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  • 1.
    Andersson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Legitimitet inom ett COIN-perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay presentation of a problem proceed from a possible lack of training or knowledge about valid doctrines for Swedish units conducting service abroad. The essay have the goal to give a snapshoot picture of how a Swedish unit interpret the concept of legitimacy and how the unit works with different aspects to support this. Relating material and also the tool for conducting the analysis are gathered from a wide selection of science in counterinsurgency and also American doctrines.

    The paper assumes that the concept of legitimacy is important in theories surrounding counterinsurgency and also for the used American doctrine. The concept of legitimacy has been defined by three issues, Legitimacy for whom, Who will perceive what is legitimate? and Who generates legitimacy for what?

    The result shows that the Swedish unit in the examined example has a width of vision of the concept of legitimacy and linking it to both themselves as the state of the host country and that both the population in both the home and area of operation. The differences of what is in the paper are reported as COIN theory or the American doctrine is small. An important part is that the paper shows that the Swedish's unit primary definition of legitimacy in a COIN perspective, are the strengthening of the country's security organizations legitimacy versus its own population. This would differ from the above reported theory and doctrine.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Liam
    Swedish Defence University.
    UAV:ernas möte med en högteknologisk motståndare: en fallstudie av konfikten i Ukraina2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UAV: s are in more frequent use as a result of a growing commercial market. This increases the probability of UAV: s in conflicts. This means that conflicts where both sides have access to UAV: s that are relatively high-tech becomes more likely. Ukraine and Russia’s use of UAV: s in Ukraine can be described as this kind of conflict. In this paper it is primarily military UAV: s that are discussed. The difference between these and their civilian counterparts are range, flight time and the quality of the sensors. In order to understand how the use of UAV: s is being affected, the following question needs to be answered.  How is the use of UAV: s affected in a conflict between two high-tech opponents? This was answered by analysing the decision-making process using the OODA loop and the kill chain. The paper is a case study which uses qualitative text analysis and an interview.The conclusion of this paper is that UAV: s has acted as a force multiplier in Ukraine and they will be used in future conflicts. Despite the electronic warfare against the UAV: s and the fact that they are missing systems for counteracting the disturbance both sides continue to use UAV: s. The force multiplier that is gained from using UAV: s is justified from a battle economic standpoint despite being hindered by electronic warfare.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Comprehensive Approach: Civil-militär filosofi eller allsidigt strategiskt koncept?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från de senaste årens komplexa konflikter har bidragit till insikten att separata militära insatser ofta är otillräckliga för att skapa fred. Comprehensive Approach ses av många som ett koncept med målsättningen att skapa en integrerad civil-militär ansats för konfliktlösning. Konceptets innebörd är emellertid oklar. Dessutom är det problematiskt att empiriskt belägga att användandet av konceptet leder till framgång, vilket medför svårigheter att granska dess värde.

    Uppsatsen utnyttjar Michael Howards teori om strategins dimensioner för att analysera Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept. Som metod används en kvalitativ textanalys av systematiserande typ. Utifrån analysen identifieras styrkor och svagheter med konceptet, vilket medför att huvudfrågan vad Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach innebär och vilket värde Comprehensive Approach har som strategiskt koncept besvaras. Svaret bidrar till ökad kunskap och förståelse för Comprehensive Approach, vilket är uppsatsens syfte.

    Resultatet visar att Storbritannien ser Comprehensive Approach som ett strategiskt koncept som kräver integrerade civil-militära strukturer för att fungera på ett bra sätt. Samtliga Howards dimensioner återfinns, och att ingen dimension överfokuseras är utifrån teorin en styrka. Värdet på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept kan samtidigt ifrågasättas främst på grund av att det mestadels uttrycks vad som bör uppnås, men däremot sällan beskrivs hur det ska genomföras. Uppsatsen påvisar även svårigheterna att samordna och koordinera aktörer mot ett gemensamt mål i en multinationell miljö, när incitament för samordning saknas.

  • 4.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Faktorer som påverkar en militär exit2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Gav modern COIN-doktrin framgång redan vid försvenskandet av Skånelandskapen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för ISAF genomförs nu en massiv utbildningsinsats i counterinsurgency, detta för att den nya strategin som tillämpas skall få stort genomslag. Den doktrin som används vid utbildning och vid genomförande är den amerikanska FM 3-24. Den bygger på flera andra doktriner, men är som egen helhet ny och relativt oprövad.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om faktorer i doktrinens operationslinjer bidrar till framgång. Detta görs genom att besvara frågan: I vilken utsträckning var det faktorer som framgår av FM 3-24 ”logiska operationslinjer” som gav framgång vid försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen?

    Designen för undersökningen är en fallstudie, där operationslinjerna i doktrinen har översatts och operationaliserats och sedan jämförts med ett urval av litteratur om försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen.

    Resultatet stödjer att utifrån detta enskilda fall leder användandet av FM 3-24 operationslinjer till ökad sannolikhet för framgång. Vilket ger en ökad legitimitet i doktrinens nyttjande. Uppsatsen har även ett underliggande syfte, att påvisa att det finns svenskt nationellt exempel på COIN.

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU:s och Sveriges säkerhetsstrategier: studier av EU-ledda svenska insatser i Afrika 2006-20092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how The EU Security Strategy affected the objectives of Swedish foreign politics before launching military operations in The Democratic Republic of Congo 2006, Chad/Central African Republic 2008 and in Somalia 2009. The intentions and goals of foreign politics determine Governmental bills and the objectives for the military operations that are sent overseas. These objectives are to serve as guidelines for the realization of the operations.

    This was the basis of the overall problem for my study which asks: How have security policies based on EU reasoning of Security Strategies affected the Swedish national motives for military operations commanded by the EU in Africa 2006-2009? Can they be identified and explained in the Governmental bills from the same era?

    The document, A secure Europe in a better world ­ European Security Strategy, (2003) is used in the case study to identify the objectives and to compare how these have been implemented in the Swedish governmental bills before the initiation of the EU commanded military operations. This was achieved by using qualitative text analysis and a deductive method to analyse foreign policies with an analysis tool, divided into security, welfare of the state and ideological objectives.

    The outcome of the study identified that the motives for the Governmental bills were permeated by EU’s overall objectives. In the Governmental bills, it was identified that there was generally a lack of the sharpness that the EU policy stands for, regarding being active, preventive and resolute. In order to achieve more effectiveness in the welfare of the state objectives, the EU considers this objective ought to be integrated into all resources as well as into civil and military integration. Additionally, this integration was not emphasized in explicit terms in the examined bills. The main and most prioritised outcome was to consider Human Rights, which resulted in high ranking publicity for the EU and Sweden in the outcome of the operations, both regionally and strategically.

  • 7.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemouth University.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security2014In: Journal on terrorism and security analysis, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.

  • 8.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing development of team training2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers / [ed] Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Mark S. Pfaff, Linda Plotnick, Patrick C. Shih, The Pennsylvania State University, USA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Golanhöjderna, den strategiska betydelsen 1967-19732009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this essay is the strategic importance of the Golan Heights during the period 1967-1973, specifically targeting the following questions;

    -          Why were the heights strategically important?

    -          What are the gains of either of the states in controlling the Golan Heights?

    A theoretical framework based on Jerker Widén´s and Jan Ångström´s Militärteorins grunder (The fundamentals in Military Theory) and its chapter regarding the strategic context will be used as an analytical framework.

    The framework has been applied on the specific conditions of the Golan Heights during a given and limited period of time; stretching from 1967 to 1973, however, the study will not deal with the war of attrition in 1970 as the impact on the Golan Heights and the surrounding geographical strategically important area was limited if at all. The two wars waged during this particular time are used in an attempt to give a somewhat objective picture of the strategic importance of the area.

    The conclusions are that the importance of the Golan heights during the selected period was significant as the Golan Heights provided a “strategic lock” both ways and provides a favourable area to deploy artillery, intelligence and surveillance sensors.

  • 10.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 11.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Pennsylvania, USA: ISCRAM , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.

  • 12.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Svensson, Erland
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 13.
    Björnfors, Martin
    Écoles de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan.
    Insurgent Organisation Structure: A Neglected Subject?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November, 1954 an armed insurgency against French rule commenced with a large scale terrorist attack throughout various parts of Algeria. France responded by sending troops from the continent to Algeria and was soon involved in a full out counterinsurgency against the Front Liberé National (FLN), a revolutionary movement organised in a classical communist insurgent pattern.

    Many of the experiences the French gained conducting counterinsurgency in Algeria have been examined by writers of COIN literature. The conclusions have been incorporated into counterinsurgency doctrines of many countries, and the works of Galula, who experienced the war, is considered basic literature for many counterinsurgency courses. This has been inherited by modern COIN literature. The US FM 3.24 draws from the French experiences and theorists in its main body.

    This essay examines whether modern counterinsurgency literature derived from French experiences and theories gained, fighting FLN fails to address the question on how the insurgent organisation is structured. It provides a few arguments why we should know this, such as knowing your enemy’s structure will help you understand his vulnerabilities. To archive this and lay a foundation for the argumentation it first compares the Algerian FLN to modern day Taliban to establish if their organisational structures are different or similar.

  • 14.
    Boisvert, Marc-André
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sociological Perspectives on African Peace Support Operations2010Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Boldsen, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Afghanistan 1978-1992: Avsaknaden av Galula2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term counterinsurgency has received a lot of attention since 2001 and the U.S commitment in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S has conducted thorough developmental work since then and a new doctrine on counterinsurgency was presented in 2006. As early as 1964, the Frenchman David Galula issued a book on the subject, and there have existed theories on counterinsurgency ever since. The Soviet Union’s commitment in Afghanistan during the 1980s ended with the collapse of the Afghan communist regime. The will to win the conflict should have been present there, and in the same way that the U.S have capitalized on their experiences something ought to have been done to try to win the conflict during the 1980s. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the parties involved in the fight against the Afghan resistance acted in a way that resembles Galula’s theories on counterinsurgency. The conflict has been analyzed with Galulas theories on how to defeat an insurgency by both political and military means. The analysis has shown that the Soviet Union and the Afghan communist regime did not develop their way of handling the conflict in a way which is consistent with Galula’s theories. The primary political cause was that the regime put its trust in oppression in their attempts to discourage resistance sympathies. This approach resulted in an increase in support for the Afghan resistance rather than the support of the regime. Militarily, the lack of means to secure the regime’s political presence in new areas meant that the regime was unable to broaden its sphere of influence.

  • 16.
    Bovét, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att tänka annorlunda: Samtidens dynamiska lärandemiljöer utgår från ett förändrat sätt att tänka och förstå ledarskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theories on knowledge development, adaptation and innovation have connections to transforma-tional leadership and recent military research on contemporary warfare. The thesis explores the learning environment, and describes the behavioural changes that supports and fosters dynamic thinking and adaptive problem-solving in a military organization. In a survey, two groups of lead-ers conceptions of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) prerequisites where compiled and com-pared. The survey consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. The results indicated leader-ship challenges within SwAF.

  • 17.
    Dahrné, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    COIN-doktrinen och kulturen2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Dijkstra, Gabriel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beväpning av flygtekniker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The AK5C has reached the edge of life and is due for replacement. Studies have been investigating a new small arm but focus of these studies has been the army and its personnel. For flight maintenance personnel the AK5C was too heavy and when working on an aircraft the technicians had to lay the weapon aside. The question this study aims to answer is how the future small arms for flight maintenance personnel might look like. To illustrate when a flight technician might use their weapon three scenarios where created. The scenarios where all originated from reglemente flygbassystem and focused on the main tasks of flight maintenance personnel. In the study personnel with deep knowledge in the field of small arms from different branches of the Swedish Armed Forces were interviewed. The aim was to get an understanding of how the organization view the problem. A survey with flight maintenance personnel from Helicopter Squadron was also conducted and provided details of how the users views the problem. The main question that was asked both in the interviews and in the survey to the users was which attribute of a small arm are the most important for each of the scenarios. The primary difference between the interviewed and the survey was the understanding of penetration and range for different weapon types. The conclusion of the study was that a short barrelled automatic rifle could be a solution that could handle all the investigated scenarios. A recommendation is also made to strengthen the flight maintenance company with machineguns to increase the capacity when defending on longer ranges. 

  • 19.
    Edin, Christoffer
    Swedish Defence University.
    Då krigssjukvård påverkar moralen, kan en förändrad syn på risk öka den militära förmågan?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Krigföringsförmågan i en försvarsmakt är bland annat beroende av en god anda. Under perioden 1990-2010 har det militära maktmedlet över den Svenska krigssjukvården minskat i takt med att dessa delar avvecklats. En uppgift vilken därmed måste lösas av den offentliga sjukvården. Tillgången till adekvat sjukvård i krig är alltjämt viktig för bibehållandet av moralen i förbanden, och därmed uppstår ett dilemma då ansvarsflytt skett från Försvarsmakten till, i huvudsak, landstingen, vars beslutsmekanismer inte nödvändigtvis är de samma såsom i Försvarsmakten. Dessutom minskar Försvarsmaktens inflytande över krigssjukvårdens utförande och inriktning. Genom att analysera de gällande riskhanteringsmodellerna för Försvarsmakten och Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting ur ett riskfilosofiskt perspektiv undersöker denna uppsats förutsättningarna att kompensera för denna ansvarsomfördelning. Risken för sjunkande moral kan anses uppstå såsom en konsekvens av överförandet av ansvar. Uppsatsen diskuterar även förslag på åtgärder vilka skulle kunna nyttjas för att undvika en nedgång i moral vid ett väpnat angrepp mot ett nutida Sverige

  • 20.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Framtida konfliktyper: En modell för kategorisering av krig och konflikter (S14)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kategorisera och namnge möjliga framtida konflikter syftar till att mentalt förbereda sig på olika alternativ och därmed ge organisationen möjlighet att anpassa sin förmåga att hantera de olika utmaningar som dessa konfliktkategorier kan tänkas medföra. Begrepp, eller teoretiska koncept, är viktiga då de har dubbla roller. Dels är de analytiska instrument för att förenkla, strukturera och förstå verkligheten. Överförenklade begrepp och kategorier riskerar däremot att fördärva vår verklighetsuppfattning och angripa de ”verkliga” problemen på ett effektivt sätt. Begrepp är dock inte bara analytiska avbilder av verkligheten, de har även en konstruktivistisk roll – de formar vår verklighetsuppfattning. Detta innebär att de definitioner och begrepp vi använder på insatser kommer att forma vår uppfattning och förståelse av insatsen. Det senaste utkastet till Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 gör vikten av förståelse av konflikters karaktär mycket tydlig:

    All personal i Försvarsmakten måste förstå och kunna hantera krigets skiftande karaktär. Det ligger i krigets natur att dess karaktär ständigt skiftar och aldrig upprepar sig. Ingen kan styra krigets karaktär. Vi måste därför i vart fall noga bedöma den specifika konfliktens karaktär och anpassa medel och metoder därefter.

    Syftet med studien är därför att assistera Försvarsmakten i strävan efter denna förståelse genom att skapa en tydlig kategorisering av möjliga framtida konflikter. Denna kategorisering utgår från centrala parametrar och begrepp som anses tongivande för att förstå olika typer av framtida konflikter. Beskrivna konflikttyper skall sedan användas för att ta fram övergripande beskrivningar av möjliga framtida försvarsmaktsprofiler, så kallade idébilder, samt för utveckling av Försvarsmaktens befintliga strategiska typscenarier.

     

    Baserat på en generell diskussion om drivkrafter för framtida konflikter och en genomgång av existerande begrepp för att kategorisera konflikter så har en relativt enkel modell skapats i denna studie. En fyrfältare har skapats baserad på två variabler som påverkar konfliktens karaktär:

    1. Militär förmåga (Från låg till hög förmåga)
    2. Relativ förmåga i förhållande till motpart (Symmetri eller asymmetri av förmåga)

     

    Reguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Reguljär/symmetrisk krigföring kännetecknas av två aktörer med likartad och hög militär förmåga – med största sannolikhet två stater. Denna typ av krigföring är mycket väl beskriven i både doktrin och teoretiska sammanhang och behöver inte beskrivas närmare här. Värt att notera är att dessa krig tenderar att bli storskaliga och högintensiva, dels på grund av krigets inre logik vilket leder till eskalation (Clausewitz) och dels på grund av de stora aktörernas förmåga och kapacitet att eskalera.

    Reguljär/Asymmetriskt konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två aktörer med hög militär förmåga men som ändå är långt ifrån symmetriska. Exempel är Falklandskriget 1982 och Gulfkriget 1991. Trots att Saddam Hussein kunde mobilisera mer än en halv miljon man så medförde deras tekniska underlägsenhet gentemot den USA-ledda koalitionen en asymmetrisk konflikt. Dessa konflikter tenderar att bli mycket kortvariga om inte den svagare parten övergår i irreguljär krigföring.

    Irreguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två svaga (med traditionella mått på militär krigföringsförmåga) militära aktörer som slåss med samma irreguljära metoder. Flera inbördeskrig i Afrika tillhört denna kategori. Inte minst kriget i Liberia mellan bland andra NPFL och INPFL. Dessa konflikter eskalerar snarare i brott mot krigets lagar än i konfliktens intensitet – vilket i slutändan innebär allvarliga brott mot mänskliga rättigheter, barnsoldater, våld mot civila och därmed mycket svårläkta sår för samhället i en post-konfliktsitutation.

    Irreguljär/Asymmetrisk

    Denna konfliktkategori omfattar två aktörer med olika krigföringsförmåga där den svagare parten valt irreguljära metoder för att bekämpa en överlägsen fiende. Gerillakrig, upprorsmotverkan och många komplexa fredsfrämjande insatser ryms inom denna kategori. Pågående konflikter i Afghanistan, Irak, Colombia och mellan Israel och Palestinierna är ett antal exempel.

    Hybridkrigföring

    Hybridkrigföring beskrivs som en kombination av traditionell krigföring, blandat med terrorism, andra asymmetriska hot och upprorsverksamhet. Orsaken till begreppet är en ökad insikt om att de traditionella dikotomierna beskrivna ovan är missvisande i en betydligt mer komplex verklighet där olika typer av krigföring flyter ihop. Det är viktigt att notera att då fienden bedriver flera olika typer av krigföring samtidigt – hybridkrigföring – så ställs det med stor sannolikhet liknande krav på våra förband.

    Aktörers intressen och förändringar av konflikters karaktär

    Analysen trycker vid flera tillfällen på vikten av förståelse för att konflikter inte är statiska utan att konflikters karaktär kan ändras på flera olika sätt. Därför har studien även diskuterat ett antal tänkbara rörelser mellan modellens fem fält. Aktörernas intressen är utöver detta avgörande för förändringsbenägenheten i konflikter, då motgångar för aktörer med absoluta mål kommer leda till metodförändringar vilket i sin tur förändrar konfliktens karaktär.

     

    Slutligen presenterar studien ett par exempel på hur modellen kan användas inom FM för strategisk planering och framtagande av typscenarior. Trots att territoriella hot mot Sverige inte diskuterades framkom det med tydlighet att det kommer krävas en mycket stor bredd av förmågor för svenska förband – en kraftfull och expeditionär Försvarsmakt som med trovärdighet kan agera utmed hela konfliktskalan – på hemmaplan, i närområdet och internationellt. Flexibilitet och anpassningsförmåga är dessutom central ledord för att kunna följa med i framtida konflikters karaktärsförändringar. Statiska militära organisationer tillhör det förflutna.

  • 21.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the conduct of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010 and discusses the implications for the legacy and future of British counterinsurgency. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles and changed mindsets are necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for dealing with large-scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, and especially the civilian lines of operations that underpinned Britain's historical successes with counterinsurgency, are today missing.

  • 22.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Winning 'Hearts and Minds'?: A Critical Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Operations in Afghanistan2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 282-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article conducts a critical analysis of the historical lessons, theassumptions and the conduct of ‘hearts and minds’ approaches to counterinsurgency.This results in challenges. Theoretically the ‘hearts and minds’approach is rooted in modernisation theory and a normative Western approachto legitimacy that fails to live up to the expectations of the local population.The approach is also based on lessons from past successes such as the British1950s campaign in Malaya. However, a great contextual shift has taken placesince then and the relevance of past experiences is therefore questionable ina context of complex state-building in the wake of intervention. This also haspractical consequences as we seek to rectify the often misapplied approachesof today.

  • 24.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Conclusion: Lessons of Comparison and Limits of Generalization2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, Mayesha
    Department of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Introduction: Gender and Women in the Military - Setting the Stage2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

  • 27.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Soviet Operational Art: Narratives on Manchuria, 19452014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text explores the Soviet military offensive into Japanese-held Manchuria in August 1945 by looking at two narratives: the Soviet and the Japanese. The former has dominating the latter, perhaps due to the Soviet success as Japan surrendered a few days into the operation. However, by adding rather than dismissing the Japanese perspective, Soviet performances on different levels can be scrutinized. For example, faults with logistical planning and the difficulties to achieve a 'deep battle' are found. It also highlights the main difference between the two operations, namely that the Soviet operation aimed for a double pincer movement, while the Japanese operation aimed for a withdrawal into a mountain redoubt.

  • 28.
    Englund, Anton
    Swedish Defence University.
    Förutsättningar för ett markbaserat radarsystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the new developments in international affairs, where NATO modernizes its missile defense system in Europe and Russia has placed tactical ballistic missiles in Kaliningrad, Sweden needs to acquire the ability to combat ballistic missiles. Sweden has therefore acquired the Patriot system, however without adding an early warning radar for the Air defense against ballistic missile.

    Missile defense is a well-explored area, ranging from missile defense events to how a sensor chain should function. The research does not, however, discuss the abilities an acquired radar system needs to help guide ballistic missiles for Air defense units.

    In this essay, a modeling and a technical analysis based on the theory Missile defense a chain of events are used to conclude requirements for radar performance. An analysis of how the organizations use radar systems today and how the technical requirements affect the organizations was implemented with the concept Military utility.

    The result indicates the organization there the radar system will be implemented needs to be reinforced with a sensor company and a security unit to meet the requirement for guidance. The background of the scenario that has been developed for the analysis shows that the radar should be integrated to a vehicle, have a range of 500 kilometers and a height coverage of 50 kilometers. Battle management systems must also be compatible with the Patriot system and the sensor chain for strategic partnership.

  • 29.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Forces: Leadership, Processes and the British Special Air Service (SAS)2017In: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Special Operations Forces / [ed] Gitte Højstrup Christensen, Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College Publishing House, 2017, 1, p. 74-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the research question of what kind of leadership, processes, and work climate best support employee-driven/bottom-up innovation in SOF. It starts with the suggestion that the term, Special Operations Forces (SOF), needs to be intellectually unpacked and its diverse elements (of which Special Forces are just one part) disaggregated in order to elicit definitional clarity. From this conceptual starting point, it becomes immediately clear that Special Forces represent the ‘special’ component in the SOF designation. This research contends they are a new type of soldier (and a product of modern warfare) that is defined by differentness in relation to conventional forces and activities within a battlespace, working in traditionally restricted areas. David Stirling, one of the founders of the famed British Special Air Service (SAS), is highlighted as an exemplar of the sort of leadership that provoked rare operational level effects. The paper also suggests that unorthodox forces operating in a unique operational environment demand unusual personality types and atypical command/control processes encapsulated by the so-called ‘Chinese Parliament’ that emerged in the SAS.

  • 30.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Operations in Contemporary Warfare: Challenges and Opportunities2017In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 2, p. 168-174Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that the world is now in a third age of Special Forces and one that in all likelihood will witness an increasing utility of these unusual military units in orthodox and unorthodox warfare in international relations.

  • 31.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destruktivt ledarskap: Hur uppkommer det? Vilka effekter får det? Vad kan man göra åt det?2018Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Achieving Game Goals at All Costs?: The Effect of Reward Structures on Tactics Employed in Educational Military Wargaming2014In: FRONTIERS IN GAMING SIMULATION, 2014, p. 13-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key motive in using gaming for educational purposes is to enhance user motivation and involvement to the subject matter. Within military education, games have always been utilized as a means to think clearly about military operations. However, some research results have shown that gaming, regardless of what the game is supposed to portray, is a meaningful activity in itself, and this can distract the learner away from the educational objective. Playing the game, then, becomes similar to competition, such as in sports where the objective is to only win the game. The player directs actions to achieving game goals even though some actions are inappropriate from a learning perspective. To shed light on the discrepancy between playing a game to win and playing a game to learn, we conducted an experiment on cadets playing an educational wargame. By varying the conditions of the game, playing with or without points, while still in line with the learning objective, we were interested to see what impact it had on the tactics employed by cadets. The results showed that adding reward structures, such as points, changed the outcome of the game, that is, groups playing with points played the game more aggressively and utilized the military units more extensively. These findings suggest that changes in the game design, although educationally relevant, may distract learners to be more oriented towards a lusory attitude, in which achieving the game goals becomes players' biggest concern.

  • 33.
    Friis, Karsten
    et al.
    Norska utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Rehman, Sanaa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Mustonen, Jari
    Stepputat, Finn
    Grönberg, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Nordic Approaches to Whole-of-Government: in Afghanistan and beyond2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive Approach (CA) and Whole-of-Government Approach (WGA) are rather new concepts within the field of security studies. They can be described as approaches based on the assumption that greater integration, coherence and coordination will result in more effective peacekeeping operations. The concept of CA has been adopted by different international organizations and WGA by several countries which in different ways have realted to the concept in propositions and steering documents. Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark have also realized the importance of CA/WGA, not least as regards the ongoing operation in Afghanistan where all the Nordic countries are involved and where the operation is characterized by a range of actors working in different missions withing the same field. What do these Nordic national strategies towards CA/WGA look like? Might we speak of a common Nordic CA/WGA model?

  • 34.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Barius, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Exploring Mission Command in a Concept for Future Command and Control2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 3, article id 22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Command and Control (C2) need to be both agile and resilient to cope with unpredictable operational environments and to make use of the technological advances. The Swedish Armed Forces develops a concept for future C2 of military operations. The objective of this paper is to explore the utilization of mission command in a future C2 concept. Sweden has a solid tradition of mission command, promoted by the Swedish culture of participation and empowerment. However, the future operational environment demands a need for organizational agility, thus changing the prerequisites for mission command. The future C2 concept, which is under development, encompasses centralized and decentralized command in fixed and temporary organizations. Centralized approaches may be preferred when it comes to prioritization of technologically advanced exclusive resources. On the other hand, dynamic situations demand rapid decision making and seizing the opportunity given in the moment. The future operational environment includes hybrid warfare and gray zone issues, demanding thorough analysis in order to foresee the political consequences of decisions. Sensor and communication technologies enable enhanced situation awareness; however, the infrastructure is vulnerable. The current paper analyses the application of mission command in the future operational environment, and further mission command in relation to organizational agility. The conclusion is that mission command is still relevant in the complex future operational environment. However, the increasingly complex operational environment demands continuous development of the C2 function.

  • 35.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Legoknektar över alla gränser: Recension av Nir Arielli, och Bruce Collins (eds.), Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era2015In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 151-153Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Bachmann, Sascha
    Bournemouth Univerrsity.
    Military teaching for the future2015In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2, p. 131-145Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med nya militära utmaningar ställs frågan vad taktisk utbildning egentligen? Många sysselsätter sig med att undervisa i taktisk utbildning, men ställer man dem frågan vad taktik är så händer det ofta att svaret blir svävande och vagt. Är den taktiska utbildningen något som är tidsbundet och daterat? Tesen är att det centrala vid den taktiska utbildningen är förmedlandet och hanterandet av ett taktiskt språk. För att visa på detta inleds med ett exempel från det första världskrigets kejserliga tyska armé där relationen stat, krigsmakt, taktik och språk diskuteras. Stora taktiska förändringar kan genomfras på kort tid, under pågående konflikt med miljontals människor inblandade bara förutsättningarna finns. En välorganiserad stat med hög utbildnings och organisationsnivå är viktigt för en militär organisation då den bara är en exponent av samhället i stort. Denna del följs av taktisk utbildning vid två olika tillfällen i Sverige under det nära förflutna, dels vid stabsprogrammet, dels på officersprogrammet. Vid båda tillfällena är det uppenbart att skolandet i ett uniformt och effektivt taktiskt språk är centralt i undervisningen, oaktat den hierarkiska skillnaden vid tillfällena. Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att på ytan må den taktiska undervisningen te sig bunden av sina scenarion och fall men att den på ett djupare plan uppehåller sig vid något mer allmänt som språk som också i lika hög grad är viktigt.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Optimering mot den operativa miljön - en studie av logistik i stabiliseringsoperationer2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaption to the operational environment -

    a study of logistics in Stabilisation

     

    Abstract

    The study covers topics operational environment in fragile states, along with military operational and tactical logistics. Since the operating environment and therefore the purpose of the military instrument in important respects are distinctive in Stabilisation, in comparison with regular warfare, this means adaptation needs for the logistics.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and develop the logistics can be designed for Stabilisation, in order to contribute to the logistics adapted to the generic features of the operational environment.

    The empirical data for the study was developed by Western operational and tactical doctrines of stabilisation and the theory is taken from Moshe Kress Operational Logistics. The analysis carried out by a logistics system's operation formalized criteria, and presents the salient adaptation needs for each phase of the operation.

    The generic need for adjustment proved to ensure the continuity that requires operational flexibility. The exception is the Secure where attainability, which in turn requires the ability of survivability, is the dominant criterion for optimizing the logistics system. A key finding of this study is that the Hold is likely to generate the greatest need for adaptation and capacity in an operational logistics system, in terms of operation as a whole.

    Keywords: Stabilisation, Counterinsurgency, Comprehensive Approach, Operational Environment, Logistics

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Hans-Emil
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ur ett COIN perspektiv: Kriget mellan Israel och Libanon 20062010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the essay that follows I have used David Galulas COIN theory. I have then used Galulas theory and analyzed the war between Israel and Lebanon in 2006. The war from the Israeli point of view was a failure, as they failed to defeat Hezbollah and stop their rockets from firing into Israel. Despite the facts that the Israel had the most technologically advanced army in the Middle East and that they had air superiority in the area. In this essay I have discussed the following question: Are Galulas theories usable against an opponent like Hezbollah? After having written this essay, I have not beenable to conclude a definite answer, however I am convinced that it is possible. The reason for the Israeli failure was the fact that the Hezbollah were so well prepared for war. Whereas the Israeli forces were ill-prepared because of a substantial decrease in numbers compared to earlier years, and because the Israeli soldiers and officers were not trained for this type of war. In my opinion, the Israeli forces would have needed to focus much more on ground operations because the Hezbollah were so well prepared. This is exactly what stage one in Galulas COIN theory advises, where through military presence, separate the civilian population from the insurgents.

  • 39.
    Hagberg, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sjukvårdsorganisationen vid svenska marina missioner2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces have been through a big reformation since the Parliamentary Resolution 2004. The Resolutions biggest statement was that the armed forces should change from a invasiondefence to a mobile armed force. This means that Swedish troops and ships are meant to operate far from the Swedish coast line and infrastructure; this can give many new interesting problems.

    One of these problems is if the Swedish units are fit for the missions that they now are entitled to take part in. I particularly if they have the capability to take care of injured personal far from Swedish infrastructure.

    Have the medical organisation and the armed forces the right means to give adequate medical treatment and transportation?

    The methods that the writer has used to solve these questions have been the descriptive method combined whit fall studies on ML 01-02 and ME 01. The literature consists part of reglements, doctrines both Swedish and domestic, in particular the Nato doctrine AJP 4-10

    The conclusions that have been made are that the Swedish ships are not adjusted for this kind of missions, the abcens of the helicopter capability is one of the arguments for this. The effect of what this can mean for the soldier is a decreased will to fight, which can be drastic for the ship.

  • 40.
    Hallander, Jim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att leda: En studie om svensk samtida ledningsvetenskap och Försvarsmaktens doktrinutveckling2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical principle for successful command and control depends on such elements as the factor of coordination between Swedish research within command and control science and the development of the Swedish Armed Forces doctrine.

    The ongoing Swedish research within command and control science has created a generic model, the dynamic OODA-loop. The dynamic OODA-loop presents two major key aspects for command and control, the outer and the inner system and how they interface. Furthermore, the Swedish Armed Forces is in a developmental process of the Military Strategic Doctrine. The purpose of the development is to adjust the doctrine to be more useful within the Armed Forces and to describe the ongoing changes in a dynamic and complex environment.

    The purpose of this study is to identify if the development of the doctrine has been guided by the latest research within command and control science. The purpose is also to get a deeper understanding and awareness in order to meet the demands leading to a successful command and control within the military strategic doctrine.

    The study shows a positive doctrinal development in a number of areas such as; the environment where military effects will take action and attach descriptions concerning the intent and the understanding of a mission. It also shows the need for a continued doctrinal development within command and control in close cooperation within the areas of Swedish research.

  • 41.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Ekenstierna, Christina
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Framework for C2 Concept Development: Exploring Design Logic and Systems Engineering2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 9, article id 23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for military operations have changed due to, e.g., globalization, climate change, and nations' ambitions and actions. This has resulted in new demands on command and control (C2) capability. Further, the rapid evolution of information technology has provided vigorous opportunities to enhance the C2 capability, e.g., through advanced communication, information management, and decision support. However, the need to rely on modern technology also causes increased vulnerabilities. The sociotechnical nature of C2 systems means that the development of C2 systems is complex and challenging. Developing C2 concepts requires collaboration between people from different knowledge disciplines, traditions, and perspectives. Therefore, there is a need for elaborated concept development approaches and structures that promote collaborative efforts. The objective of this paper is a framework for the development of C2 concepts that enhance the collaboration of people from different traditions. The study was carried out as case study performed in two steps: theoretical development and formative evaluation. The case study targets the development of C2 concepts for future military operations of the Swedish Armed Forces. The framework includes terminology models, a development process, and system representations. The case study shows that in diverse teams, it is essential to agree upon terminology, development process, and systems representations used for the development to avoid misunderstandings and unnecessary rework. The framework explored in this paper is only in its first version. However, the development and the application of the framework was found to facilitate and focus the work of the multi-disciplinary team.

  • 42.
    Hallenborg, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hotuppfattningar och strategier för maritim säkerhet i Östersjön, ur ett svenskt perspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats avhandlas hotuppfattningar och strategier för maritim säkerhet i Östersjön ur ett svenskt perspektiv. Ökade varuflöden, oljetransporter och handel inom östersjöregionen har tillsammans med den snabba omvärldsutvecklingen bidragit till ett nationellt och transnationellt intresse för bibehållen maritim säkerhet i Östersjön.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att med kunskap om av regering och riksdag identifierade hot under perioden 1998-2009, analysera vilka strategier Sverige valt för att hantera hoten och bibehålla den maritima säkerheten.

    För att identifiera hoten mot svenska intressen i Östersjön har teorin om det vidgade säkerhetsbegreppet använts för att med sektorerna; politik, ekonomi, samhälle, miljö samt militär identifiera de hot som regering och riksdag lyfter fram i propositioner och försvarsberedningar.

    Strategierna som har analyserats har fokus både på svenskt nationellt såväl som transnationellt samarbete och berör både nutid och framtid.

    Resultatet av uppsatsen visar att Sverige lägger allt mer fokus på transnationellt samarbete med bl.a. EU och de nordiska länderna men att även instruktioner till svenska myndigheter betonar ökat behov av samarbete för att hantera de identifierade hoten.

  • 43.
    Hammarlind, Eric
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svenska strategiska narrativ under kalla kriget och 2010-talet: en kvalitativ textanalys av fyra regeringars deklarationer i jämförelse mellan neutralitets- och solidaritetspolitik2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is the credibility of today's Swedish security policy under question? Through two world wars and the years that followed Sweden has invoked a policy of neutrality and military nonalignment. This policy has come to be perceived as an integral part of the Swedish national identity. Is it possible then that Sweden’s past and present strategic narratives could be contested?

    This thesis investigates whether or not there is consistency in the narratives expressed by both right wing Swedish governments and socialist Swedish governments. The narratives of both parties are examined during two separate eras of history; the Cold War era of the 1980s is compared with the current more globalized era of the 2010s.

    A constructivist perspective is utilized in the analysis and a narrative analysis is applied.

    The results show that there has been significant consistency in the narratives of Swedish security policy from both right wing and socialist governments. There is much greater variation shown between the two eras than there is between the two parties themselves.

  • 44.
    Hansson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teknologi & Numerär: Frågan om vem som vinner2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason for this study is to settle the balance between technology and preponderance in war. Each theory claims its own superiority to be decisive when it comes to achieving military victories, but this study will show what actually happens when the two theories are analyzed together in the same conflict. To prove the conclusions, a case-study on Operation Gazelle is used. The study will describe the theories, what a military victory is and which party in the conflict came out victorious after this specific operation. Both sides’ forces will be shown and compared. The most significant technological systems will be analysed and compared. When this is done, the victory and the theories’ importance can be explained. Operation Gazelle was an act performed by Israel in October 1973 during the conflict with Egypt. It was an attempt to cross the Suez Canal and in that way gain an improved political status during the peace negotiations that were to come. The main question that will be answered is:- Which of the two theories, numerical preponderance and technology, is decisive when it comes to achieving military goals? To answer this question three other questions are answered:- What were the numerical conditions during Operation Gazelle?- What were the technological conditions between the parties?- Which party was victorious?

  • 45.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Soeters, Joseph
    Nederland Defence Academy.
    Reflections on Swedish Peacekeepers' Self-image and Dilemmas of Peacekeeping2010In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soldiers' self-images undoubtedly influence the way they recognize, perceive, plan and conduct their tasks. The article examines the self-image of Swedish peacekeepers in the UNMIL mission in Liberia and the UNMIK mission in Kosovo. The findings are based on interviews with 27 soldiers before, during and after deployment. Eleven dimensions of self-image were found, showing that the self-image refers almost entirely to the peacekeeping and not the war-fighting role. In addition, the Swedish soldiers hold themselves to be excellent peacekeepers. Departing from this observation, we discuss three dilemmas in peacekeeping that have implications beyond the Swedish armed forces. The argument is that being less self-referential may make peacekeeping more successful.

  • 46.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uhr, Christian
    Lunds universitet.
    Situational Awareness and its Impact on Crisis-Induced Action: the Norwegian 22/7 Case2015In: Armed Forces for 2020 and beyond: Roles | Tasks | Expectations / [ed] Walter Feichtinger, Benedikt Hensellek, Wien: Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports, Austria , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Information Fusion for Collaborating Commanders at Different Levels2011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, June 21-23, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a position paper discussing the authors’ views on the role of automated information fusion in the interaction between different command levels. The purpose of the paper is to initiate a discussion on the relationship between automated fusion and the flexibility in a mission. The sharing of data/information/knowledge between commanders at different levels is a difficult task in many respects. We focus on the role of automated information fusion techniques in this frame. The paper asks two major questions: (1) Does automated fusion generate the unwanted side-effect of less flexibility? (2) How should a situational picture be represented at different command levels to promote cooperation? We also discuss some disadvantages of using traditional information fusion methods developed to handle either high or low level information. The conclusion is that information fusion techniques have to be chosen with care when making information systems that should be jointly used by commanders at different levels.

  • 48.
    Holmqvist, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Uppdragstaktik: Ett sätt att leda informationsoperationer?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genomförandet av informationsoperationer kräver synkronisering och koordinering från högsta ledningsnivå vilket tenderar till en centraliserad ledningsmetod som ordertaktik. Samtidigt anger den svenska försvarsmakten att den decentraliserade ledningsmetoden uppdragstaktik är grunden för all ledning. Detta kan ge sken av en motsättning.

    Uppsatsen syftar således till att undersöka vilken ledningsmetod som präglar genomförandet av informationsoperationer och vilka element av uppdragstaktik respektive ordertaktik som finns i dem. Detta har gjorts genom att besvara frågeställningen: – I vilken utsträckning är genomförande av informationsoperationer förenligt med uppdrags- respektive ordertaktik? Uppsatsen har utvecklat ett analysverktyg ur teorier om uppdrags- respektive ordertaktik och undersökt doktriner om informationsoperationer.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att genomförandet av informationsoperationer framförallt är förenligt med den centraliserade ledningsmetoden ordertaktik. Det finns dock små element som är påvisar den decentraliserade ledningsmetoden uppdragstaktik. Dessa är påverkansmöjligheten för underställda vilket framförallt är framträdande i den svenska doktrinen och utövandet av kontroll genom mål- respektive processtyrning.

  • 49.
    Honig, Jan Willem
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Future of Military Strategy at Försvarshögskolan: An Attempt to Identify Some Useful Fundamentals2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 148-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Keeping Peace or Spurring Violence? Unintended Effects of Peace Operations on Violence against Civilians2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
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