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  • 1.
    Agouridis, Tina
    Swedish Defence University.
    Prospects for Peace: Manwaring’s Paradigm and the case of Colombia2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative case study comparing the negotiations with FARC initiated by President Pastrana in 1998 and the peace talks initiated in 2012 by President Santos in order to test the robustness of Manwaring’s Paradigm.

  • 2.
    Amphan, Kevin
    Swedish Defence University.
    ASEAN, Sydkinesiska Havet och Säkerhetsgemenskap: En studie om säkerhetsintegrering inom ASEAN2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has attempted to answer why a stronger response isn’t seen from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the South China Sea when two of its member states are vocal claimants of islands in the sea. According to the theory of security communities created by Karl Deutsch, members of a security community should have the same perception of external threats and deal with threats against another member of the community as a threat to their own state and well-being. This is not the response we have seen from ASEAN, but instead a divided ASEAN has tried to organize various forums to create dialogue with China on implementing the 2002 Declaration of the code of conduct in the South China Sea (DOC) as well as creating a binding version of a Code of Conduct (COC). This weak and divided response to China's expansive claims in the South China Sea could be due to weak security integration within the organization.

    Through discourse analysis of statements by all ASEAN member states concerning the South China Sea I conclude that there has been an increased level of security integration within ASEAN, where member states now have started to define threats and values ​​equally. Still there exists a considerable wedge in the view of China as a threat, which stands in the way of full security integration and in turn this stands in the way for ASEAN to become a fully mature security community.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Helena
    Swedish Defence University.
    Barents hav: En studie i rysk och norsk strategi och marina styrkeförhållanden2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trettiofem mil från den svenska gränsen börjar havsgränsen genom Barents hav mellan Ryssland och Norge. Under kalla kriget var denna gräns en skiljelinje mellan öst och väst. En ökad arktisk klimatpåverkan och smältande havsisar leder till nya ekonomiskt värdefulla fyndigheter i området. Detta frigör nya havsområden för de arktiska länderna att exploatera. Ekonomiska intressen leder till ökad militär verksamhet.  

    Studien belyser det säkerhetspolitiska läget i Barents hav mellan de två största aktörerna i området, Norge och Ryssland. Ländernas olika förhållningssätt och ageranden i Barentsområdet beskrivs i ländernas arktiska strategier och utrikespolitiska linjer, som i studien jämförs med en kvalitativ textanalys. Utifrån detta görs en styrkeanalys av ländernas marina enheter. Syftet med studien är att belysa eventuella likheter och olikheter i ländernas strategier, samt att jämföra ländernas marina medel kopplat till respektive strategi. Detta för att undersöka om syftet med de marina medlen följer den uttalade politik som förs. 

    Resultatet visar att det finns många olikheter, men även många likheter mellan de två ländernas strategier. Likheterna framträder till största del i den civila och ekonomiska strategin och olikheterna främst i den militära. Enligt studien ligger tyngdpunkten i den norska marinen i fartyg av mindre storlek, trots marinens procentuellt sätt stora andel oceangående fartyg. Den ryska marinens tyngdpunkt ligger i ubåtsförmågan och främst i den strategiska. Utöver detta visar studien att de använda marina medlen enbart till viss del följer den politik som förs och att detta skulle kunna leda till konsekvenser för det politiska projektets genomförande.   

  • 4.
    Andersson, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kollektivt försvar i förändring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this academic essay is to increase the underlying understanding of the meaning of the article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. Article V is the formalisation of the collective defence within NATO, often referred as the security guarantee. Since the ratification of the treaty in 1949 has the actual meaning of the article V varied with reference to observer, context and actual period in time. The wordings of the fifth article have however always remained unchanged. The text of the treaty is particularly general worded which represents the essence of the issue; How has the meaning of article V changed from 1949 to 2009?

    In order to answer the question above, three theoretical perspectives are introduced in detail to improve the understanding and to analyse the history. The three selected perspectives are; the internal security guarantee, the external deterrence and the instrument of foreign policy. The empiric is thereafter processed to isolate the change of the meaning of the fifth article to the actors; the alliance, the member countries and the ones outside of the alliance.

    A coherent line of change for the meaning of the article V to the alliance is found where the starting point is the security guarantee. In the early 1950’s the meaning turns to deterrence and remains unchanged during the cold war until the end of bipolarity, thereafter followed by a more diffuse and uncertain meaning. More recently, however, two diverging lines are discovered. The first line of more recent members, in most cases border states, strive for the meaning of security guarantee covering the geographical area of the member states territories. The second line consists of more powerful member states where the instrument of foreign policy seems to be the desired meaning, and this to promote the alliance as an global security provider.

    The analysis also uncovers a repetitive pattern of behaviour in respect to the meaning of article V for new member states. This pattern of preference changing seems to be constant irrespective of time interval of the examined empiric.

  • 5.
    Andren, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division. Theresianische Militärakademie, Österrike.
    Sweden´s and Austria´s contribution to realising the EU Battlegroup Concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Helsinki Headline goals of 1999 the European Union has been trying to increase its military capability to conduct military operations abroad. The EU led operation Artemis in the Congo inspired the creation of the Battlegroup concept. The concept is intended to conduct military operations up to a distance of 6000 km from Brussels at short notice. The development of the Battlegroup differs between different member states, which have chosen different organisations. Bigger nations have better possibilities to contribute to the Battlegroup. Research indicates some nations prioritise the military aspect of the Battlegroup and other nations focus on the integration effect of cooperation. The new security challenges after the Cold War require new solutions by the old militaries and an answer to this problem is closer cooperation between European states.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compare Sweden´s and Austria´s contributions to realising the European Battlegroup Concept. These two countries represent two similar countries in regards to size and historic traditions and research surrounding these two countries has not been conducted earlier.

    The conclusion of the thesis shows big contributions from both countries since the start of the Battlegroup Concept in 2007. Austria began contributing to the Battlegroup later, but has developed its contribution during recent years. Sweden contributed early on to the development of the Battlegroup concept as a Framework Nation to the Nordic Battlegroup. Because of early work and bigger contributions Sweden has contributed more to realise the European Battlegroup Concept.

  • 6.
    Apel, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Guns n' roses: The Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Saudi agreement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I examine the decisions to sign and later terminate the so called Saudi agreement, a military memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Sweden and Saudi Arabia, understood as a gateway agreement for future arms deals as well as exchange of defense technology knowledge. Comparing statements from the Social Democratic Party (SAP), who held government both in 2005 when the agreement was signed as well as in 2015 when it was terminated unilaterally by Sweden, I examine the ideological preferences of Swedish foreign policy. Could the shift in policy be explained by ideology?

  • 7.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Agder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The EU and the growing number of complex security threats2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Niklas Nilsson, Lars Oxelheim, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Banck, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    För kung och fosterland?: En studie av invandrares incitament att söka sig till det militära2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces aim to reflect Swedish society, including its ethnical composition. Despite these ambitions and the fact that non-native Swedes are overrepresented among unemployed Swedes, recruitment is over all slow. Perhaps the Swedish Armed Forces know too little about what motivates this potential group of recruits? And perhaps the recruitment process is discriminating against non-native Swedes? This essay aims to answer what attracts foreign born citizens to join the military and what makes them stay in the service. The research methodology includes interviews and surveys of immigrants. The results of these interviews and surveys are subsequently analysed and viewed through the perspective of military sociologist Fabrizio Battistellis’ theory about soldiers' incentives. According to Battistelli, three types of incentives exist: the paleomodern, the modern and the postmodern. His own study, Peacekeeping and the Postmodern Soldier, determined Italian solders primarily enlisted for postmodern incentives. Swedish scholars has found that the same pattern applies to Swedish military personnel. But how about the non-native Swedes? This study shows that predominantly modern incentives attract non-native Swedes to join the military, and mainly paleomodern incentives make them stay within it.  However, while Swedish soldiers seem to be driven by postmodern incentives, immigrants are not influenced by these in any noticeable way. Instead the study’s results indicate that there are further categories of motives affecting the non-native Swedes, namely contextual and cultural incentives.

  • 9.
    Becker, Vincent
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framing in the time of Swine flu: policy success and policy fiasco in media frames of the Swedish handling of H1N1 in 20092016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the notion that the terms success and fiasco are often used, but seldom put into a context. By studying the Swedish handling of the Swine flu, or H1N1-outbreak in 2009, this brings two new notions into the research surrounding policy success and fiasco, namely framing theory and specialized media. An incremental dichotomy is proposed as for measuring success and fiasco within the media, then frames, found both deductively and through a mixed approach are sought after. This was done in national Swedish media as well as what this thesis calls specialized media, i.e. media that is focused on the health care industry. This lead to results pointing to frequent use of different perspectives, or reference objects when framing either success or fiasco. Another result is that of the ubiquitous relativity of the notions of success and fiasco, a relativity that needs further addressing.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Nicklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Avskräckande effekt hos defensiva luftstridskrafter: En motstridighet?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk doktrin stipulerar att grunden för Försvarsmaktens uppträdande att avskräcka olika aktörer från att använda våld. Detta ifrågasätts här grundat på att avskräckning oftast utgår ifrån numerär överlägsenhet, och Sverige kan anses ha en hotbild från regionala stormakter.

    Vilka luftoperativa förmågor kan då ligga bakom en avskräckande effekt hos en numerärt underlägsen luftstridskraft?  Syftet är att förklara detta genom en flerfallstudie utifrån avskräckningsteorier kopplade till luftmaktsteori i ett småstatsperspektiv. I en avslutande diskussion återkopplas detta mot Sveriges luftoperativa förmågor för att utröna om dessa bidrar till den avskräckande effekt som beskrivs som grundläggande i Försvarsmaktens doktrin.

    Fallstudien gav att Jaktflyg var den enda variabeln som sågs samvariera med lyckad avskräckning. I diskussionen om Sveriges motsvarande förmågor framkom att Försvarsmakten har en relativt hög förmåga till jaktflyg.

  • 11.
    Bernhardtz, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Frihet vs. Säkerhet i antiterrorismens fotspår2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Materielförsörjning av specialförband2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband ska tillföra handlingsalternativ som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Specialförband ska genomföra specialoperationer i hela kontinuumet mellan fred och krig med bred palett av förmågor. Detta ställer höga krav på en adekvat materielförsörjning som svarar mot de krav som ställs på specialförbanden. Trots detta är det lite forskat inom detta område.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att med utgångspunkt i McRavens specialförbandsteori och med stöd av strategiskt vald empiri inom materielförsörjning identifiera kriterier som bör beaktas vid materielförsörjning av specialförband. Resultatet är femton kriterier som är av vikt för en materielförsörjningsorganisation. Kriterierna klustrades i fyra grupper: personliga egenskaper, organisatoriska egenskaper, metodologiska egenskaper och materiella egenskaper. Det uppsatsen visar på som är mycket viktigt är de personliga egenskaperna, utan dessa kommer det vara svårt att uppnå de övriga kriterierna som identifierades.

  • 13.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 14. Brenner, Björn
    Egypt’s Policy on Islamism and Islamic Extremism: The punctuated equilibrium theory perspective on Egyptian policy change2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There can be many different approaches to the study of governments and their policies. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. One of the approaches would be a comparative case study which would give a clear frame of reference in relation to other states. In such a study it is possible to identify similarities and differences and relate the findings of one case to the findings of another. Such a study is useful but, because of the quantity of material, it might limit the depth of each case study. Comparative case studies are important, especially when no clear frame of reference is in place. In the case of states’ contemporary policy on Islamism, this frame is however already in place. Many of the theories of policy analysis emphasise extraordinary events as playing important roles in causing policy alterations. It is evident that for instance Nine Eleven led to changes in both western and eastern states’ stance towards Islamism. Knowing that, this thesis analyses whether any such events can be identified in the Egyptian context. Was Nine Eleven e.g. followed by a policy change in Egypt as well? Apart from the effect of extraordinary events, other causal factors are also illuminated. International relations, policy inheritance and the domestic situation can be mentioned as potentially interesting in further explaining policy stasis or change. This thesis aims at critically analysing the driving factors of the Egyptian state response to Islamism and Islamic extremism. In order to structure and systematise the data, the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PE) is applied as a tool of analysis. The thesis attempts to understand and explain policy change in President Mubarak’s Egypt by adapting a state-centric perspective and mainly using PE as a tool of analysis.

  • 15.
    Brenner, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Le Hamas et le monde2017In: Mediterranean Politics, ISSN 1362-9395, E-ISSN 1743-9418, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 311-314Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 16. Brenner, Björn
    Netwarriors: Mapping the positive assumptions of the Netwar concept in the case of al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya in Egypt2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom terrorismforskningen har flera teorier presenterats som förklaringar till varför och hur stater drabbas av terrorism. En stor del av diskursen handlar dock om ursprunget till terrorism och en betydligt mindre del om hur stater skall hantera detta problem. En av de förhållandevis få teoretiska slutsatser som föreslår hur stater bör agera och förhålla sig till terrorism är netwar-konceptet. Det är de positiva antagandena i detta större normativa teoretiska koncept som jag valt att undersöka närmare i uppsatsen. John Arquilla och David Ronfeldt, forskarna bakom netwar, hävdar att stater måste börja organisera sig på samma sätt som terroristgrupperna för att nå framgång i sin bekämpning av dem. De förordar ett nytt sätt för staten hur den bör betrakta dessa motståndare. Till grund för en normativ teori föreligger vanligtvis flera positiva teorier eller antaganden. Det normativa i denna teori, uttalandet om hur stater bör agera, underbyggs av positiva antaganden om hur verkligheten ser ut. För att någon längre fram skall kunna uttala sig om teorins rådgivande slutsatser, om hur det bör ske, behövs först en matchning av hur väl de positiva antagandena stämmer överens med verkligheten. I den positiva delen av teorin beskriver Arquilla och Ronfeldt teoretiskt hur terroristgrupper, netwarriors, är uppbyggda och fungerar. Forskarna bakom netwar-konceptet ställer det relativt kontroversiella anspråket att teorin passar all sorts terrorism. Genom att kartlägga hur väl den teoretiska beskrivningen av en netwarrior passar på en slags terrorismgrupp vill jag försöka komma fram till huruvida teorins normativa del kan anses ha väl underbyggda antaganden.

  • 17.
    Brenner, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Recension av "Palestinian Ethnonationalism in Israel"2015In: Mediterranean Politics, ISSN 1362-9395, E-ISSN 1743-9418, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 453-455Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conclusions: The Willing, the Cautious, and the Ambivalent2016In: European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, p. 177-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Continuity or change?: British Strategic Culture and International Military Operations2016In: European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, p. 151-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    "Den svenska modellen" för försvarsmaterielanskaffning: från korporativism till privatoffentligt partnerskap2006In: Privatoffentliga partnerskap: styrning utan hierarkier och tvång? / [ed] Mörth, Ulrika & Sahlin-Andersson, Kerstin, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Europeanization of Defence Industry Policy in the 1990s2008Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Fransk och svensk försvarsindustripolik: likheter och olikheter i utvecklingen mot en europeisk försvarsindustripolitik2009In: Quatre siècles de coopération militaire franco-suédoise = Svenskt-franskt militärt samarbete under fyra sekler: actes des journées d'études franco-suédoises organisées à Stockholm les 25 et 26 octobre 2005 et à Vincennes les 7 et 8 décembre 2006 = svenskt-franskt seminarium organiserad i Stockholm 25 och 26 oktober 2005 och i Vincennes 7 och 8 december 2006 / [ed] Gunnar Åselius och Valérie Caniart, Vincennes / Stockholm: Service historique de la Défense / Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 169-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Från civilförsvar till (utrikes)politik?2010In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Engelbrekt, Kjell & Ångström, Jan, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Military non-alignment, political solidarity, and a retreat to territorial defence: how to undertand the Swedish NATO-debate2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Britz, Malena
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Europeanization of Defence Industry Policy2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The EU's view on Security Sector Reform2011In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union's Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus & Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Britz, Malena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    The Role of Marketization in the Europeanization of Defense Industry Policy2010In: Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, ISSN 0270-4676, E-ISSN 1552-4183, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European integration has increased to encompass security-related policies. One such policy is defense industry policy, which traditionally has been a national concern rooted in defense and security policy. Efforts have been made since the 1990s to create a European defense industry market. However, there have been different ideas of how this goal should be achieved or which model for state–industry relations the market should rest on. Using Sweden to illustrate the development, this article argues that for the Europeanization of defense industry policy, marketization has played a vital role. Building on official documents and interviews, the article analyzes the efforts to create a European defense industry market, marketization of Swedish defense industry policy, and the increased interaction between Swedish and European defense industry policy processes. The analysis also shows domestic challenges that the processes of Europeanization and marketization have brought about.

  • 28.
    Britz, Malena
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Eriksson, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Analyzing EU's shared strategy2008In: The European Union and Strategy: an Emerging Actor / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt och Jan Hallenberg, London och New York: Routledge , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Britz, Malena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Lärarrollen: att utbilda på vetenskaplig grund2016In: Att forska: praktiker och roller inom samhällsvetenskapen / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg, Arita Holmberg, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, p. 206-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Brus, Adam
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Submarine Diplomacy2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Submarine service was established to perform covert operations.  Despite its clandestine nature the submarine service is used in the extrovert field of maritime diplomacy. An example of if this is, the participation of submarine forces in the RIMPAC which are multinational and goodwill visits to port. This study aims to identify the methods with which the submarine services can interact with the field of maritime diplomacy, the extent these methods are used and what role the submarine service adopts in maritime diplomacy.

     

    To answer these questions through a qualitative analysis of the theories on maritime diplomacy presented by Christian La Mière and James Cable that identify variables in forms of methods that fulfill diplomatic purposes. These variables are used as a tool for empirical data collection for a quantitative result presented in a table. A qualitative analysis and comparison of similarities and differences in the general usage of the submarine service is employed in the context of maritime diplomacy. 

     

    The analysis shows six variables, in which submarine services can interact within the field of maritime diplomacy; Good will visits, Personnel exchanges, multinational exercises, multinational operations, capability to deliver payload to keel bound targets and capability to deliver payload on ground based targets.  The results show that each of these variables have to some extent been used historically. Further analysis of the result concludes that the submarine service does not have a highly-visible role in maritime diplomacy. Contrary to this it is limited because of its limited applications as a multirole vessel and the extensive cost of maintenance which further concentrate the capabilities of the submarine service.

  • 31.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Center of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science.
    Crisis Decision Making and Management2017In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior / [ed] Fathali M. Moghaddam, London: Sage Publications, 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis management studies is a research area that analyzes how public and private actors respond to events that threaten individuals and society. There are many organizational and societal processes that enter this empirical space, and several social science disciplines have contributed to the development of this research area, such as sociology, political science, psychology, public administration, and international relations. A core question when studying the management of crises will always be: What characterizes high-stakes decisions made under pressing circumstances? When starting to answer this question, we need an understanding of both psychological and institutional forces that surround the situation in order to see the individual decision maker in context.

  • 32.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Nationalism and Politics: The Political Behavior of Nation States2002In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 231-232Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Poland and the Czech Republic: New Members Torn between the EU and NATO2006In: Changing Transatlantic Security Relations: do the U.S., the EU, and Russia form a new strategic triangle? / [ed] Hallenberg, Jan; Karlsson, Håkan, London: Routledge, 2006, 1, p. 145-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The 1982 Swedish Hårsfjärden Submarine Incident: A Decision-Making Analysis1998In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 367-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Rise and Fall of the Submarine Threat: Threat Politics and Submarine Intrusions in Sweden 1980-20022003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ukrainian Security Identity and Relation to NATO2011In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus; Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, 1, p. 75-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Value Conflicts in Foreign Policy Crises: How the U.S. and the U.K. wrestled with the Ethical Dilemma of Going to War in Iraq2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Svedin, Lina, Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing, 2011, 1, p. 154-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Uutrecht university.
    The Politics of Party Leader Survival and Succession: Australia in Comparative Perspective2007In: Australian Journal of Political Science, ISSN 1036-1146, E-ISSN 1363-030X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 47-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Uutrecht university.
    When Power Changes Hands: The PoliticalPsychology of Leadership Succession in Democracies2006In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 707-729Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Uutrecht university.
    Brändström, Annika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Governing by Looking Back: Analogies and Contemporary Crisis Management2004In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 191-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Carne, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hybridkrigföring- allt eller inget?: En militärteoretisk studie av begreppet hybridkrigföring2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Fjärran, så nära: en jämförelse mellan dansk och svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik2012In: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: Nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson, Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Strategic Surprise in the Ukraine Crisis: Agendas, expectations and organizational dynamics in the EU Eastern Partnership until the annexation of Crimea 20142014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the problem of how to understand and explain strategic surprise in relation to the crisis in Ukraine 2013-2014. It describes the events that triggered surprise and identifies the EU Vilnius Summit, the Maidan square massacre and the annexation of Crimea as focus points. Using a theoretical framework based on surprise theory, the thesis examines the agenda of the EU Eastern Partnership, the psychology of Foreign Ministers Carl Bildt and Radek Sikorski before the identified focus points, and the organizational dynamics of the European Council throughout the crisis. The conclusion is that the Eastern Partnership agenda provided a toolbox with limited usability in a crisis, that the overconfidence of Bildt and Sikorski meant they failed in turning registered warning signs into a rethinking of policy, and that procrastination by the European Council led to a reactionary pattern that contributed to recurring surprises.

  • 44.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Military Balance in the Baltic Sea Region: Notes on a Defunct Concept2012In: Power in the 21st Century: International Security and International Political Economy in a Changing World / [ed] Enrico Fels, Jan-Frederik Kremer & Katharina Kronenberg, Springer, 2012, 1, p. 117-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    The Partnerfication of NATO: From Wall-building to Bridge-building?2014In: Cooperative Security: NATO's Partnership Policy in a Changing World / [ed] Trine Flockhart, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) , 2014, p. 60-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter tries to supplement some of the early efforts to interpret the development of NATO’s partnership policy, as well as to widen it somewhat into a military operational perspective. Three official speeches on the executive level in the US are analyzed, including their references to military doctrines, in order to find the strategic rationale that underpins the new globalized partnership agenda. Two operational frameworks can be identified for the US: networking and access. Networking is centered on the decapitation of enemies and is being pursued in an on-going global or transnational shadow war. Access is centered on deterrence in Asia. Both frameworks rest on the concept of partnerships, and this is a contributory factor for their growing importance in the Alliance. This ‘partnerfication’ of NATO will certainly contribute to flexibility, but there is a clear risk that it will not be in the interests of all European states, members or partners alike.

  • 46.
    Christofferson, John
    Swedish National Defence College. Theresan Military Academy, Österrike.
    The Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union and its Effect on Sweden's and Austria’s Basic Officer Education: a Comparative Approach2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2009, the European Union (EU) adopted the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). This contributed to an already on-going change amongst the armed forces of the Union. No previous research has examined how the skills required of young officers in the EU are taught at the Basic Officer Education within either Sweden or Austria.

    Purpose: This thesis examines to what extent the skills needed of young officers in a CSDP-environment are taught during the Basic Officer Educations in Sweden and Austria. The purpose is to conclude if the Swedish and Austrian Basic Officer Educations are complying with the political wills of their respective countries, to adapt their armed forces to the EU and CSDP.

    Method: The author compares the Swedish and Austrian Basic Officer Education by examining curriculums and syllabuses, as well as conducting expert interviews with officials at the schools and comparing the results. The educations are examined based on how they educated the concept of CSDP and how interoperability and a European culture of defence are promoted.

    Conclusion: The results show that both Sweden and Austria educate their cadets in the CSDP and take measurements to promote interoperability and a European culture of defence. The results suggest that Austria does so to a further extent. Based on the results, the author suggests increased exchanges, Pooling & Sharing during Basic Officer Education and further developments towards a common European Basic Officer Education.

  • 47.
    Daleke, Rikard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Idétradition: en utmaning vid samarbeten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Olikheter i konceptuella frågor kan försvåra samarbeten mellan försvarsmakter. Exempelvis kan olikheterna, vilka kan bero på olika historisk utveckling av idétraditioner mellan länder, påverka förståelsen av krigföringen i respektive land. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka skillnader i idétraditioner samt hur det påverkar synen på krigföring. Givet skillnader, hur kan dessa förstås och förklaras? Uppsatsen beskriver militärteori utifrån två former, en linjär och en icke-linjär, vilka används för att analysera Sveriges och Norges doktriner samt dess användande. Slutsatsen av analysen är att det finns skillnader och dessa skillnader kan omedvetet resultera i att förståelsen för krigföring uttrycks på olika sätt, det vill säga att det blir olika språk. Uppsatsen argumenterar för att detta kan påverka militära samarbeten och även om dessa förhållanden delvis kan förändras är det kanske inte alltid eftersträvansvärt. 

  • 48.
    Davis, Joanna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den europeiska säkerhets- och försvarspolitiken (ESFP) & den gemensamma säkerhets- och försvarspolitiken (GSFP): En tankeskoleanalys av den vetenskapliga debatten under 2000-talet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att redogöra för hur man i den vetenskapliga debatten ser på en europeisk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik och en gemensam säkerhets- och försvarspolitik för EU under 2000-talet, vilket möjliggör för en oinsatt läsare att kunna bilda sig en egen åsikt i frågan. Den valda metoden är en tankeskoleanalys som tar fram de olika åsiktslägren som finns i debatten, och redogör översiktligt över vilka åsikter dessa läger innehåller. Resultatet av denna studie är fem tankeskolor som har en liknande syn på EU och motiven bakom den gemensamma säkerhets- och försvarspolitiken.Tankeskolorna är emellertid mer olika när det gäller den framtida utvecklingen för politiken och EU, där allt från civil krishantering till militära insatser förespråkas med djupare integrering. Slutsatsen till varför det finns så många olika sidor och åsikter kring EU:s säkerhets- och försvarspolitik i debatten under 2000-talet är att det politiska läget och EU:s roll idag är förändrad. I tidigare debatter under det kalla kriget dominerade synpunkter om  USA:s roll för det internationella säkerhetsläget.  EU spelade därigenom enbart en begränsad roll. I dag är klimatet öppnare, och EU och debattörerna börjar argumentera för att EU bör ta en större plats internationellt.  

  • 49.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Flexibility and Rigidity in Crisis Management and Learning at Swedish Public Organizations2010In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 679-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date the relationship between crises,organizational crisis management, and learninghas been understudied. In an effort tobroaden theoretical understandings of therelation between crisis and learning, thisarticle analyses the crisis management andlearning processes of two public organizationsduring a sequence of two failures. Aframework of rigidity versus flexibility inresponse is utilized in the analysis. Thefindings are discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis andlearning. The study concludes by raising fourhypotheses for further research.

  • 50.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Systems for Post-Crisis Learning: A Systemic Gap in Civil Security Governance?2015In: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Raphael Bossong & Hendrik Hegeman, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 160-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the capacity of governments to learn from harmful events, such as for instance pandemics, hurricanes, terrorist attacks or large scale accidents, is of importance for civil security and organizational safety (Stern, 1997; Deverell, 2010). A frequently used strategy by governments and public organizations in this regard is to launch a crisis investigation after an event. This chapter deals with such forms of investigations and especially the importance of organizing structures for post hoc crisis investigations. The chapter argues that a lack of structured arrangements regarding post hoc crisis investigations will have negative effects on organizational and governmental lesson drawing from crises, and thus on long term EU civil security. We depart from the premise that taking structured and deliberate steps after crisis events to restore legitimacy and to make sure that historic mistakes are not repeated is an important part of civil security governance (cf. Sulitzeanu-Kenan and Holzman-Gazit, 2013). At the same time, civil security governance can also be seen as a problem for learning. Civil security governance involves a wide variety of actors and confronts ambiguous policy problems and fuzzy boundaries. As such it tends to work against systemization and standardized organisational processes required for effective post hoc crisis investigations.

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