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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Krekula, Clary
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Faculty of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Managing visibility and differentiating in recruitment of women as leaders in the armed forces2018In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 534-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment is one of the Swedish Armed Forces’ (SAF) main challenges today. Recruiting more women into the organization is one of the organization’s aims, as well as providing them with more opportunities for career development. The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of how female military officers perceive barriers and advantages on their way to higher leadership positions. A total of 10 women from a variety of backgrounds and positions in the armed forces were interviewed. Their ranks ranged from Captain to Colonel and they represented army, naval units and air force. The interviews were analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main themes: Supporting visibility of women as leaders and differentiation of women as leaders. The former concerns positive strategies on an individual and organizational level that support an increase in the number of female leaders in the SAF, and is a way of responding to political incitements and the SAF’s fundamental values. The second concerns ways how women are portrayed as different and divergent from the male standard. The suggested model may be valuable in recruitment, educational settings and leader development of high-level military officers from a gender perspective.

  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Becoming a Swedish military ranger: a grounded theory study2016In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 34-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The armed forces in virtually all countries are traditionally male-dominated organisations. Military rangers constitute an elite unit whose chief skills and capabilities centre on unconventional warfare and intelligence gathering in enemy territory, as well as conducting low-intensity warfare. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the process of becoming a military ranger and what it means to be one in this context from a masculinity perspective. The study was carried out with informants from three military ranger units in Sweden: the Army’s ranger battalion, parachuting rangers from an airborne battalion and intelligence battalion, and coastal rangers. In total, 28 informants participated in the study. All of them were men. A qualitative analysis resulted in a model where the core variable was labelled on becoming a ranger through reproducing masculinity as a form of emotional regime. This core variable is built up by three different strategies, each of which contains a number of actions: building social identity by means of coolness strategies, observing symbols and rituals to build a sense of pride and building cohesion to maintain group intimacy, and emotionally exclude the external environment

  • 3.
    Andersson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in the Armed Forces and in Peace Keeping Operations – Implementation Progress in Sweden and Austria and a comparison of the two countries and their National Action Plans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the National Action Plans of Sweden and Austria concerning the UN adopted Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security.

    The increase of the number of women in the armed forces has for a long time been a prioritised topic for the Swedish Armed Forces. This thesis investigates how the Swedish and the Austrian NAPs are dealing with this question.

    The NAPs are written with the purpose of making the implementation of Resolution 1325 easier and faster, in a national context. In this thesis, the parts concerning increasing the number of women in the armed forces and in peacekeeping operations are the ones investigated. A qualitative methodology is used in the thesis and a comparison is conducted between the National Action Plans to see what Sweden and Austria can learn from each other.

    The results show that the Austrian National Action Plan does not consist of any particular part that concerns how to make more women work in the armed forces. However, there is a section concerning the importance of raising the number of women in peacekeeping operations. This section is within the Swedish National Action Plan as is the part which is concerned with having more women employed in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The Austrian National Action Plan would benefit if how to get a higher per cent of women in the armed forces was included. It is a prioritised topic in Austria, as well as in Sweden, to increase the number of women in the armed forces. This is also an issue that goes hand in hand with the implementation of Resolution 1325, which makes it an important element in the NAP.

    Key words: Resolution 1325, National Action Plan, Sweden, Austria, Gender, Implementing Resolution 1325, Swedish Armed Forces, Austrian Armed Forces, Peacekeeping Operations, increasing women in armed forces.

     

  • 4.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University.
    “Jag är inte en kvinnlig kadett. Jag är en kadett på Karlberg.”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga kadetters upplevelse av sin situation på Militärhögskolan Karlberg under studierna vid Officersprogrammet och i Försvarsmakten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the content from the Swedish Armed Forces plan from 2015 for implementing gender mainstreaming, there are aspirations to increase the number of women in the organisation and in higher ranks (Försvarsmakten, 2015). One solution is to recruit more women to the Officers’ programme, but also ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation (Österberg, Jonsson, Brandow, Klockare & Eriksson, 2017). In order to elucidate how female cadets experience their situation during their training and their situation within the Swedish Armed Forces a qualitative study was performed where six female cadets were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results and three factors emerged; ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture embodies traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as strategies for adaption. The last factor, visibility, derives from the way women are made visible from belonging to a minority where the identity of being a woman is further enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces, who often focus on women. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. Suggestions for improvement according to this study is that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving employees at lower levels of the organisation in the work related to implementing the value system, where practical accomplishment of the value system is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ programme and to introduce mentors for the female cadets.

  • 5.
    Cedervall, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Offensiven - Det maskulina idealet?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different discourses about the dominance of the offensive, the offensive dominates in a small state like Sweden as well, especially in the tactical thinking, through the military culture and education. Yet it is proven that military culture consists of hegemonic masculinity. Sweden and its armed forces are at the forefront of gender equality work in relation to other states and armed forces, as can be seen with the Swedish armed forces gender manual, and that Sweden have the world´s first feminist government. But if a small state like Sweden, dominated by offensive tactics, have gendered the offensive and the defensive through its military culture, it is likely other states, that haven’t gone that far in their gender equality work, have gendered the offensive and the defensive. This could cause a problem if decisions are made upon the will to appear brave or aggressive instead of good judgement from intelligence. The study aims to examine how the offensive cult can be understood through masculinities theory. This study is conducted on the basis of group interviews with three groups of army officers in the Swedish armed forces, where the groups military culture, thoughts and experience about the offensive and the defensive were sought.

    This study examines that the offensive is given its dominance through gendering by the military culture in the army. By gendering the offensive as masculine, in terms of being brave, aggressive and historical successful offensive operations. While the defensive been gendered as feminine, in terms of passivity and cowardice. This makes the offensive as the accepted answer to its legitimacy, and the defensive is ought to be sub-ordinated.

  • 6.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Conclusion: Lessons of Comparison and Limits of Generalization2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Introduction: Gender and Women in the Military - Setting the Stage2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

  • 10.
    Fredriksson, Elena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kvinnan och karriären: En kvantitativ studie i kvinnors karriärmöjligheter i försvarsmakten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women in the Armed Forces all over the world are in minority in general. In the Swedish Armed Forces only 7% of the officers are female and for every hierarchal step the percentage decreases. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge of genderrelations in maledominated organizations where a pressure exists to change these relations. The study focuses on how these relations influence women´s oppertunitys in making a career.

    The study is conducted through a survey where women and men are asked questions designed after Joan Acker´s theory of “Doing gender” and Rosabeth Moss Kanter´s theory of empowerment. 

    The result of this study shows that women and men choose to make a career for mostly the same reasons but have different opinions of the possibilities for men and women. According to Kanter´s theory of empowerment this can be explained by the social networks that men have but women are excluded from. Also the opinions of equal presuppositions diverse between men and women and through the lens of Acker´s theory of gendered organizations this is due to the day-to-day practices where women are deviant from the male norm and also from being absent from work when having children.

  • 11.
    Hofmann, Martina
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kvinnor och internationell tjänst2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trots satsningar på att rekrytera fler kvinnor har Försvarsmakten fortfarande en låg andel kvinnor anställda i myndigheten.

    Försvarsmakten har svårt att fullfölja kraven på en ökad andel kvinnor på alla nivåer i internationell tjänst med knappt fem procent kvinnliga yrkesofficerare. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka vilka förutsättningar som fanns att rekrytera kvinnor till två missioner i Afghanistan, FS 14 och FS 15, att jämföra de båda missionernas rekrytering, samt att beskriva hur väl Försvarsmakten nådde upp till regeringens krav avseende kvinnlig representation i internationell tjänst.

    Uppsatsen beskriver först de förutsättningar, dokument och andra styrande faktorer som ligger till grund för rekryteringen. Därefter jämförs resultaten för de båda missionerna och diskuterar de likheter och skillnader som finns.

    Undersökningen visar att förutsättningarna att rekrytera kvinnor till FS 14 och FS 15 inte var särskilt goda med tanke på de fåtal procent kvinnliga yrkesofficerare som var anställda i Försvarsmakten. Intressant är att de två missionerna lyckades olika väl med rekryteringen av kvinnor, där FS 15 rekryterade fler trots ett mindre rekryteringsunderlag.

    En slutsats är att den rekryteringsprocessens utformning bidrar till det låga antal kvinnor i internationell tjänst.

  • 12.
    Karlberg, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    En kritisk diskursanalys av genusnormer i dagstidningar gällande offer för sexuellt våld i konfliktområden2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual violence in conflict situations is a phenomenon which befalls women as well as men. On the basis of nongovernmental organizations reports regarding sexual violence in conflict situations one might get the picture that it only befalls women. Research show that out of 4076 nongovernmental organizations which are aiding victims of sexual or political violence only 3 % mention men as victims of the previously mentioned violence. Consequently discrimination is taking place against men who are victims of sexual violence in conflict situations.The purpose of the thesis is to inquire into the gender normative nature of the Swedish daily papers reports regarding victims of sexual violence in conflict situations and whether sexual violence against men in conflict situations is taboo in the aforementioned papers.

    This inquiry will be carried out through a gender theoretical critical discourse analysis. The discourse analysis is the thesis’ analytical framework.

    The theoretical basis of the thesis is the discourse analysis and Norman Faircloughs three dimensional model.

    The results show a discrepancy in the reports of victims of sexual violence in conflict situations.

    The daily papers reports are clearly structurally associated with women. The sexual violence against men is described neutrally and without values while the violence against women is described with a greater amount of feelings and values.

  • 13.
    Lindholm, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Jämställdhet i verksamhetsutveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lund, Therese
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Relationer mellan kvinnor: Avund och konkurrens mellan kvinnor i Försvarsmakten2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine women's experiences of competition and envy between women in the Swedish Armed Forces.Previous research shows that the friction between the women is created because of society's gender policy; women are the subordinate sex whose achievements are not valued the same as men. It also turns out that woman’s needs for confirmation and identification by other women, creates tension.A questionnaire completed by cadets from all the Armed Forces schools shows that envy and competition is not an everyday phenomenon, however, the majority of the female cadets feel that the men, creates competition because the Swedish Armed Forces is an organization made ​​by men for men and a frustration among the women is obvious because of women's and men's different conditions.

  • 15.
    Persson, Emilie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Har Sverige implementerat Regeringens handlingsplan för resolution 1325?: En undersökning om Sveriges bidrag till kvinnorna i Mazar-e Sharif2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine whether Sweden work according to the Swedish governments action plan on UNSCR1325 and whether Sweden implements this action plan according to an implementation theory.

    Initially you will find an explanation of the used method, definitions and the theory used for the study. The second part contains the research where the studied material is analyzed.

    The study itself is based on reports, literature and material from web pages.

    The result of the study shows thatSwedenworks according to the government’s action plan on UNSCR 1325.Swedendoes this trough good contact with women, multiple ways of interaction such as MOT, all female MOT: s and Gender Field Advisers who follows patrols.

    My conclusion shows that Sweden implements the Swedish action plan on UNSCR 1325 according to the implementation theory.

  • 16.
    Åsander, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Man, kvinna eller soldat?: En diskursanalys av genusuttryck i Försvarsmaktens rekryteringsmaterial2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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