research by: 1) deconstructing the linearity in peace research methods; 2) multiplying data collection’s methods; 3) including affects throughout the whole research process and 4) advocating for an insurgent peace research that vindicates long-term ‘transversal politics’ and translocal coalition-building.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in the Armed Forces and in Peace Keeping Operations – Implementation Progress in Sweden and Austria and a comparison of the two countries and their National Action Plans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the National Action Plans of Sweden and Austria concerning the UN adopted Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security.

    The increase of the number of women in the armed forces has for a long time been a prioritised topic for the Swedish Armed Forces. This thesis investigates how the Swedish and the Austrian NAPs are dealing with this question.

    The NAPs are written with the purpose of making the implementation of Resolution 1325 easier and faster, in a national context. In this thesis, the parts concerning increasing the number of women in the armed forces and in peacekeeping operations are the ones investigated. A qualitative methodology is used in the thesis and a comparison is conducted between the National Action Plans to see what Sweden and Austria can learn from each other.

    The results show that the Austrian National Action Plan does not consist of any particular part that concerns how to make more women work in the armed forces. However, there is a section concerning the importance of raising the number of women in peacekeeping operations. This section is within the Swedish National Action Plan as is the part which is concerned with having more women employed in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The Austrian National Action Plan would benefit if how to get a higher per cent of women in the armed forces was included. It is a prioritised topic in Austria, as well as in Sweden, to increase the number of women in the armed forces. This is also an issue that goes hand in hand with the implementation of Resolution 1325, which makes it an important element in the NAP.

    Key words: Resolution 1325, National Action Plan, Sweden, Austria, Gender, Implementing Resolution 1325, Swedish Armed Forces, Austrian Armed Forces, Peacekeeping Operations, increasing women in armed forces.

     

  • 6.
    Bengtsson Lundin, Rebecca
    Swedish Defence University.
    Understanding gender dynamics in institutions of hegemonic masculinity: An exploration of seconded women’s experienced vulnerability and their resistance against masculine norms in international PSOs2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, female presence in international PSOs has been very low and research has shown that while there is an increase of women serving in civilian capacities, men still dominate serving in military and police capacities. Research shows that the integration of gender is lacking a wider commitment to take gender seriously in peace efforts. Women’s vulnerability is typically addressed in terms of how the presence of PSOs affect women in the host countries. However, I argue for the urgency in addressing the vulnerabilities of women working within PSOs governed by masculine norms. TIPH is a particularly interesting subject of study in relation to PSOs due to its all-civilian mandate.

    The aim of this dissertation is to gain understanding into the gender dynamics of TIPH by investigating women’s experiences in the mission, by highlighting the particularities of women’s vulnerabilities and resistance. Theories of gender and hegemonic masculinity provide the theoretical framework and methodologically, a qualitative three-pronged approach is used for analysing (1) personal observations, (2) narratives from interviews and end of mission reports, and (3) analysis of relevant documents.

    The study finds that gender-perspectives were not successfully integrated into the mission and that women’s vulnerabilities were most apparent in the day-today operations as they were exposed to the masculine norms that permeated and dominated TIPH. The study further finds that women continuously resisted these norms, firstly through their mere physical presence in the mission and any time they challenged status quo by raising their concerns, and secondly through the narratives and experiences they have shared since returning from TIPH.

    This study makes an important contribution to the limited body of research on TIPH by adding a perspective that has been missing up until this point – the resistance and vulnerabilities of female seconded observers.

  • 7.
    Berg, Elin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Queer Data: Using Gender, Sex and Sexuality Data for Action: by Kevin Guyan, London, Bloomsbury, 20222023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 788-790Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergman Rosamond, Annika
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, (SWE).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Feministiska institutioner? Utrikespolitik och nationellt försvar2021In: Feministiska perspektiv på global politik / [ed] Emil Edenborg, Sofie Tornhill, Cecilia Åse, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University.
    “Jag är inte en kvinnlig kadett. Jag är en kadett på Karlberg.”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga kadetters upplevelse av sin situation på Militärhögskolan Karlberg under studierna vid Officersprogrammet och i Försvarsmakten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the content from the Swedish Armed Forces plan from 2015 for implementing gender mainstreaming, there are aspirations to increase the number of women in the organisation and in higher ranks (Försvarsmakten, 2015). One solution is to recruit more women to the Officers’ programme, but also ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation (Österberg, Jonsson, Brandow, Klockare & Eriksson, 2017). In order to elucidate how female cadets experience their situation during their training and their situation within the Swedish Armed Forces a qualitative study was performed where six female cadets were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results and three factors emerged; ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture embodies traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as strategies for adaption. The last factor, visibility, derives from the way women are made visible from belonging to a minority where the identity of being a woman is further enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces, who often focus on women. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. Suggestions for improvement according to this study is that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving employees at lower levels of the organisation in the work related to implementing the value system, where practical accomplishment of the value system is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ programme and to introduce mentors for the female cadets.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Blomqvist, Linnéa
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Care and silence in women’s everyday peacebuilding in Myanmar2021In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on feminist perspectives on the everyday to explore women’s everyday experiences of peace in Kayah state in Myanmar. We locate the daily practices women engage in to maintain life and minimise violence, making visible women’s contributions to everyday peace. In addition, we examine the ways in which women are disproportionally affected by war and prevented from benefitting from post-war changes. Our findings demonstrate that practices of care and silence are key avenues for women’s everyday peacebuilding, through which women sustain peace, ensure survival, and minimise violence in their families and wider communities. At the same time, however, these practices are conditioned by and may contribute to gendered insecurity and marginalisation for women. Through this focus, our analysis shows how women’s positioning in gendered relations of power may both enable their agency in peacebuilding and reinforce their gendered inequality and marginalisation in the post-war period. We conclude that while everyday peace practices may hold the potential for positive change, these can also contribute to the reproduction of inequality, oppression and structural violence.

  • 11.
    Cedervall, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Offensiven - Det maskulina idealet?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different discourses about the dominance of the offensive, the offensive dominates in a small state like Sweden as well, especially in the tactical thinking, through the military culture and education. Yet it is proven that military culture consists of hegemonic masculinity. Sweden and its armed forces are at the forefront of gender equality work in relation to other states and armed forces, as can be seen with the Swedish armed forces gender manual, and that Sweden have the world´s first feminist government. But if a small state like Sweden, dominated by offensive tactics, have gendered the offensive and the defensive through its military culture, it is likely other states, that haven’t gone that far in their gender equality work, have gendered the offensive and the defensive. This could cause a problem if decisions are made upon the will to appear brave or aggressive instead of good judgement from intelligence. The study aims to examine how the offensive cult can be understood through masculinities theory. This study is conducted on the basis of group interviews with three groups of army officers in the Swedish armed forces, where the groups military culture, thoughts and experience about the offensive and the defensive were sought.

    This study examines that the offensive is given its dominance through gendering by the military culture in the army. By gendering the offensive as masculine, in terms of being brave, aggressive and historical successful offensive operations. While the defensive been gendered as feminine, in terms of passivity and cowardice. This makes the offensive as the accepted answer to its legitimacy, and the defensive is ought to be sub-ordinated.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Chilmeran, Yasmin
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Reflexivity and Fieldwork in Feminist Peace Research2021In: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies / [ed] Richmond O., Visoka G., Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Coenga-Oliveira, Danielle
    et al.
    Département de science politique, Université du Québec à Montréal, (CAN).
    Anctil Avoine, Priscyll
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Féminismes et science politique : un couple (im)possible ?2023In: Politique et Sociétés, ISSN 1203-9438, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Cárdenas, Magda Lorena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Armed Resistance and Feminist Activism2021In: Routledge Handbook of Feminist Peace Research / [ed] Tarja Väyrynen; Swati Parashar; Élise Féron; Catia Cecilia Confortini, Abingdon: Routledge, 2021, p. 148-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces readers to women’s activism within the context of conflict. Drawing on feminist literature and case studies detailing women’s activism, we show how an awareness of unequal gender dynamics in the context of conflict has propelled women from diverse backgrounds and with different aims to collaborate. We use the example of a multiethnic women’s movement in Myanmar to illustrate how both the rejection of, as well as support for, war can be understood as manifestations of feminist activism.  Structural and systematic gender inequalities have compelled a cross-section of actors, sharing similar objectives but differing in their approaches, to challenge militarized patriarchal institutions and norms. This suggests that under some circumstances, women-led pacifist activism and armed resistance co-exist, warranting further research on this topic. We therefore urge feminist research on women’s activism to expand their research agenda to analyse under what circumstances and in what ways women-led coalitions for peace and in armed resistance add to, rather than detract from each other’s aims and objectives. 

  • 15.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, (USA).
    Conclusion: Lessons of Comparison and Limits of Generalization2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, (USA).
    Introduction: Gender and Women in the Military - Setting the Stage2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, (USA).
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

  • 19.
    Fredriksson, Elena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kvinnan och karriären: En kvantitativ studie i kvinnors karriärmöjligheter i försvarsmakten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women in the Armed Forces all over the world are in minority in general. In the Swedish Armed Forces only 7% of the officers are female and for every hierarchal step the percentage decreases. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge of genderrelations in maledominated organizations where a pressure exists to change these relations. The study focuses on how these relations influence women´s oppertunitys in making a career.

    The study is conducted through a survey where women and men are asked questions designed after Joan Acker´s theory of “Doing gender” and Rosabeth Moss Kanter´s theory of empowerment. 

    The result of this study shows that women and men choose to make a career for mostly the same reasons but have different opinions of the possibilities for men and women. According to Kanter´s theory of empowerment this can be explained by the social networks that men have but women are excluded from. Also the opinions of equal presuppositions diverse between men and women and through the lens of Acker´s theory of gendered organizations this is due to the day-to-day practices where women are deviant from the male norm and also from being absent from work when having children.

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    KVINNAN OCH KARRIÄREN – EN KVANTITATIV STUDIE I KVINNORS KARRIÄRMÖJLIGHETER I FÖRSVARSMAKTEN
  • 20.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Confusion, Seduction, Failure: Emotions as Reflexive Knowledge in Conflict Settings2019In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 662-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the influence of emotions, affective experiences, and rumors on the construction of knowledge within research on conflict and in international politics, as well as within the research process itself. Drawing from fieldwork undertaken in a conflict zone in Myanmar, it suggests that academic knowledge production practices are informed both by the (violent) context in which research is undertaken and by the demands of the discipline to produce a scientifically accepted piece of research. It proposes that attention to emotions may facilitate strong objectivity (Harding 1992) by foregrounding the relationship between research participants, researchers, and the broader research (institutional and immediate) contexts. It introduces the term “rumors-as-affect” as a means to discuss how affective atmospheres or events in the research environments inform research. Three interview situations are presented, in which different emotional reactions are highlighted, focusing on “confusion and guilt”; “seduction”; and finally, “failure and ignorance.” These events illustrate how, in recognizing the role emotions and affective atmospheres play in research on conflict and in international politics (cf. Crawford 2014; Hutchison and Bleiker 2014; Ross 2013), researchers may begin to do justice to our representations of what is encountered in the field and how knowledge is constructed within the discipline.

  • 21.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Monash Gender, Peace and Security Center, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Fear and fieldwork in Myanmar2017In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 386-387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Monash Gender, Peace and Security Center, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Myanmar2015In: Women in conflict and peace / [ed] Jenny Hedström; Thiyumi Senarathna, Stockholm: International IDEA , 2015, 1, p. 61-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on primary interviews conducted with women involved in the Kachin armed resistance movement and in Kachin women’s peace networks, this article explores the many roles women play in the armed conflict in Myanmar, highlighting how identities shaped by ethnicity, religion, gender and class influence participation in the armed struggle and inform women’s actions. This article1 will show how, in Kachin state, the reasons why women from religious- and ethnic-minority groups enlist in ethno-political organizations include experiences of oppression, a dearth of social services, poverty, gender-based violence and nationalism. In other words, these women’s participation in the armed struggle is motivated largely by political and ideological purposes closely related to their identities as members of ethnic and religious minorities. Interestingly, this also seems to inform the motivations of women who join the peace movement, and who advocate the inclusion of women in public deliberations on the conflict and for an end to the war. This means that women have expectations for what peace and security means to them, and as political agents, are able to act on their motivations if needed. This research will bring to the forefront the narratives of religious- and ethnic-minority women in Myanmar, who are typically sidelined from public discussions and state-building exercises in post-conflict settings. In doing so, it will highlight their expectations for political action and settlements, enhancing and broadening analyses of the conflict in Myanmar.

  • 23.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    On violence, the everyday, and social reproduction: Agnes and Myanmar’s transition2021In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article brings into conversation feminist political economy with critical studies in peace and conflict to examine how Myanmar’s transition is experienced though everyday gendered sites and with what consequences for women living in rural areas of the country, where lives are shaped as much by the actuality as the possibility of violence. The everyday is where these insecurities are felt, feared and negotiated. To illustrate this, I draw on the experiences of Agnes, a woman growing up within the context of prolonged conflict in rural Myanmar. I demonstrate how Agnes’s home, and her bodily labour and vulnerability, is at the locus of a gendered political economy (re)produced both within the home and at the national level. I show how the transition has for women like Agnes resulted in a continuation of insecurity, challenging the legitimacy of Myanmar’s neoliberal reform initiatives as a meaningful pathway towards sustainable peace and security. 

  • 24.
    Hedström, Jenny
    International IDEA.
    Solidarity in Exile?: The influence of gender politics in the pro-democracy struggle in Myanmar2013In: Journeys from exclusion to inclusion: marginalized women's successes in overcoming political exclusion, Stockholm: International IDEA , 2013, p. 234-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study describes the negotiations and processes undertaken by the women who had the foresight and the courage to establish Myanmar's first multi-ethnic women's movement. In particular, it details the steps and processes undertaken by the founders of the Burmese Women's Union (BWU), resulting in the establishment of an umbrella group, the Women's League of Burma (WLB), under which the women's movement has since been structured.

    By 1988, dissatisfaction with the military regime had reached a tipping point in the general population, culminating in nationwide demonstrations that were brutally put down by the junta. Following the military crackdown on internal opposition, thousands of Burmese fled to the borders of Myanmar. There, the opposition re-emerged and reformed , primarily on the borders with Thailand. An increasing number of women began to put forward claims for political recognition.

    The BWU was the first multi-ethnic women's organization to appear on the border. The organization has attempted to promote a collective Burmese identity based on gender rather than on a minority ethnic nationalism. Significantly, the BWU's staff and members include not only women from different minority ethnic groups, but also women who are Burman (Myanmar's majority group) and therefore share the same ethnicity of the military regime.

    Tensions between Burman and minority groups are high as the military regime promotes a policy of ‘Burmanization’, entailing the oppression of ethnic minority groups and the forced use of the Burmese language, customs and religion. Some even accuse the regime of advocating ethnic cleansing. Despite this, the BWU has, through the consultations and negotiations leading up to the first multi-ethnic women’s movement in contemporary Myanmar’s history, managed to foster a sense of solidarity between women from both Burman and ethnic minority backgrounds, culminating in the establishment of the WLB.

  • 25.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Monash Gender, Peace and Security Center, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The political economy of the Kachin revolutionary household2016In: The Pacific Review, ISSN 0951-2748, E-ISSN 1470-1332, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a feminist political economy analysis of the Kachin military movement, this article will be mapping women's involvement in the armed uprising since the outbreak of the conflict in 1961, demonstrating the centrality of gender relations for the war. Using primary data, this article will show how the household provides essential support to the Kachin war effort in the shape of emotional, physical and material labour, thus underscoring the critical role played by women in maintaining the conflict. Examining the relationship between narratives of gendered insecurity in the community and notions of militarized duty, this article will argue that the Kachin armed forces have employed gendered notions of security and duty to legitimize and sustain the conflict. The importance of normative gender relations for providing labour and emotional and material support for the conflict will then be examined, showing how the household is situated as the nucleus of the armed revolution. The findings in this article thus reveal a need to take into account the relationship between the household and the armed conflict, arguing that the household is a site inseparably linked to nationalistic objectives, underpinning the economic and ideological structures of military movements. Interventions aiming at resolving the conflict in Kachin must therefore consider the importance of gender relations in upholding the political-economy infrastructure of the military movement.

  • 26.
    Hedström, Jenny
    International IDEA, Strömsborg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    We Did Not Realize about the Gender Issues. So, We Thought It Was a Good Idea: Gender roles in Burmese oppositional struggles2016In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the link between nationalism, as expressed by the Burman state and ethnic and student opposition movements, and the emergence of a multiethnic women's movement engaged in resistance activities. In focusing on women's involvement in oppositional nation-making projects, this article aims to broaden our understanding of gender and conflict by highlighting women's agency in war. Drawing on interviews carried out with founding members of the women's movement, non-state armed groups and others active in civil society, the article investigates how a gendered political consciousness arose out of dissatisfaction with women's secondary position in armed opposition groups, leading to women forming a movement, not in opposition to conflict per se but in opposition to the rejection of their militarism, in the process redefining notions of political involvement and agency. By invoking solidarity based on a gendered positioning, rather than on an ethnic identity, the women's movement resisted the dominant nation-making projects, and created a nationalism inclusive of multiethnic differences. Burmese women's multiple wartime roles thus serve to upset supposed dichotomies between militancy and peace and victim and combatant, in the process redefining the relationship between gender, nationalism and militancy.

  • 27.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Elisabeth, Olivius
    Umeå Universitet, (SWE).
    The politics of sexual violence in the Kachin conflict in Myanmar2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 374-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict-related sexual violence has been the focus of significant international activism and policy attention. International legal norms and frameworks have evolved to recognize it as a war crime, and a representation of sexual violence as a “weapon of war” is now widely endorsed. This article examines how international norms about conflict-related sexual violence are adopted and utilized in multiple ways in the armed conflict in Kachin state in northern Myanmar. Throughout decades of civil war, international norms on sexual violence have constituted key resources for international advocacy and awareness raising by local women’s rights activists. Further, activists have drawn on international norms to effect changes in gendered relations of power within their own communities. However, international norms on sexual violence in conflict have also been effectively used as tools for ethno-nationalist identity politics, rallying support behind the armed insurgency and mobilizing women’s unpaid labor in the service of war. Thus, international norms on conflict-related sexual violence have simultaneously opened up space for women’s empowerment and political agency and reproduced gendered forms of insecurity and marginalization. Exploring these contradictions and complexities, this analysis generates novel insights into the politics of international norms in contexts of armed conflict.

  • 28.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Faxon, Hilary Oliva
    University of Montana W A Franke College of Forestry and Conservation, Missoula, MT, (USA).
    Mar phyo, Zin
    (MMR).
    Pan, Htoi
    (MMR).
    Kha Yae, Moe
    (MMR).
    Yay, Ka
    (MMR).
    Mi, Mi
    (MMR).
    Forced Fallow Fields: Making Meaningful Life in the Myanmar Spring RevolutionIn: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s everyday work is critical to revolutionary projects yet is often written out of war stories. This article draws on a participatory photography project with rural women in Myanmar to show how, in the face of extensive violence, women’s productive and social reproductive labour sustains both individual households and revolutionary projects writ-large. We highlight the everyday acts of love and labour that generate affective and productive ties to rural landscapes, enabling people to endure violence and imagine a better future. Our work shows how making meaningful life has become both more difficult and more urgent during the Myanmar Spring Revolution.

  • 29.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Herder, Tobias
    Division of Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, (SWE).
    Women’s sexual and reproductive health in war and conflict: are we seeing the full picture?2023In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that women’s sexual and reproductive health (SRHR) is negatively affected by war. While global health research often emphasises infrastructure and systematic factors as key impediments to women’s SRHR in war and postwar contexts, reports from different armed conflicts indicate that women’s reproduction may be controlled both by state and other armed actors, limiting women’s choices and access to maternal and reproductive health care even when these are available. In addition, it is important to examine and trace disparities in sexual reproductive health access and uptake within different types of wars, recognising gendered differences in war and postwar contexts. Adding feminist perspectives on war to global health research explanations of how war affects women's sexual and reproductive health might then contribute to further understanding the complexity of the different gendered effects war and armed conflicts have on women’s sexual and reproductive health.

  • 30.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kay Soe, Valentina
    Women's Rights: Change and Continuity2021In: Myanmar: Politics, Economy and Society / [ed] Simpson, Adam & Farelly, Nicholas, London & New York: Routledge , 2021, p. 186-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines how the status of women has evolved against a background of absolute exclusion during military rule to a semi-civilian government with a female de-facto head of state. Despite this shift, gender inequality persists across the country at all levels. Why is this, and how are women organising themselves to confront the inequalities that they face? This chapter provides an analysis of change and continuity in terms of both opportunities and challenges for realising gender equality in Myanmar. Taking the situation of women during military rule as a starting point the analysis moves on to explore women’s experiences of the transition and their attempts at leveraging political openings for gender equality under the current government, before concluding with a discussion of future challenges and opportunities for women’s equality in Myanmar. Honing in on women’s political activism, past and present, this chapter allows close examination of what has changed and what has remained the same for women in Myanmar.

  • 31.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    Soe, Kay
    (MMR).
    Women in Myanmar: Change and Continuity2023In: Myanmar: Politics, Economy and Society / [ed] Adam Simpson; Nicholas Farrelly, London: Routledge, 2023, 2, p. 220-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender inequalities have persisted across macro-political changes in Myanmar. The decade of reforms provided more opportunities for women, but the 2021 military coup reinstated an almost exclusively male-dominated decision-making structure in the country. While Myanmar is home to numerous ethnic groups with diverse cultures, norms and traditions, the work of women activists and scholars has revealed widespread patterns of discrimination against women. Notably, this reality contrasts sharply with a popular official rhetoric about Burmese women’s ‘inherent equality’ with men – a narrative that has arguably done more to bolster the legitimacy of Myanmar’s governments than to improve women’s lives. This chapter provides an analysis of change and continuity in terms of both opportunities and challenges for realising women’s equality in Myanmar. Taking the situation of women during military rule before 2011 as a starting point, the analysis next moves on to exploring women’s experiences of the transition and their attempts at leveraging political openings for gender equality under the NLD government. We then explore the effects of the 2021 military coup on women, before concluding with a discussion of future challenges and opportunities for women’s rights in Myanmar.

  • 32.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Phyo, Zin Mar
    Burmese Women’s Union, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Friendship, intimacy, and power in research on conflict: implications for feminist ethics2020In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 765-777Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Drammen, (NOR).
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, (SWE).
    Women, Leadership, and Change: Navigating between Contradictory Cultures2023In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how women in top leader positions navigate between the two contradictory cultures of masculinity and femininity and, in particular, if and how these positionings and negotiations develop over time. Drawing on working-life biographical interviews with women on the top of organizational hierarchies within the crisis management systems in the Nordic countries, the article illustrates women top leaders relating to norms of masculinity and femininity, demonstrating how these have shaped their roles as top leaders, and how these have shifted along their careers. It shows how, in the beginning of their careers, women in organizations marked by cultures of masculinity conform to these gendered norms, while in their roles as top leaders, they do gender differently and assume roles as change agents. The findings suggest that processes of navigation between organizational cultures of masculinity and societal cultures of femininity can be better understood when individual experiences are situated within their gendered social and cultural expectations.

  • 34.
    Hofmann, Martina
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kvinnor och internationell tjänst2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trots satsningar på att rekrytera fler kvinnor har Försvarsmakten fortfarande en låg andel kvinnor anställda i myndigheten.

    Försvarsmakten har svårt att fullfölja kraven på en ökad andel kvinnor på alla nivåer i internationell tjänst med knappt fem procent kvinnliga yrkesofficerare. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka vilka förutsättningar som fanns att rekrytera kvinnor till två missioner i Afghanistan, FS 14 och FS 15, att jämföra de båda missionernas rekrytering, samt att beskriva hur väl Försvarsmakten nådde upp till regeringens krav avseende kvinnlig representation i internationell tjänst.

    Uppsatsen beskriver först de förutsättningar, dokument och andra styrande faktorer som ligger till grund för rekryteringen. Därefter jämförs resultaten för de båda missionerna och diskuterar de likheter och skillnader som finns.

    Undersökningen visar att förutsättningarna att rekrytera kvinnor till FS 14 och FS 15 inte var särskilt goda med tanke på de fåtal procent kvinnliga yrkesofficerare som var anställda i Försvarsmakten. Intressant är att de två missionerna lyckades olika väl med rekryteringen av kvinnor, där FS 15 rekryterade fler trots ett mindre rekryteringsunderlag.

    En slutsats är att den rekryteringsprocessens utformning bidrar till det låga antal kvinnor i internationell tjänst.

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  • 35.
    Holmberg, Arita
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Organizational resistance through organizing principles: the case of gender equality in the military2024In: Gender in Management, ISSN 1754-2413, E-ISSN 1754-2421, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous studies show that the implementation of gender equality encounters resistance in military organizations, but it is often invisible or seen as confined to anonymous structures or troubled individuals. This paper aims to show how the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) use organizational principles to resist implementing gender equality measures.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is a qualitative analysis of discursive strategies in the SAF’s 2013–2018 annual reports to government.

    Findings – The organizing principles of instrumentality and distance, while existing in parallel with gender equality efforts, actually pursue logics that prevents the SAF from implementing gender equality. The principle of instrumentality in this context means that gender equality in the SAF is of secondary interest to organizational members. The principle of distancing from the problem includes strategies that alienate female from male officers.

    Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is the finding that the use of organizing principles represents conscious organizational resistance to go gender equality efforts. This kind of use needs to be revealed and criticized to change military organizations.

  • 36.
    Holmedahl, Ida
    Swedish Defence University.
    Skiljer sig män och kvinnor i taktisk beslutsfattning?2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recruitment of women to the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) is increasing. The recruitment to the three-year long Military Acadcemy Karlberg has a higher percentage of women for each year that passes. At present (2020), 17,5% of the applications was made by women, and that is an increase of 3,8 percentage points since 2017. The stereotype is that women are more riskavert than men, so what will that mean to the SAF? 

    This work aims to collect data via a web-based survey linked to tactical decision-making and investigate whether it differs between men and women. 

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  • 37.
    Karlberg, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    En analys av prototypiska maskulina reaktioner hos Försvarsmaktens ledare2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att Sverige är det mest jämställda EU-landet och fortsätter att utvecklas i en positiv riktning håller Försvarsmakten inte jämna steg med denna utveckling. Försvarsmakten som organisation präglas alltjämt av en omfattande jämställdhetsproblematik där socialt genuskodade maskulina praktiker medför destruktiva effekter för såväl män som kvinnor i form av fenomenet hypermaskulinitet. 

    En förklaring till problematiken kan stå att finna i Mosher och Tomkins utvecklingspsykologiska sociokulturella teoribildning om hypermaskulin socialisation och enkulturation. De menar att maskulinitet formas och reproduceras genom prototypiska reaktioner när maskulinitet utmanas. Särskilt stor påverkan har reaktionerna från individer med stor normerande påverkan i form av maskulin status och rangordning. Denna teori prövas i uppsatsen genom att Norman Faircloughs tredimensionella modell för kritisk diskursanalys appliceras på två reaktioner från överbefälhavare Micael Bydén och arméchef Karl Engelbrektsson.

    Analysen visar att Mosher och Tomkins teori kan förklara Försvarsmaktens högsta företrädares reaktioner då maskuliniteten utmanas. Den kritiska diskursanalysen visar på hur såväl Bydén som Engelbrektsson i sina reaktioner ger uttryck för det som Mosher och Tomkins benämner som den motverkande prototypiska reaktionen. De två ytterligare prototypiska reaktionerna, den defensiva respektive reparativa, lyser med sin frånvaro. Bydén och Engelbrektsson vänder hotet mot den egna maskuliniteten från sig själva och mot omgivningen genom att demonstrera än mer maskulinitet. Sociokulturella förklaringsmodeller och genusaspekter åsidosätts och genusaspekter utelämnas fullständigt. Istället görs enstaka individer ansvariga för destruktiva beteenden vilket förnekar maskulinitetens och organisationens roll. I förlängningen riskerarar reaktionerna att leda till en reproduktion av hypermaskuliniteten i Försvarsmakten. 

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    Karlberg Ludvig EN ANALYS AV PROTOTYPISKA MASKULINA REAKTIONER HOS FÖRSVARSMAKTENS LEDARE
  • 38.
    Karlberg, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    En kritisk diskursanalys av genusnormer i dagstidningar gällande offer för sexuellt våld i konfliktområden2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual violence in conflict situations is a phenomenon which befalls women as well as men. On the basis of nongovernmental organizations reports regarding sexual violence in conflict situations one might get the picture that it only befalls women. Research show that out of 4076 nongovernmental organizations which are aiding victims of sexual or political violence only 3 % mention men as victims of the previously mentioned violence. Consequently discrimination is taking place against men who are victims of sexual violence in conflict situations.The purpose of the thesis is to inquire into the gender normative nature of the Swedish daily papers reports regarding victims of sexual violence in conflict situations and whether sexual violence against men in conflict situations is taboo in the aforementioned papers.

    This inquiry will be carried out through a gender theoretical critical discourse analysis. The discourse analysis is the thesis’ analytical framework.

    The theoretical basis of the thesis is the discourse analysis and Norman Faircloughs three dimensional model.

    The results show a discrepancy in the reports of victims of sexual violence in conflict situations.

    The daily papers reports are clearly structurally associated with women. The sexual violence against men is described neutrally and without values while the violence against women is described with a greater amount of feelings and values.

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  • 39.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Jämställdhet i verksamhetsutveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Avdelningen för Riskhantering och Samhällssäkerhet, Lunds universitet, (SWE).
    Gender (in)equality within the Swedish Armed Forces: Resistance and Functional Disinclination2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically and traditionally, military work has been closely associated with men. However, the post-Cold War normalization process has brought about a transformation in both the Swedish Armed Forces themselves and the perception of the organization. Normative concerns, including gender equality, have gained significant prominence, compelling the armed forces to embark onvarious initiatives aimed at achieving a more gender-balanced structure. Despite the extensive profiling and efforts made by the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) over the past decades, women currently make up only 11.9% of the military personnel.

    This dissertation examines how (in)equality manifests itself in the military profession today, in view of the substantial changes that have occurred. The dissertation encompasses both the experiences of personnel and the actions of the organisation. By doing so, it sheds light on the gradual advancement of gender equality within the SAF, attributing this delay to resistance against change that becomes evident at the structural, organizational, and professional levels. This resistance is further explained through the concept of "functional disinclination," which emerges from the empirical studies presented in this dissertation.

    Utilizing a range of data and methodologies, the dissertation collectively highlights an organizational incapacity to align with the normative demands set forth. The barriers to achieving gender equality are not merely reflective of resistance; they also form a recurring pattern that impedes the implementation of normative changes

  • 41.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Stockholm.
    Power Resources Among Female Military Personnel2020In: Rethinking Military Professionalism for the Changing Armed Forces / [ed] Hachey, Krystal K.; Libel, Tamir; Dean, Waylon H., Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2020, p. 95-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Armed Forces are one of Sweden’sSweden largest governmental organizations and at the same time one of Sweden’s most genderGender-segregated and male-dominated workplaces. Recruiting more women into the organization is one of the organization’s main goals for personnel planning, along with providing them with more opportunities for career developmentCareer development. This study sought a deeper understanding of the power resourcesPower resources that can be identified and which are used by female military personnel within the armed forces. A total of 16 women were interviewed and their ranks ranged from soldier/sailor to general/admiral. The qualitative analysis of the interviews shows that female military personnel use power resources to adapt to the male-dominated organization’s demands and to even out perceived asymmetric power relationships in their daily professional work. The power resources can be explained using four themes: structural power resources, cultural and social power resourcesSocial power resources, emotional power resources, and minority perspective as a power resource. More female military personnel would have increased the task effectiveness of the military organization. To make that possible, the Swedish Armed ForcesSwedish Armed Forces would have to discuss the prevailing masculinity norm, the meaning of being a man, and the gains of a more gender-equal organization.

  • 42.
    Lund, Therese
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Relationer mellan kvinnor: Avund och konkurrens mellan kvinnor i Försvarsmakten2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine women's experiences of competition and envy between women in the Swedish Armed Forces.Previous research shows that the friction between the women is created because of society's gender policy; women are the subordinate sex whose achievements are not valued the same as men. It also turns out that woman’s needs for confirmation and identification by other women, creates tension.A questionnaire completed by cadets from all the Armed Forces schools shows that envy and competition is not an everyday phenomenon, however, the majority of the female cadets feel that the men, creates competition because the Swedish Armed Forces is an organization made ​​by men for men and a frustration among the women is obvious because of women's and men's different conditions.

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  • 43.
    Martín de Almagro, María
    et al.
    University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium, (BEL).
    Anctil Avoine, Priscyll
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies, Joint Warfare Division.
    Miranda Montero, Yira
    Fundación Lüvo & Enkelé, Colombia, (COL).
    Singing truth to power: Transformative (gender) justice, musical spatialities and creative performance in periods of transition from violence2024In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist security studies have demonstrated that transitional justice processes worldwide have largely fallen short in providing actual transformative justice for women and that many gendered war experiences remain largely unaccounted for. Through an activist-academic collaboration and mobilizing feminist scholarship on war, embodiment and emotions together with literature on transitional justice and the arts, this article argues that women’s collective artistic resistance can foster deeper cultural and structural changes in transitional justice settings. By delving into the case of the women’s music collective Enkelé in Colombia, the article examines the creative possibilities afforded by music and choreography to document and testify to an enduring culture of violence and their role in probing the effectiveness of post–peace agreement transitional justice. We contend that paying attention to musical performances is key because these can express new visions of justice that are not constrained by the limits of what is possible and feasible in formal transitional justice mechanisms and can offer corporeal connectivity able to bring together communities fractured by war and armed conflict and to give visibility to knowledges and practices of memory and healing of marginalized communities.

  • 44.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    "On the Border, I Learned How to Advocate": Borderlands as Political Spaces for Burmese Women’s Activism2023In: Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, ISSN 1556-2948, E-ISSN 1556-2956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the political space of the border through the experiences of women activists from Myanmar, for whom the borderlands in Thailand have provided refuge as well as a conducive environment for political mobilization. At the same time, the border renders refugee activists insecure and precarious. Drawing on life history interviews, our analysis expands conceptualizations of the border as a dynamic political space by illustrating its dual capacity to both facilitate and constrain the political agency of refugee women from Myanmar. In particular, the spatial and temporal fluidity and in-betweenness of the border is shown to foster both repression and resistance. Exploring the character and salience of the border as a space for activism over time, we demonstrate how the political space of the border is relational, constituted in interaction with other political spaces, such as politics and governance in Myanmar, transnational activist networks, and the politics of international aid

  • 45.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap..
    Young women's leadership in conflict: Crossing borders in Myanmar2020In: Young women and leadership / [ed] Katrina Lee-Koo, Lesley Pruitt, Abingdon & New York: Routledge , 2020, p. 45-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple armed conflicts in Myanmar have resulted in long-term, large-scale forced displacement, humanitarian crises, and immense human suffering. However, the borderlands of Myanmar’s neighboring countries have also provided political space for the mobilization of diverse forms of oppositional politics, ranging from armed resistance to human rights documentation, alternative news reporting on the situation in Myanmar, and international networking and lobbying. In particular, since the 1990s these borderlands, most notably the Thai-Myanmar border areas, have seen the emergence of a vibrant and outspoken multi-ethnic women’s movement.

    In this chapter, we explore how young women activists from Myanmar have been able to carve out new spaces and forms of leadership while in exile in Thailand. From its inception, the border-based women’s movement made leadership training - specifically targeting young women - a key feature. We examine the impact of these training programs in the lives of women activists, and trace how graduates of these programs have moved on to lead in ways that have created social and political change within exiled oppositional politics and diaspora communities in Thailand. We analyze how the recent return of exiled activists and oppositional groups to Myanmar reshapes the conditions for young women’s leadership, presenting formerly exiled activists with new challenges as well as new avenues for leadership.

    Our analysis illustrates the political potential of border-crossing in several senses. In a spatial sense, we demonstrate how the diasporic, transnational political space in Thailand enabled young women to challenge age and gender norms and hierarchies to a degree previously unimagined, making young women leaders a significant force in Burmese diasporic politics. We note the importance of international advocacy and transnational networking to the growing recognition of young women as effective leaders, understanding this as another form of border-crossing. However, with return to Myanmar the political space for young women’s leadership is (again) reconfigured; accordingly, the effectiveness of leadership strategies and styles established in exile are reconsidered. In a conceptual sense, our analysis illuminates how young women activists have moved across boundaries between public and private leadership and formal and informal leadership. We highlight how the strategic deployment of women’s reproductive duties in the private sphere have created opportunities for women’s participation in the public sphere, for example in refugee camps and ethnic minority armed organizations.  In the nationwide ceasefire process, women have combined informal advocacy through “tea break advocacy” (Pepper, 2018) with formal positions as leaders of women’s groups. We argue that in skillfully moving across these conceptual boundaries, young women activists’ affect social and political change. Situating border-crossing as a key feature of young women’s leadership in this context, we thus contribute to theorizing the character and impact of young women’s leadership.

  • 46.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, (SWE).
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Phyo, Zin Mar
    Independent researcher, Thailand.
    Feminist peace or state co-optation? The Women, Peace and Security agenda in Myanmar2022In: European Journal of Politics and Gender, ISSN 2515-1088, E-ISSN 2515-1096, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article engages with emerging debates about feminist peace and uses this concept to assess the ability of the Women, Peace and Security agenda to achieve gender-just change. We advance a conception of feminist peace as political conditions that allow women affected by conflict to articulate their visions of change and influence the construction of post-war order. Applying this to a case study of Women, Peace and Security practice in Myanmar, we demonstrate that features of how international aid is organised, combined with the Myanmar government’s interest in excluding critical voices, limit the ability of Women, Peace and Security practices to contribute to feminist peace. This highlights the potential for illiberal post-war states to obstruct and co-opt the Women, Peace and Security agenda, and shows how the women most directly affected by armed conflict are often the least able to participate in, benefit from and inform Women, Peace and Security practices.

  • 47.
    Pagé, Geneviève
    et al.
    Département de science politique, Université du Québec à Montréal, (CAN).
    Anctil Avoine, Priscyll
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Intersectionnalité, idées queers et nationalisme: les féminismes québécois entre tensions et inclusions2023In: Bulletin d'histoire politique, ISSN 1201-0421, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 113-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Persson, Emilie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Har Sverige implementerat Regeringens handlingsplan för resolution 1325?: En undersökning om Sveriges bidrag till kvinnorna i Mazar-e Sharif2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine whether Sweden work according to the Swedish governments action plan on UNSCR1325 and whether Sweden implements this action plan according to an implementation theory.

    Initially you will find an explanation of the used method, definitions and the theory used for the study. The second part contains the research where the studied material is analyzed.

    The study itself is based on reports, literature and material from web pages.

    The result of the study shows thatSwedenworks according to the government’s action plan on UNSCR 1325.Swedendoes this trough good contact with women, multiple ways of interaction such as MOT, all female MOT: s and Gender Field Advisers who follows patrols.

    My conclusion shows that Sweden implements the Swedish action plan on UNSCR 1325 according to the implementation theory.

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    Emilie Persson
  • 49.
    Skagerlind, Ingrid
    Swedish Defence University.
    A Radar with a Gendered Frequency? Dilemmas and Discrepancies on the Military’s Role within the Implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a feminist scholarly debate on what role military institutions play in translating the goals of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda into practice. Where idealists on the one side question if militaries should ever be involved with such responsibilities and argue that feminist purposes risk being co-opted. Whereas pragmatists on the other, argue that military institutions can be ‘regendered’ and transformed to better engage with feminist visions of security and thus implement the agenda meaningfully. To go beyond this debate there is a need to include the perspectives of those who work with bringing these policies into practice during operations. The conclusions in this thesis rely on a qualitative interview study with Swedish civilian and military gender advisors (GENADs) to attempt to bridge the disagreement described above. These GENADs constitute a central mechanism within the implementation and can therefore provide an increased understanding of the military’s role in the implementation of the WPS agenda. It intends to explore how their experiences can shed further light on the debate between pragmatists and idealists. Through an abductive thematic analysis, it is possible to interpret the answers from the semi-structured interviews conducted as three dilemmas: instrumentalization, military hierarchies, and civil-military collaboration. The findings suggest that the debate is simplified as the arguments on both sides of the debate appear to correspond with reality within international operations. It is therefore suggested that the debate should leave its deterministic mentality between idealist and pragmatist notions and shift its focus from asking whether at all, to in which situations and how militaries should play a role within the implementation. It is also contended that more emphasis in research needs to be on how to create organizational change in norms and attitudes at a systemic level.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Stachowitsch, Saskia
    et al.
    Universität Wien, (AUT).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Wisotzki, Simone
    Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, (DEU).
    Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu
    Universität Kassel, (DEU).
    “Geschlechter- und Sicherheitsstudien heute”: Vier Wissenschaftlicher*innen im Gespräch2021In: Gewalt, Krieg und Flucht: Feministische Perspektiven auf Sicherheit / [ed] Daniel, A, Mageza-Barthel, R, Richter-Montpetit, M. & Scheiterbauer, T. (Eds.), Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2021, p. 29-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 57
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