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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Carl-Christer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utveckling av Grupp och Ledare: En intervjustudie av kursen UGL2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Försvarsmakten och civila företag utbildas chefer som förväntas kunna leda andra i strid eller civilt. Ledarskap är otroligt viktigt i Försvarsmakten. En stor del av Försvarsmakten består av just ledarskap. En av åtskilliga kurser som används i detta ämne är utveckling av grupp och ledare (UGL). Kursens innehåll kan lätt kopplas mot teorin utvecklande ledarskap som handlar om vad UGL vill uppnå. Kursen baserar sigäven på pedagogik hämtad från FIRO-teorin. Det har dock inte forskats så mycket om huruvida utbildningen har gett någon effekt inom ämnet ledarskap.

    Detta arbete ämnar undersöka om kursdeltagarna upplevt att kursen UGL är utvecklande i den form den är tänkt samt är användbar för personal inom Försvarsmakten. I vilken utsträckning har kursdeltagarna upplevt att UGL utvecklat dem mot de kursmål som ställts upp?

    En intervjustudie gjordes som påvisar hur och om kursdeltagarna uppfattar att deutvecklats i de olika delmål kursen har. Processen utgår från en kvalitativ intervjustudie av kursdeltagare som gått kursen tillsammans under samma tidsperiod samt arbetar inom samma område.

    Resultatet av detta arbete visar att kursen ger en utveckling hos kursdeltagarna i deflesta målsättningar som satts upp för kursen. Vissa av målsättningarna blir indirekt berörda genom utveckling av huvuddelen av målsättningarna. Detta tyder på att kursen kan vara lämplig att använda sig av även i fortsättningen inom försvarsmakten.

  • 2.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rigas, Georgios
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Complexity: The Dark Side of Network-Centric Warfare2014In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military theoretical considerations suggest that a networked command and control architecture will provide a more effective form of command and control under complex operations that demand a high tempo of action. This article presents an experimental study with the purpose to examine team performance under different conditions of command and control architectures and their resilience to complexity. The experiment was performed with the task to extinguish simulated fires in a microworld. Three factors were varied in the experiment: command and control architecture, the number of simulated units, and tempo. The dependent variable was the number of lost cells in the microworld. Three command and control architectures were investigated; command by negation, directive command, and a control condition. The general conclusion from this experiment was that all command and control architectures performed equally poorly under the condition of many subordinate units and fast tempo. This was in contradiction to suggestions made in the military theoretical literature. Command by negation was presumably the more effective command and control architecture under the other conditions.

  • 3.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Cyber Security in Tactical Network Infrastructure for Command and Control2014In: Network Topology in Command and Control: Organization, Operation, and Evolution / [ed] T. J. Grant, R. H. P. Janssen, H. Monsuur, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging information and communications technology has had significant importance for military operations during the last decades. Development within such technology areas as sensors, computers, and wireless communications has allowed for faster and more efficient collection, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, and distribution of data. This has led to new and improved military capabilities within command and control, intelligence, targeting, and logistics. However, the increased complexity and interdependencies of networked systems, the continuously growing amounts of data, changing non-technical requirements, and evolving adversary threats makes upholding cyber security in command and control systems a challenging task. Although some best-practice approaches have been developed, finding good solutions for protecting critical infrastructure and important information assets is still an open research question requiring an interdisciplinary approach. This chapter describes recent developments within emerging network technology for command and control, and suggests focus areas where further research is needed in order to attain sufficient operational effect from the employed systems. While a gradual and evolutionary progress of military cyber security has been seen, a long-term commitment is required within such areas as procurement, standardization, training, doctrinal, and legal development, in order to achieve military utility of command and control systems.

  • 4.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Non-State Actors in Cyberspace Operations2013In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing importance of cyberspace to modern society, and its increasing use as an arena for dispute, is becoming a national security concern for governments and armed forces globally. The special characteristics of cyberspace, such as its asymmetric nature, the lack of attribution, the low cost of entry, the legal ambiguity, and its role as an efficient medium for protest, crime, espionage and military aggression, makes it an attractive domain for nation-states as well as non-state actors in cyber conflict.

    This paper studies the various non-state actors who coexist in cyberspace, examines their motives and incitements, and analyzes how and when their objectives coincide with those of nation-states. Literature suggests that many nations are currently pursuing cyberwarfare capabilities, oftentimes by leveraging criminal organizations and irregular forces. Employment of such non-state actors as hacktivists, patriot hackers, and cybermilitia in state-on-state cyberspace operations has also proved to be a usable model for conducting cyberattacks. The paper concludes that cyberspace is emerging as a new tool for state power that will likely reshape future warfare. However, due to the lack of concrete cyberwarfare experience, and the limited encounters of legitimate cyberattacks, it is hard to precisely assess future effects, risks and potentials.

  • 5.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Säkerhet i cybermiljön2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba utvecklingen inom IT-området under de senaste decennierna har haft stor betydelse för Försvarsmaktens verksamhet men har samtidigt även inneburit många nya möjligheter för det civila samhället. I synnerhet har framsteg inom sensorteknik, datateknik och kommunikationsteknik inneburit att man idag kan inhämta, överföra, lagra, och analysera stora mängder data på ett snabbare och mer effektivt sätt än tidigare. Detta har kommit till nytta inom bland annat system för ledningsstöd, stridsledning, underrättelsetjänst och logistik.

    På samma gång har dock komplexiteten, de inbördes systemberoendena och volymerna data som hanteras i informationssystemen ökat kraftigt. I kombination med att karaktären på Försvarsmaktens verksamhet medför särskilda krav på systemsäkerhet och skydd mot antagonistiska hot, är upprätthållandet av en tillräcklig säkerhetsnivå i cybermiljön en utmaning. Att kunna skydda viktiga informationstillgångar mot förekommande risker är samtidigt en nödvändighet för att den nya tekniken ska kunna bidra till militär nytta. Förmågan att kunna verka i cybermiljön måste utvecklas och regelbundet tränas i fredstid, för att denna ska kunna stå till förfogande vid behov.

    Försvarsmakten är på väg mot en högre grad av mognad och förståelse för cybermiljöns förutsättningar och krav. Det krävs dock ett kontinuerligt arbete inom flera områden för att cybermiljön och de system som ingår i denna ska bidra till en reell effekt. De aspekter som belyses i denna rapport bedöms vara av särskild vikt.

  • 6.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in monitoring tasks: guiding visual attention in command and control assessment2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, p. 1-18, article id 054Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many surveillance tasks in military command and control involve monitoring for change in a visual display environment in order to discover potential hazards or new opportunities. Effective change detection in various situational pictures is a requisite for battlespace understanding. The detection of unexpected events is particularly difficult and missed events may cause malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. We present examples of change detection failures in the military domain, and explain why and how the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness can generate such failures. We further give an overview of existing solutions to these problems and point out a specific issue, coping with unexpected events, where effective solutions are missing today. Inadequate expectations may be a result of misdirection by the enemy. This article demonstrates a new concept – an adaptive attention aware system (A3S) for enhanced change detection. The A3S is a concept of gentle support. It is based on cuing of visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in the display (bottom-up), to compensate for guidance by inadequate expectations (top-down) in situations influenced by high levels of uncertainty.

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