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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Gender Perspective on Teachers as Crisis Managers2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 5-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressful conditions affect communities at different levels and may involve occupational groups not normally associated with issues of crisis and security. Teachers in the compulsory school system are members of such a group. The purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ view of their own role as crisis management actors in a female-dominated occupation. A Grounded Theory approach applying a gender perspective was used as an analytical tool for data processing. In total, 16 informants from four different schools in two different municipalities in Sweden were interviewed. The analysis of these interviews shows that teachers’ perceptions of risk, crisis, and security are influenced and characterized by social and emotional regulation aimed at (a) reducing vulnerability, (b) increasing the sense of security, and (c) regaining or restoring a sense of order and control. These strategies have been discussed froma gender perspective as teachers do not regard themselves as legitimate crisis management actors.

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  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    A Gender Perspective on Temporary Organisations in Crisis Management2020In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 273-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine, explain and interpret concepts of gender in relation to information management, crisis communication and collaboration within the framework of (crisis) communicator tasks. Since the crisis management realm is malecoded and the communications profession is female-coded, there is reason to gain more knowledge of how these relate to each other. The ambition is to contribute to an underdeveloped area of theory. A total of nineteen participants joined the study. All the interviews were processed according to the guidelines for the thematic analysis method. Analysis showed that three themes are central to understanding the role of communicators in the crisis management system. These are a) crisis communication as a temporary organization; b) requirements imposed on, and expectations from, the role and the individual and c) organizational greed. Results are discussed theoretically from a gender perspective, and practical implications are given as well as proposals for further studies. 

  • 3.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, modernity and the origins of civilization: the old and new strengths of sociology2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 141-144Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Collective memories and professional ideals: Teachers’ experiences of a disaster2021In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 64, p. 1-8, article id 102479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experienced collectively, disasters are also remembered collectively. Constituting a social glue among affected communities, disaster memories are essential for recovery processes. Focusing on teachers, who became frontline disaster workers, this paper explores how disasters are experienced and managed by a professional group lacking emergency management training. The study draws on in-depth interviews with school teachers about their memories of a forest fire in Sweden in 2014. As residents in, or close by, a small, rural community close to the fire, the teachers experienced the fire both as professionals and as citizens in their roles as family members and neighbours. The paper explores the role of kinship and vicinity of community reflecting the concepts of Therapeutic community and Gemeinschaft to provide a more substantial understanding of the social structures of a small, rural community without previous experiences of a disaster. The second theoretical focus and consequential contribution of the study lies within the teacher's recollections of professionalism, and how such interlinked norms and values remained intact through the disaster. In addition to convergence concerning professional ideals in the teacher collective, there was divergence in the teachers' memories of their performance and how others valued them, outlining how the social context and organizational support structures have tangible impacts on individuals' memories. Findings enable further systematic exploration of post-disaster social structures, training and organizational support, as well as the role of professional ideals, in disaster recovery processes.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Cultural Distance and Counterinsurgency Outcome2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing how counterinsurgency outcomes relate to cultural distance has never been a focus for conventional COIN literature. Despite this, cultural distance seems to be a neglected variable influencing outcomes. This thesis explores this large gap by examining how the cultural distance between insurgents and the counterinsurgents relate to outcome. Four concluded COIN campaigns are analysed, compared, and checked for causal congruence. The most crucial case is also subjected to analytical process tracing to verify the causal path and determine its plausibility. The findings are that increased cultural distance leads to COIN losses due to cultural misunderstandings and non-contextual solutions that instead of leading to a win paves the way to strategic loss. 

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    Daniel Johansson Cultural Distance and Counterinsurgency Outcome
  • 6.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Conventional War: Escalation in the War in Donbas, Ukraine2021In: Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, E-ISSN 1556-3006, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The War in Donbas was in its early phases largely fought between non-state volunteer battalions and separatist forces. Yet unlike the expected theories of non-state actors, the war witnessed limited and symmetrical acts of escalation and rather conventional warfare. Building on primary Ukrainian sources, I argue that this limited escalation stems in part from shared cultural and military norms — a common normative framework — possessed by the belligerents. The contribution of this article is an empirical chronology of the War in Donbas, as well as a discussion of the influence of culture and norms in escalatory dynamics and use of force.

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  • 7.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict chatnography: Instant messaging apps, social media and conflict ethnography in Ukraine2020In: Ethnography, ISSN 1466-1381, E-ISSN 1741-2714, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media and instant messaging are fast becoming an integral part of contemporary life, and subsequently of ethnographic research. As ethnography is essentially a process defined by relations between people, this article investigates how online interaction influenced my relationships with the people I studied: Ukrainian volunteer battalions. Framed in a broader context of conflict ethnography, the resulting chatnography made access to informants tremendously easier, and allowed for remote data collection. Chatnography nevertheless exacerbated ethical challenges posed by study of armed conflict. The blending of offline and online also led to despatialization, and the blurring of personal and professional. This questions the traditional notion of the ‘field’, while more immediately threatening to limit my private life. While not a magic bullet, the convenience of chatnography means that it will be here for years to come. This article offers an attempt to investigate what this entails in practice.

  • 8.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict Ethnography Goes Online: Chatnography of the Ukrainian Volunteer Battalions2020In: The Companion to Peace and Conflict Fieldwork / [ed] Roger Mac Ginty, Roddy Brett, Birte Vogel, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 207-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how conflict ethnography—ethnography attuned to the challenges of researching armed conflict—went online in my study of Ukrainian volunteer battalions. This online turn was both unexpected and exciting. While I had never been particularly interested in online research, social media and instant messaging nevertheless appeared to offer unforeseen opportunities for remotely researching a scantly studied conflict. In this chapter, I describe three revelatory moments that marked the rise, fall and plateau of the resulting chatnography, or the interaction through instant messaging apps and social media. Ultimately, I advocate caution when it comes to the use of digital methods in the study of armed conflict: while chatnography may be unavoidable, it can only work as one dimension of a broader ethnographic effort.

  • 9.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia2018In: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 734-734Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Liberia Incorporated: military contracting, cohesion and inclusion in Charles Taylor’s Liberia2017In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 53-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organisations. Through an investigation of the militias who fought for Charles Taylor’s government of Liberia, this paper makes three claims. Firstly, the organisation of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Consequently, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that have dominated recent cohesion literature. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on military contracting and compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilisation of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realise this left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with a weak state and fragmented social organisation, and also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 11.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    On 'War and Society'2020In: Journal of Perpetrator Research, E-ISSN 2514-7897, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 252-257Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Miguel A. Centeno and Elaine Enriquez, War & Society (Cambridge: Polity, 2017).

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  • 12.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    ‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks2022In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article draws from military sociology to revisit past portrayals of Liberian former combatant networks and assesses four central assumptions connected to them: that formal wartime command structures continue as informal networks long after the end of the war; that former combatants are united by a wartime identity and form a community to an extent separated from the surrounding society; that wartime experiences have had a major disciplining effect on former combatants; and that former combatants are both good mobilisers and easy to mobilise in elections and armed conflict alike. Finding limited evidence close to two decades after the end of war to support these assumptions, I ultimately ask whether it would be more productive to both theory and Liberians alike to widen investigation from former combatants to structural issues that affect many more in the country.

  • 13.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The people's war in Ukraine2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 180-183Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Volunteer Battalions: Story of a Heroic Deed of Battalions That Saved Ukraine by Kateryna Hladka, Veronika Myronova, Oleg Pokalchuk, Vasilisa Trofymovych and Artem Shevchenko

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  • 14.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Vaikenevat veteraanit2021In: Politiikasta.fi, ISSN 2323-7090Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Suomalainen keskustelu Afganistanista ja muista kriisinhallintaoperaatioista on ollut vähäistä. Kansainvälisessä vertailussa on silmiinpistävää etenkin kriisinhallintaveteraanien vaikeneminen julkisesti. Vaikenemisen syiden ja seurausten käsittely on tärkeää niin inhimillisesti kuin yhteiskunnallisestikin.

  • 15.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2020In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Mid-Level Leaders’ Containing Ability: A Key to Organizational Effectiveness2019In: Advances in Sociology Research: Volume 28 / [ed] Jared A. Jaworski, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Conforming One’s Conduct to Unwritten Rules: Experiences of Female Military Personnel in a Male-Dominated Organization2018In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have traditionally been exclusively male, and service in the cause of defending the country has until recently been the privilege of men. While the very first women entered the military 37 years ago, the military has so far failed to fully integrate women into the organization and promote gender equality. The object of this study is to probe servicewomen's meanings, identities, strategies and experiences in a male-dominated institution. For that purpose, a qualitative approach was chosen, and nine female members of the Swedish Armed Forces, from private to general, were interviewed. The rich empirical data on what it means and feels like today to serve as a female minority as part of unique culture emphasizing corporateness - on their attitudes, options, dilemmas, contradictions as well as the double binds imposed on them by the prevailing male orthodoxy - are analyzed and discussed in light of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical concepts : cultural capital, habitus, masculine domination and symbolic violence.

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  • 18.
    Linehagen, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, (SWE).
    Wester, Misse
    Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, (SWE).
    To stand in line and fit in—About military men's (un)reflected navigation in the armed forces2023In: Sociology Compass, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 17, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how the everyday experience of being a man in a male-dominated organization and what navigating the organization is like. The study builds on 15 interviews with men of various ages and ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces. The findings revealed three major themes that illustrate how men, and their actions, contribute to producing and re-producing gendered norms. First, the ideal military person is seen to have characteristics that are predominantly male and even though respondents only identify with these characteristics to some extent, the typical male ideal is still prevalent within the Armed Forces. Second, this image is reproduced by an uncritical stance towards the internal workings of the organization, relating to career paths and their reliance of traditional gendered roles. Third, the Armed Forces encounter resistance to gender equality work from within the military organization, in both action and inactions. We suggest this is due to a resistance to change and that work with gender equality is minimized to a shadow task that lacks committed men. We conclude that men's reality seems both obvious and unreflected, and these structures are upheld within the Armed Forces.

  • 19.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Systems Science for Defence and Security.
    Rituals of (un)changing masculinity: cohesion or diversity? A study of the fraternization traditions of Swedish cadets’ at the Military Academy2022In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 181-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the cultural expressions of traditional socialization activities that occur in connection with cadets attending the 3-year Officers Programme at Karlberg in Sweden, in order to analyze how masculinity norms in a male-dominated military organization are produced and sustained. A narrative analysis method was used to interpret the meaning of the campus traditions described in interviews made with five cadets together with the student handbook for newly arrived cadets ‘Ruki’. Three distinct traditions were analyzed: ‘The Despicable Philquist’, ‘The Viking Festivity’, and ‘Lifning’. Three themes that describe these traditions, respectively, were identified: separation, homosociality, and fraternization. Separation specifies a formation of a masculine and militarized subjectivity that separates the dichotomous categories of civilian – military. Homosociality describes activities that reproduce masculine norms where men relate to other men. Lastly, fraternization is used to describe socialization activities where the main purpose is to create cohesion. The contribution of this article is that it confirms how performatory rituals in the Military Academy functions to enforce cohesion that is modeled on masculinity norms, while simultaneously identifying a growing dissonance between society’s demands for diversity and the military’s basic aspiration for cohesion.

  • 20.
    Olevik Dunder, Peter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Växla till yrkesofficer mitt i karriären: En modell för nyrekrytering av erfarna officerare2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten i Sverige har under 2020-talet behov av fler yrkesofficerare OF-3 än vad prognosen är att nuvarande personalförsörjningssystem producerar. Ledtiderna i systemet är ett årtionde eller mer till OF-3, så beslut tagna tidigare under 2000-talet sätter nuläget.

    Utan systemförändring har även de som år 2030 befordras till OF-3 redan idag påbörjat sin officersutbildning. Ökar 2030-talets efterfrågan på officerare OF-3 bortom dagens prognoser behöver dessa inom kort rekryteras till Försvarsmakten. För att kunna möta ökad efterfrågan, både nu på 2020-talet och i framtiden, är det nödvändigt att komplettera befintligt system.

    Syftet med studien är att i en svensk kontext, genom intervjuer, undersöka uppfattningar om möjligheter och begränsningar med rekrytering till högre befattningsnivåer än OF-1. Med avstamp i dessa uppfattningar, genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys och slutsatser dragna på resultatet från innehållsanalysen, så identifieras komponenter för en svensk modell.

    Studien lämnar ett krigsvetenskapligt bidrag inom skapande av militär förmåga. Bidraget illustreras med komponenter till en modell för svensk nyrekrytering av erfarna officerare.

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    Dunder, 2022, Växla till yrkesofficer mitt i karriären
  • 21.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Kvinnan på väg in i ledet.: Intryck från mönstring och värnplikt hos en grupp kvinnor som mönstrat 1999-2002.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Armed Forces has an expressed ambition to recruit more women. One component in this has been the establishment of special enlistment days for women. The expectations of the Armed Forces for this form of enlistment were both quantitative and qualitative. Firstly, more women would attend the tests and enlist as conscripts, and secondly, this form of enlistment would better prepare women for their service. The expectation that more women would enlist has already proven correct. The central question in this study is whether the special enlistment for women did in fact render the women better prepared for their service. The study was conducted using a questionnaire. The group studied comprised 320 women, of which about half attended the special enlistment for women and the rest ”ordinary” enlistment, i.e. together with men.

    The results of the study show that those women who underwent the special enlistment for women is basically satisfied with this form of enlistment. Most positive was to meet and get information from female officers and conscripts. The results also indicate that the special enlistment strengthens women on the personal level. For instance, the group of women who underwent separate enlistment report less sexual harassment during their service. The reason for this could be that after having spoken to women with experience of the military, they have more insight into the importance of ”setting boundaries” and ”opportunities to report”, etc. Thus, the question posed at the outset, whether the special enlistment for women provides a better preparation than ”ordinary” enlistment, can be answered in the affirmative.

     

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    Fulltext
  • 22.
    Öhlund, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Demokratiska krigsbrott: En studie av tyska krigsfångar i franska och amerikanska händer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien kommer jag analysera skillnaden mellan norm och praxis i implementerandet av Genevekonventionen från 1929. Genom en fallstudie av två västerländska, demokratiska stater med samma norm, det vill säga 1929 års Genèvekonvention vill jag studera deras behandling, det vill säga praxis, av tyska krigsfångar från den 11 maj 1942 fram till Västtysklands grundande, den 23 maj 1949.

    Metoden jag har använt mig av i mitt arbete är en kvalitativ fallstudie, med utgångspunkt i tidigare intervjuer, rapporter och litteratur. I fallstudien kommer behandlingen av de tyska krigsfångarna att undersökas för att se hur Frankrike och USA implementerade Genèvekonventionen i praktiken.

    Därefter kommer resultatet att analyseras med hjälp av Zygmunt Baumans teorier. Bauman är en professor i sociologi som analyserat sambandet mellan moderniteten och förintelsen. Dessa teorier kommer att användas för att förklara och redogöra de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan norm och praxis hos upplysta och demokratiska stater, när dessa stater ska implementera folkrätten vid behandlingen av krigsfångar.Bauman menar att västerlandet sen upplysningen har haft en stark strävan efter att uppnå rutiner och ett slags beteendemönster. Genom att normalisera upplevda händelser kan de lättare förstås och förklaras. Genom att applicera samma resonemang på våldsanvändningen vid behandlingen av krigsfångar skulle det kunna innebära ett kontinuerligt och fortlöpande övergrepp. Våldet skulle ha sin grund i att det blivit en vana, en rutin och således någonting man förväntar sig. Förutom rutinen talar Bauman om auktoriseringen och avhumanseringens som viktiga förutsättningar för våld och övergrepp.

    När Tyskland kapitulerade våren den 7 maj 1945 togs miljontals tyska soldater till fånga av de allierade. Fångarna samlades ihop i olika typer av koncentrations och fångläger. Syftet med mitt arbete blir att inledningsvis undersöka om de franska och amerikanska trupperna gjorde sig skyldiga till krigsbrott i och med hanterandet av tyska krigsfångar, under och efter andra världskriget.

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    SA_Öhlund
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