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  • 1.
    Aadland, Cornelia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens fem ringar - ett koncept för framtida militära interventioner?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades airpower has become a useful tool for military interventions. Earlier research argues that air operations during the first Gulf war proved that strategic bombing could be effective due to modern technology and precision guided munitions. John Warden developed a theory based on strategic bombing, where he sees the enemy as a system, which is illustrated by a five-ring-model. The theory is widely discussed in the modern airpower debate, and has also been criticized because it has not been proved in any large-N study. Therefore, this essay aims to test Wardens five-ring-model in a comparative case study where two modern air operations have been chosen for investigation. The two operations are Operation Deliberate Force that took place Bosnia, 1995, and Operation Odyssey Dawn/Unified Protector that took place in Libya, 2011. The two operations have many similarities but differ in the time it took to reach their designated goals.

    The results indicate that Wardens theory is not capable of explaining why the two operations differed in the time it took to achieve its goals. The operations did not act according to Wardens five-ring-model to a sufficiently large extent when other targets were more frequently attacked than the ones that Warden advocates to be the most effective. Warden states that his theory is very general and can be used for any opponent, but the results of this essay indicate that it may be to general to be able to explain the outcome of an operation.

  • 2.
    Adielsson, Ludvig
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Grundutbildning för rekrytering till marina insatsstyrkan2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Basic training to be recruited to the naval rapid reaction forces.

    This paper examines if there might be a need of change in the basic training so that the conscripts in the Swedish navy will be better prepared to be recruited to the naval rapid reaction forces. It also examines if the way to recruit personnel to the naval rapid reaction forces needs to be changed. To show how well the system, as it is today, works, a case study have been made on the Swedish naval mission, ML, in Lebanon during 2006-2007. It presents experiences from the mission that later has been analyzed with the help of parts of the educational material that is used in the basic training.

    By this research it has emerged that changes could be made in the basic training to better prepare the conscripts. One example of the suggestions that has evolved is that to a greater extent involve international regulations and procedures in the basic training. Suggestions to change the way of recruiting personnel has also evolved and one example of such a suggestion is that the recruiting process could include a test where the person’s physiological suitability is being tested. A test similar to the one the Air force let’s you do before becoming a pilot.

  • 3.
    Agrell, Wilhelm
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Essence of Assessment: Methods and Problems of Intelligence Analysis2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sense, I have written this book to summarize and clarify problems that I have been working on and researching in different ways since the beginning of the 1970s. However, the main aim, and my aspiration, is obviously for the book to contribute to an increasingly more essential awareness of and discussion on the opportunities and problems of analysis methods. The book is aimed at students and those interested with no previous experience or prior knowledge of intelligence as well as those on the analytical treadmill. At its very best, the methodological discussion has this natural universality. Wilhelm Agrell has a twin academic background in history, and in peace and conflict research. Since 2006 he is the first Professor in Intelligence analysis in Sweden. He has written extensively on military R&D, security policy, regional conflicts and the role and transformation of intelligence. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences, and of the advisory board to the Swedish Security Service, and Visiting professor at the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the National Defence College. Sir David Omand is Visiting Professor at King's College, London. He was the first UK Security and Intelligence Coordinator, responsible to the Prime Minister for the professional health of the intelligence community, national counter-terrorism strategy and "homeland security". Sir David served for seven years on the Joint Intelligence Committee. He was Permanent Secretary of the Home Office from 1997 to 2000, and before that Director of GCHQ.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Jesper
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Det moderna systemet - en relevant förklaringsmodell?2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to explore the relevance of Stephen Biddle’s theory of the Modern System as a model for explaining victory and defeat. Using a multiple case-study of battles from the Finnish-Russo conflict during the Second World War, comparisons are made between the system, doctrines and actual methods of combat in order to draw conclusions about the relevance of the theory.

     

    Results of the study confirm that the Modern System is applicable as an explanatory model since both cases show that the victor used methods of combat more comparable to the system than the loser. However, no relationship could be found between the system and the doctrines used which indicates that the Modern System based purely on doctrine is not enough to explain victory and defeat in combat. Therefore the explanatory value of the system is related to methods of combat rather than written doctrine.

  • 5. Ahlgren, Patrik
    et al.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Wedin, Lars
    Jan Mörtberg: en besjälad uppdragstaktiker2016In: Uppdragstaktik på svenska: en vän- och debattbok tillägnad överste Jan Mörtberg / [ed] Patrik Ahlgren, Kjell Engelbrekt, Lars Wedin, Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2016, p. 141-147Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Ahlgren, Patrik
    et al.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Wedin, Lars
    Slutsatser och utblick2016In: Uppdragstaktik på svenska: en vän- och debattbok tillägnad överste Jan Mörtber / [ed] Patrik Ahlgren, Kjell Engelbrekt, Lars Wedin, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2016, p. 132-140Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Ahlgren, Patrik
    et al.
    Engelbrekt, KjellSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.Wedin, Lars
    Uppdragstaktik på svenska: en vän- och debattbok tillägnad överste Jan Mörtberg2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är tillägnad ett begrepp som alla officerare som genomgått utbildning i Sverige känner väl, men trots allt kanske inte alltid fått riktigt grepp om. Uppdragstaktik omnämns i en rad olika sammanhang inom den svenska Försvarsmakten och förväntas vara vägledande för hur militära insatser leds, och samtidigt har sammanhangen inom vilka det begagnas i viktiga avseenden omvandlats genom organisatoriska och teknologiska förändringar. Vad innebär uppdragstaktik idag, givet historiska erfarenheter men också dessa betydelsefulla förändringar samt i relation till relevanta försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska utmaningar?

  • 8.
    Ahlstrand, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operation Deadstick: Brittisk framgång2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the invasion of Normandy in 1944 a reinforced company from the British 6th Airborne Division conducted a special operation with the purpose to capture intact two road bridges. By capturing the two bridges the British force had the task to protect the 3rd Division landing on Sword Beach. The operation was achieved in ten minutes and with low losses from the British force. How was it possible that a reinforced company could achieve success during a gliderassault against a prepared and heavily defended German force?

    The purpose of this thesis is to explain what made Operation Deadstick a successful mission. To analyze this William H. McRaven´s three principles simplicity, repetition and surprise and Stephan Biddles`s theory of the modern system will be used in a case study.

    The findings shows that McRavens principles can explain how the British force could succeed in the assault by the principle of simplicity thru the good intelligence and by the principle of repetition when comprehensive exercise was conducted. Biddle´s theory on the modern system can also to some extent explain how the British force could succeed in the assault by using tactical methods to seize the two bridges.

  • 9.
    Alenlöv, Pontus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmakt i Adenviken2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How airpower should be utilized for best effect in counterinsurgency operations is widely debated. According to David Jordan the most important contribution of airpower abilities in these situations is through assisting roles. Such as providing enhanced mobility, better observation and a third category including the importance of presence, harassment and the delivery of direct force.

    This thesis aims to investigate if those abilities proves to be a significant contribution to a modern counterinsurgency in accordance with a theoretical framework based on papers written by Jordan and Derek Read. It does so through a case study research on operation Atalanta.

    The result of the study indicates that airpower did support the operation in a way that was critical for success in deterring pirate attacks. The most prominent attributes are those of the third category: presence, harassment and the delivery of direct force. The second category was vital as well, the use of airpower provided the operation with intelligence and information through its capability for observation. There is not, however, enough material to completely support the theoretical framework that airpower was crucial in enhancing the operations mobility in operation Atalanta. 

  • 10.
    Algebäck, Pontus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmaktsteori i cyberrymden: En fallstudie av Wardens teori på cyberattacken Stuxnet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    John A. Warden III is renowned as one of the theorists closest to devising a new paradigm in air power. His praised theory about the enemy as a system has showed applicable on terrorist organizations amongst other areas.

    The most recent developed domain for warfare is the so-called “cyberspace”. There is an on-going debate concerning the importance and definition of this domain and furthermore what potential and challenges it withholds as a future arena for warfare. Some claims that a cyberattack can’t be seen as an act of war due to its lack of physical violence.

    Previous research show however a lack in application of theories within this domain. This thesis therefore aims to examine to which extent Warden’s theory of the enemy as a system could be applied to the cyberattack known as Stuxnet.

    Results show that Warden’s theory have some applicatory power on the cyberattack Stuxnet, although primarily in an indirect aspect. This study therefore shows an ability concerning the theory’s applicatory power on other areas than air power.

    The findings of the research regarding previous arguments about cyberwar also states that a cyberattack now could be seen as physical violent.

  • 11.
    Allerman, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigföringens grundprinciper i nutida marina insatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay starts out in the problems that have risen involving military science and modern warfare. The principles of war were selected as the topic of research and through a discussion the thesis question was set out to be:

    Which differences can be found between the theoretical explanations of the principles of war and the application that is made within the Swedish surface warfare system today?

     Limitations were set to be the Swedish surface warfare system, peacekeeping operations, and the operational and tactical levels of warfare. Since academics argue which the “real” principles of war are, this essay defined them as the ones found in the Swedish Maritime Operational Doctrine. These principles are: define an objective and stand true to it, good morale, offensive action, security, surprise, organization, concentration of forces, economy of force, tactical adaptation and organisation.

    Through a qualitative method, including the techniques interviews and literature studies, the essay formed a basis for theory and empirics. A critical discussion concerning sources, as well as the terms validity and generalisability, concluded the method chapter. The theory chapter presented the theoretical picture of the selected principles from the selected literature. Following chapter provided a historical example and the modern views of each principle.

    Through a discussion, five of the ten principles were accepted as applicable today. The other five, define an objective and stand true to it, offensive action, concentration of force, surprise, and security were determined to differ, each in its own way, from theory. Hence, a further study upon the subject was suggested to investigate the same topic on alternate arena as well as a closer look upon the four differing principles.

  • 12.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Negative organizations: antecedents of negative leadership2016In: Negative leadership: International perspecetives / [ed] Daniel Watola & Dave Woycheshin, Kingston, Kanada: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2016, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Krekula, Clary
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Faculty of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Managing visibility and differentiating in recruitment of women as leaders in the armed forces2018In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 534-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment is one of the Swedish Armed Forces’ (SAF) main challenges today. Recruiting more women into the organization is one of the organization’s aims, as well as providing them with more opportunities for career development. The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of how female military officers perceive barriers and advantages on their way to higher leadership positions. A total of 10 women from a variety of backgrounds and positions in the armed forces were interviewed. Their ranks ranged from Captain to Colonel and they represented army, naval units and air force. The interviews were analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main themes: Supporting visibility of women as leaders and differentiation of women as leaders. The former concerns positive strategies on an individual and organizational level that support an increase in the number of female leaders in the SAF, and is a way of responding to political incitements and the SAF’s fundamental values. The second concerns ways how women are portrayed as different and divergent from the male standard. The suggested model may be valuable in recruitment, educational settings and leader development of high-level military officers from a gender perspective.

  • 14.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Höga chefers arbetstillfredsställelse: sammanfattning av en intervjustudie2016Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Negativa organisatoriska processer och chefers formella och informella hanteringsstrategier2016Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Becoming a Swedish military ranger: a grounded theory study2016In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 34-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The armed forces in virtually all countries are traditionally male-dominated organisations. Military rangers constitute an elite unit whose chief skills and capabilities centre on unconventional warfare and intelligence gathering in enemy territory, as well as conducting low-intensity warfare. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the process of becoming a military ranger and what it means to be one in this context from a masculinity perspective. The study was carried out with informants from three military ranger units in Sweden: the Army’s ranger battalion, parachuting rangers from an airborne battalion and intelligence battalion, and coastal rangers. In total, 28 informants participated in the study. All of them were men. A qualitative analysis resulted in a model where the core variable was labelled on becoming a ranger through reproducing masculinity as a form of emotional regime. This core variable is built up by three different strategies, each of which contains a number of actions: building social identity by means of coolness strategies, observing symbols and rituals to build a sense of pride and building cohesion to maintain group intimacy, and emotionally exclude the external environment

  • 17.
    Andersson, Bernt
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ytstridskrafternas utveckling mellan 1990 och 2010: Vilka drivkrafter har varit avgörande?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Andersson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Legitimitet inom ett COIN-perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay presentation of a problem proceed from a possible lack of training or knowledge about valid doctrines for Swedish units conducting service abroad. The essay have the goal to give a snapshoot picture of how a Swedish unit interpret the concept of legitimacy and how the unit works with different aspects to support this. Relating material and also the tool for conducting the analysis are gathered from a wide selection of science in counterinsurgency and also American doctrines.

    The paper assumes that the concept of legitimacy is important in theories surrounding counterinsurgency and also for the used American doctrine. The concept of legitimacy has been defined by three issues, Legitimacy for whom, Who will perceive what is legitimate? and Who generates legitimacy for what?

    The result shows that the Swedish unit in the examined example has a width of vision of the concept of legitimacy and linking it to both themselves as the state of the host country and that both the population in both the home and area of operation. The differences of what is in the paper are reported as COIN theory or the American doctrine is small. An important part is that the paper shows that the Swedish's unit primary definition of legitimacy in a COIN perspective, are the strengthening of the country's security organizations legitimacy versus its own population. This would differ from the above reported theory and doctrine.

  • 19.
    Andersson, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Krigets Atmosfär: Ett perspektiv på betydelsen av ovisshet i militära operationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is one part of what Clausewitz names the atmosphere of war, often referred to as the fog of war.  There are those who state that uncertainty are something that can be undone with better sensor systems, while there are those who state that uncertainty imbue all military operations.

    In this study uncertainty in a specific case will be illuminated, with the purpose to render a discussion possible about how uncertainty can be expressed in military operations. The study is based on a case study contains parts of the Japanese invasion of Malaya 1941. The case study is based on an analysis of two officer’s different view of the same campaign. The focus is to illuminate the uncertainty in their conceptions before and during the invasion. 

    The study resulted in that uncertainty was concretized and divided in to different shapes that had been discovered during the process. Finally uncertainty is discussed; in terms of how to approach to minimize negative impact, and, if it is possible to overcome as some suggest.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dynamisk operationsvärdering2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Operations assessment: focus on reality rather than the plan2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 2, article id 056Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since no plan survives contact with reality, during the execution of a military operation it might be necessary to re-plan the operation. In order to decide whether, and when, re-planning should be initiated a feedback process is needed that provides the commander with information about the progress of the operation, and an assessment of whether the operation is leading towards the overarching goals or not. The operations assessment process is part of such a feedback process.

    The current method (in e.g. NATO) operations assessment is focused on the accomplishment of planned actions and on the effects in the operational environment system. A data collection plan is established during development of the operational plan which specifies which and how data should be collected. Thus the “questions” the operations assessment process poses towards the environment are tightly connected to critical elements of the operational plan.

    If the plan, however, starts to become obsolete due to unforeseen changes in the operational environment, there might be a risk that the assessment process, grounded in the plan, neglects information that is critical for decisions about re-planning. This paper suggests an alternative approach to operations assessment that is based on an idea of separating the operations assessment plan from the operational plan. Such a separation would focus the assessment process on the evolving operational environment, thus reducing the risk that unanticipated threats, or opportunities, will be overlooked and re-planning is overdue.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-20152016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Utvärdering av MSB Operativt beslutsstöd, ver 0.7: - Upplevd användbarhet i ett aktörsinternt scenario med oerfarna användare - Kompatibilitet med Försvarsmaktens Svensk planerings- och ledningsmetod2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som komplement till Gemensamma grunder för samverkan och ledning vid samhällsstörningar har MSB tagit fram ett beslutsstöd, Operativt beslutsstöd, som är tänkt att hjälpa beslutsfattare att besluta hur resurser ska prioriteras vid samhällsstörningar. Beslutsstödet ska kunna användas av alla aktörer som bidrar till att hantera samhällsstörningar, både aktörsgemensamt och aktörsinternt, och är tänkt att kunna användas med eller utan kvalificerad operativ vana. Beslutsstödet är av typen checklista och består av fem huvudsteg, med tillhörande delfrågor. Rapporten redovisar en utvärdering av ett utkast till beslutsstödet (Operativt beslutsstöd, UTKAST version 0.7) med avseende på beslutsstödets lättillgänglighet och användbarhet, samt med avseende på beslutsstödets kompatibilitet med Försvarsmaktens motsvarighet. Rapporten riktar sig främst till de som deltar i utvecklingen av beslutsstödet.

    Beslutsstödets lättillgänglighet och användbarhet undersöktes genom att användare utan operativ vana eller utbildning i att använda stödet nyttjade stödet för att fatta beslut om prioriteringar i ett fiktivt scenario. Elva grupper om två eller tre studenter deltog i undersökningen. Deltagarna fick ange om de använde alla steg i stödet för att lösa uppgiften eller om de avvek från stödet i något fall och då om orsaken till detta. De skattade även olika aspekter av beslutsprocessen. Resultaten tyder på att beslutsstödet var såväl användbart som lättillgängligt.

    Beslutsstödets kompatibilitet med Försvarsmaktens motsvarighet på operativ nivå, Svensk planerings- och ledningsmetod (SPL) undersöktes genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra officerare med omfattande kunskap om SPL. Resultaten tyder på att beslutsstödet är kompatibelt med SPL.

    Förutom dessa huvudresultat framkom ett antal synpunkter och förbättringsförlag rörande beslutsstödet i dess nuvarande form. 

  • 24.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Krav och designkriterier gällande framtida ledningssystem2016Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Jonny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Understödjande förmågor vid specialoperationer: En studie av understödjande förmågors relativa betydelse för McRavens teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the relevance of enablers in special operations. How come, that the well-known and famous theory of special operations by Admiral William H. McRaven, doesn’t discuss the relevance of enablers in support of special operations?

    The purpose of this study is to tentatively investigate the connection of enablers to McRavens theory of direct action special operations. The investigation will be conducted through a case study of two prominent special operations; Operation Gunnerside and Operation Neptune Spear. Both operations exemplify a direct action special operation raid, but in a various time in history and context.

    The result of this study indicates, the relevance of supporting intelligence, mobility and command and control, to reinforce McRavens six principles of special operations. Further on, the study shows the direct influence of enablers, on key events, in relation to McRavens theory of relative superiority.   

  • 26.
    Andersson, Oskar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledarskap under organisationsförändring: Kultur och ledarskap under förändringsarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap och kultur är något som en chef under en förändring måste förstå och kunna arbeta med. Frågan är hur Försvarsmaktens modell utvecklande ledarskap kan användas under ett förändringsarbete? Slutsatser kan dras att det utvecklande ledarskapet som i stort grundar sig i medmänsklighet fungerar ypperligt att använda under en organisationsförändring.

    Försvarsmaktens organisationskultur är präglad av en lång historia och en stolthet hos personalen att arbeta inom organisationen. Hur denna kultur påverkas av en förändring är svårt att säga. Konklusionen av uppsatsen är att hela Försvarsmaktens kultur ej förändras, men kulturen kopplat till förändring blir negativt påverkad. Detta beroende på historiska aspekter av tidigare förändringar. 

  • 27.
    Andersson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in the Armed Forces and in Peace Keeping Operations – Implementation Progress in Sweden and Austria and a comparison of the two countries and their National Action Plans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the National Action Plans of Sweden and Austria concerning the UN adopted Resolution 1325 about Women, Peace and Security.

    The increase of the number of women in the armed forces has for a long time been a prioritised topic for the Swedish Armed Forces. This thesis investigates how the Swedish and the Austrian NAPs are dealing with this question.

    The NAPs are written with the purpose of making the implementation of Resolution 1325 easier and faster, in a national context. In this thesis, the parts concerning increasing the number of women in the armed forces and in peacekeeping operations are the ones investigated. A qualitative methodology is used in the thesis and a comparison is conducted between the National Action Plans to see what Sweden and Austria can learn from each other.

    The results show that the Austrian National Action Plan does not consist of any particular part that concerns how to make more women work in the armed forces. However, there is a section concerning the importance of raising the number of women in peacekeeping operations. This section is within the Swedish National Action Plan as is the part which is concerned with having more women employed in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The Austrian National Action Plan would benefit if how to get a higher per cent of women in the armed forces was included. It is a prioritised topic in Austria, as well as in Sweden, to increase the number of women in the armed forces. This is also an issue that goes hand in hand with the implementation of Resolution 1325, which makes it an important element in the NAP.

    Key words: Resolution 1325, National Action Plan, Sweden, Austria, Gender, Implementing Resolution 1325, Swedish Armed Forces, Austrian Armed Forces, Peacekeeping Operations, increasing women in armed forces.

     

  • 28.
    Antonson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Comprehensive Approach: Civil-militär filosofi eller allsidigt strategiskt koncept?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från de senaste årens komplexa konflikter har bidragit till insikten att separata militära insatser ofta är otillräckliga för att skapa fred. Comprehensive Approach ses av många som ett koncept med målsättningen att skapa en integrerad civil-militär ansats för konfliktlösning. Konceptets innebörd är emellertid oklar. Dessutom är det problematiskt att empiriskt belägga att användandet av konceptet leder till framgång, vilket medför svårigheter att granska dess värde.

    Uppsatsen utnyttjar Michael Howards teori om strategins dimensioner för att analysera Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept. Som metod används en kvalitativ textanalys av systematiserande typ. Utifrån analysen identifieras styrkor och svagheter med konceptet, vilket medför att huvudfrågan vad Storbritanniens syn på Comprehensive Approach innebär och vilket värde Comprehensive Approach har som strategiskt koncept besvaras. Svaret bidrar till ökad kunskap och förståelse för Comprehensive Approach, vilket är uppsatsens syfte.

    Resultatet visar att Storbritannien ser Comprehensive Approach som ett strategiskt koncept som kräver integrerade civil-militära strukturer för att fungera på ett bra sätt. Samtliga Howards dimensioner återfinns, och att ingen dimension överfokuseras är utifrån teorin en styrka. Värdet på Comprehensive Approach som strategiskt koncept kan samtidigt ifrågasättas främst på grund av att det mestadels uttrycks vad som bör uppnås, men däremot sällan beskrivs hur det ska genomföras. Uppsatsen påvisar även svårigheterna att samordna och koordinera aktörer mot ett gemensamt mål i en multinationell miljö, när incitament för samordning saknas.

  • 29.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Faktorer som påverkar en militär exit2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Appelkvist, Per
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Gav modern COIN-doktrin framgång redan vid försvenskandet av Skånelandskapen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för ISAF genomförs nu en massiv utbildningsinsats i counterinsurgency, detta för att den nya strategin som tillämpas skall få stort genomslag. Den doktrin som används vid utbildning och vid genomförande är den amerikanska FM 3-24. Den bygger på flera andra doktriner, men är som egen helhet ny och relativt oprövad.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om faktorer i doktrinens operationslinjer bidrar till framgång. Detta görs genom att besvara frågan: I vilken utsträckning var det faktorer som framgår av FM 3-24 ”logiska operationslinjer” som gav framgång vid försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen?

    Designen för undersökningen är en fallstudie, där operationslinjerna i doktrinen har översatts och operationaliserats och sedan jämförts med ett urval av litteratur om försvenskningen av Skånelandskapen.

    Resultatet stödjer att utifrån detta enskilda fall leder användandet av FM 3-24 operationslinjer till ökad sannolikhet för framgång. Vilket ger en ökad legitimitet i doktrinens nyttjande. Uppsatsen har även ett underliggande syfte, att påvisa att det finns svenskt nationellt exempel på COIN.

  • 31.
    Arby, Nathaniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur utvecklas den svenska minröjningsfunktionen inom marinen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this essay is to examine the development of the Swedish mine warfare branch both tactical and technical and how these two components are combined to maximize the effect. The essay also analyses the midlife upgrade of the MCMV Landsort class towards the MCMV Koster class.

    This essay will describe on the basis of the Swedish doctrines and mine warfare textbooks how the naval tactics and technology function as a foundation for development of new means in the duel against the sea mine.

    The sea mine is a weapon system that has been used during several centuries and has sunk more tonnage than all other weapon systems together. As long as there have been sea mines, there has also existed its counterpart, the mine counter measures.

    The Swedish MCMV’s technological and tactical developments strive towards fulfilling the six mandatory functions in warfare, command, effect, protection, mobility, intelligence and endurance. The modern MCMV develops toward a more secure and efficient unit.

  • 32.
    Aringer, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring, en militärteoretisk revolution?: En granskning av den begreppsteoretiska diskussionen och fallet Rysslands intervention i Ukraina och på Krim2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The previous definitions of war have become outdated and several theories claim their place  in the theoretical debate of the future wars. One of them, Hybrid Warfare have had a great impact   and are now being incorporated into doctrine by several nations and military organizations, even though the theory is criticized. This thesis aims to clarify the discussion surrounding this theory and at the same time make a contribution to the theoretical debate. By extracting key signatures of Hybrid Warfare and testing them on the Russian intervention in the Ukraine and the Crimea the thesis seeks to answer if this conflict really is a case of Hybrid Warfare, as it is portrayed.  The theoretical debate is the main focus of the thesis and the case study of the Ukraine concludes     that evidence within the conflict categorizes it as a case of Hoffman´s Hybrid Warfare. The later chapters argue that these findings strengthen the debate in favour of Hoffman´s theory and ads another empirical factor to the discussion of the understanding of future conflict. Ended by thoughts of how the results can affect the future of the military profession. 

  • 33.
    Arnesson, Emanuel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kraftsamling vid ubåtsattacker: En teoriprövande fallstudie på ubåtsattacker under andra världskriget2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many theorists have discussed the question of the fundamental principles of warfare. But the importance of the principle of concentration of force for warfare is controversial and the theories about the principle are too general to say something about the reality. So what is required to achieve success with a concentration of force?

    In order to answer this question, this essay deals with the basic principle of warfare on the concentration of force from recognized theorist, Carl von Clausewitz, Sir B.H. Liddell Hart, John M. Collins and Milan Vego, in the context of submarine attacks. The study has a deductible theoretical research effort and the purpose is to identify and describe which variables that contribute to success in implementing a concentration of force and how they affect submarine attacks.

    To create a coherent image of the principle, the principle is measurable by identifying variables to achieve success with concentration of force. From the theories, the author identifies five variables: aggregate strength, spread, opponent knowledge, mobility and misleading. To investigate the principle, the variables are tested against two submarine attacks during World War II, which are known to be cases where the concentration of force was used.

    The result shows that during the two attacks only two variables, combined strength and spread were identified. During the attack on the HX 229/SC 122 convoys, which from the attacking party are considered a successful concentration of force, all variables were identified. However, the attack on the SC 130 convoy was considered as a failed concentration of force, since only two variables were identified. 

  • 34.
    Aronsson, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU:s och Sveriges säkerhetsstrategier: studier av EU-ledda svenska insatser i Afrika 2006-20092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how The EU Security Strategy affected the objectives of Swedish foreign politics before launching military operations in The Democratic Republic of Congo 2006, Chad/Central African Republic 2008 and in Somalia 2009. The intentions and goals of foreign politics determine Governmental bills and the objectives for the military operations that are sent overseas. These objectives are to serve as guidelines for the realization of the operations.

    This was the basis of the overall problem for my study which asks: How have security policies based on EU reasoning of Security Strategies affected the Swedish national motives for military operations commanded by the EU in Africa 2006-2009? Can they be identified and explained in the Governmental bills from the same era?

    The document, A secure Europe in a better world ­ European Security Strategy, (2003) is used in the case study to identify the objectives and to compare how these have been implemented in the Swedish governmental bills before the initiation of the EU commanded military operations. This was achieved by using qualitative text analysis and a deductive method to analyse foreign policies with an analysis tool, divided into security, welfare of the state and ideological objectives.

    The outcome of the study identified that the motives for the Governmental bills were permeated by EU’s overall objectives. In the Governmental bills, it was identified that there was generally a lack of the sharpness that the EU policy stands for, regarding being active, preventive and resolute. In order to achieve more effectiveness in the welfare of the state objectives, the EU considers this objective ought to be integrated into all resources as well as into civil and military integration. Additionally, this integration was not emphasized in explicit terms in the examined bills. The main and most prioritised outcome was to consider Human Rights, which resulted in high ranking publicity for the EU and Sweden in the outcome of the operations, both regionally and strategically.

  • 35.
    Atterland, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Understödjande infanteri: En organisatorisk tillgång eller belastning för ett specialförbandssystem?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband nyttjas allt mer i dagens konflikter och det organisatoriska innehållet i specialförbandssystem skiljer sig åt, där vissa länder har utökat sitt system med lätt infanteri i en understödjande roll. Detta skapar ett behov för Sverige att analysera andras erfarenheter avseende nyttjande av understödjande infanteriet.

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med ökad förståelse avseende de för- och nackdelar som uppkommer på taktisk nivå när understödjande infanteri nyttjas vid specialoperationer.

    Denna studie använder ett teoretiskt analysramverk bestående av McRavens teori och de principer han har utvecklat kring specialoperationer.

    Undersökningen visar sammanfattningsvis att understödjande infanteriet bidrar till en in-satsstyrkas samlade effekt och förmåga, samt att de möjliggör för kärnförbanden att lyckas med huvuduppgiften. Resultatet i en specialoperation påverkas genom samtliga prestationer av den personal och de förbandsenheter som ingår i specialoperationen.

  • 36.
    Atterland, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UPPROR I FÖRORTEN?– EN HOTFÖRSTÅELSE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 9: Teori och metod2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet militärteknik utgår från att tekniska system är officerens arbetsredskap och att en förståelse för och kunskap om dessa verktyg är central för att kunna utöva professionen framgångsrikt. Denna nionde volym av Lärobok i Militärteknik, benämnd Teori och Metod, behandlar centrala begrepp, teorier och postulat samt metoder för värdering av teknik och består av ett antal texter författade av 16 forskare och lärare vid den militärtekniska avdelningen. Volymen riktar sig främst till de som inlett sin officersutbildning och utgörs till stora delar av ett kompilat av publicerade och opublicerade militärtekniska texter och kan sägas utgöra militärteknikens ”state of the art”.

  • 38.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Adenfelt, Maria
    FOI.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    FOI.
    Utvärdering av Försvarsmaktens materielförsörjningsstrategi2011Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    FOI.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    FOI.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    FOI.
    Industristrategier för en osäker framtid - scenarioplanering för försvarsindustri i Sverige2002Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Khan, Malek
    FOI.
    Olofsson, Mats
    AMOLO Consulting.
    Förutsättningar för snabb anpassning av försvarsmateriel2014Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Axenfjord, Tobias
    Swedish Defence University.
    Flexibilitet vid specialoperationer: En förmåga som kan skapas för att hantera det okända?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Baade, Hans Petter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Acquiring Deterrence: Defence Procurements’ Role in Deterrence2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A major Norwegian defence procurement project takes decades from project initiation to the desired military capability is delivered and has reached full operational capability. The Norwegian Armed Forces’ primary mission is to maintain a credible deterrence and prevent armed conflicts arising, meaning that the capability acquired through military procurement projects must play into future general deterrence. Do Norway’s strategic military capability procurement projects contribute to a credible and capable deterrence?

    The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the deterrence potential of two chosen Norwegian military procurement projects of strategic importance. The capabilities studied are the acquisition of the US fifth generation fighter, F-35 Lightning II and the 212CD submarine to be designed and built by Germany. The two projects have a combined estimated investment cost of 113 billion NOK.

    Deterrence is a large area in social science and the discipline of War Studies. This study applies a deterrence theory lens, primarily based on the conclusion in Zagare’s and Kilgour’s perfect deterrence theory regarding the importance of capable and credible threats, operationalised through Dalsjö’s five dimensions of threshold defence.

    The analysis identifies a clear credibility issue with one of the projects and the paradox that cost saving decisions intended to ensure operational availability and increase credibility also make the capability more vulnerable and less credible due to lack of redundancy.

  • 43. Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik (Dov)
    et al.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Eyes Wide Shut: How Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Exposes and Exploits Western Vulnerabilities2017In: Georgetown journal of international affairs, ISSN 0315-0941, E-ISSN 2049-6060, no January 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Russian National Security Strategy aims to achieve autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law, and global trade. By applying a holistic mix of military, political, and economic means to weaken the West, Russia is working hard to strengthen its own role as a global player. Militarily, Russia makes good use of Hybrid War against its Western neighbors, as seen in its intervention in Syria and in its efforts to undermine NATO and the EU.

  • 44.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemoth University, Storbritannien.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid wars: the 21st-centrury's new threats to global peace and security2015In: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2309-9682, E-ISSN 2224-0020, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses a new form of war, ‘Hybrid War’, under inclusion of aspects of ‘cyber-terrorism’ and ‘cyber – war’ before the backdrop of Russia’s ‘Ukrainian Spring’ and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It discusses the findings of an on-going Hybrid Threat project by the Swedish National Defence College. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional approaches to war and peace and its perceptions will have to change in the future.

  • 45.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemouth University.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security2014In: Journal on terrorism and security analysis, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Karl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svenskt offensivt agerande: En enfallstudie av den svenska insatsen i Afghanistan 2009–20122018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case-study examines the Swedish armed forces in Afghanistan between 2009 and 2012. The aim of this study is to explore how it comes that an organization that is promoting security and stabilizing operations in a post conflict setting in northern Afghanistan gaudily turns in to an aggressive fighting force. The analytic framework is based on Theo Farrells theory of military adaption as well as Lauren Wilcox’s theory of the role of gender as an explanation of military organisations offensive bias. The results show that the Swedish behaviour should be understood as a combination of adaption to demands form allied forces, a result of pollical will to achieve national political goals and a strong offensive bias.

  • 47.
    Baehrendtz, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur används stridsflyget i Afghanistan?: Och tillämpas de lärdomar som Corum och Johnson har dragit avseende användandet av luftmakt inom irreguljära konflikter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 7 oktober 2001 startade kriget i Afghanistan, en konflikt som idag har pågått i nästan 12 år. Målet med operationen var att driva den talibanska ledningen från makten, samt att tillfångata Usama bin Ladin och andra ledare inom al-Qaida och därmed få ett slut på den säkra tillflyktsort som al-Qaida och andra terroristgrupper haft i Afghanistan.

    Corum och Johnson är två militärteoretiker som har forskat inom användandet av luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Dessa två har i sin bok Airpower in Small Wars formulerat 11 lärdomar som de anser att man bör ha i beaktning då man använder luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Fem av dessa lärdomar går att applicera direkt vid en analys på stridsflygsfunktionen, medan de andra sex behandlar områden som strategi, lufttransport och utbildning.

    I analysen framkommer det att vissa av dessa fem lärdomar går till stor del att skönja i hur stridsflyget har använts i kriget i Afghanistan, medan andra har tillämpats i mindre omfattning. De två punkter där utvecklingspotentialen bedöms vara hög avseende nyttjandet av stridsflyget är inom Undvika civila offer samt Använda markmålsoperationer vid konventionell krigföring. De tre andra lärdomar som har använts i analysen; Viktig roll för tekniskt avancerade flygsystem och vapen, Väl tillämpad jointförmåga samt Irreguljära krig är underrättelseintensiva ser man användas i större utsträckning, dock med visst utrymme för förbättring även här.

  • 48.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 49.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 50.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Observing Sensemaking in C2: Performance Assessment in Multi-Organizational Crisis Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016, Vol. Command and Control Studies, article id 1385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crisis can involve multiple organizations during high pressure events, and it is up to the Command & Control (C2) unit to provide direction and coordination for the response (Brehmer, 2006). Hard as this problem is, there is still no ‘one-solution’. Dissimilar organizations with very different methods seem to be able to master the problem. This paper presents the initial development of a new evaluation method for C2 in the context of multi-organizational crisis response. The data is collected at an emergency water exercise series conducted in several cities in Sweden. Each exercise involves multiple agencies and organizations, with up to 76 participants from 15 unique organizations/units. The analysis is brief, but presents the possibility of observing Sensemaking as it unfolds, and that generic behavioral patterns can be found. The existence of generic and observable behavior patterns suggests the possibility of assessing, and maybe even quantifying, Sensemaking performance in C2.

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