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  • 1.
    Adenfelt, Maria
    et al.
    FOI.
    Holmström Lind, Christine
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Handsdelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Förutsättningar för innovation och tillväxt i små- och medelstora företag i försvars- och säkerhetsområdet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns högteknologisk kompetens inom försvars- och säkerhetsområdet och en betydande del av denna kompetens står små- och medelstora företag för. Studier har visat att små- och medelstora företag är av betydelse för innovation och tillväxt, dock saknas kunskap om förutsättningarna för innovation och tillväxt i denna grupp av företag. Syftet med denna studie är således att undersöka förutsättningarna för innovation och tillväxt för små och medelstora företag i försvars- och säkerhetsområdet. Detta gjordes dels genom att kartlägga pågående policyarbete i Sverige och i EU gällande tillväxt och innovation, dels genom en enkätundersökning av små- och medelstora företag i försvars- och säkerhetsområdet. Resultaten från studien visar på tre områden inom vilka förutsättningarna för innovation och tillväxt i SMEs kan förbättras: 1) exportstöd och bilateralt samarbete, 2) personal- och kompetensförsörjning och 3) ökad involvering i kluster och affärsnätverk.

  • 2.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Eze, Nonyelum Lina
    (ESP).
    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on business-to-business relationships in digital ecosystems: an African perspective2023In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 69-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In the African context, the threat of the disruption of traditional business value-creation processes, currently facilitated by the growing information technology (IT) ecosystem, came with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on interfirm relationships within the context of the digital ecosystem in Africa.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This study employs an explanatory–exploratory qualitative approach from an interpretivist stance to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on interfirm relationships. The authors conducted seven in-depth interviews with top management executives in a Nigerian technology company, together with the company's archival data that provided the pre, during and post pandemic (2018–2021) business-to-business (B2B) relationship structures, to determine how these relationships have been affected.

    Findings

    The results suggest that the pandemic had a minimal effect on partnership relationships in the B2B ecosystems of the case company but affected only non-partnership relationships.

    Research limitations/implications

    The authors' qualitative study is interpretive and the sample size is limited. Hence, there is a need for caution in generalizing the findings. The framework can be further validated across a wider population.

    Practical implications

    Partnerships can help organizations weather business crises. Consequently, organizations should maintain a healthy number of partnership relations to deal with periods in which challenges emerge in the business landscape. In other words, with tight contracts and a strategic focus on goals and objectives, partnership relations can help organizations weather business crises.

    Originality/value

    This study builds upon the burgeoning body of literature on digital ecosystems within the African context, which is a relevant contextual contribution.

  • 3.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    CHARACTERIZING THE DEFENCE INDUSTRY FOR RISK MANAGEMENT: A SYSTEMS APPROACH2023In: NOFOMA 2023 – Logistics During Global Crises, Helsinki, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Logistics growth in the armed forces: Development of a theoretical framework and research propositions2022In: The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE, June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson, NOFOMA , 2022, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Adenfelt, Maria
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Lusua, Jens
    FOI.
    Realisering av effektivare materielförsörjning: Användning av kategorisering och effektmål2012Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Industrial effects of direct military offset in defence materiel export2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar en studie med syftet att identifiera industriella effekter av samarbeten som är direkt relaterade till export av försvarsmateriel. Fyra stora exportaffärer av försvarsmateriel från Sverige har studerats. De fyra fallen är Saabs export av Gripen till Sydafrika, Kockums export av ubåtar till Australien, Kockums export av ubåtar till Singapore samt Hägglunds export av CV90 till Nederländerna.

    Studien visar att: varje köparland skapar unika krav och upplägg för genomförandet av militär offset; köparländerna vill t.ex. utnyttja offset till att skapa arbetstillfällen och att öka den inhemska försvarsindustrins konkurrenskraft; den största delen av produktutvecklingen sker hos det säljande företaget; en stor del av produktionen sker i Sverige.

    Slutsatser för företagsnivå är framför allt att långsiktiga industriella åtaganden skapas i och med att affärerna ofta varar cirka tio år. Efter leveransens slut finns inget entydigt mönster om fortsättningsaffärer. Slutsatser för policynivå är bl.a. att försvarsmaterielexport av komplexa system innebär: 

    – vidareutveckling av kompetens inom försvarsindustrin i Sverige; 

    – att exportsamarbeten inte leder till att kompetens flyttas från försvarsföretag i Sverige; 

    – att köparlandet förväntar sig att det säljande företagets utvecklingsförmåga långsiktigt finns kvar. 

  • 7.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Industrial repositioning from OEM to supplier2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Industriella effekter av direkt militär offset vid försvarsmaterielexport2009Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Internationaliserad materielförsörjning: Förutsättningar för försvarsmaterielsamarbeten mellan företag2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har genomförts på uppdrag av Försvarsdepartementet. Internationellt samarbete har sedan mitten av 1990-talet har utgjort en allt viktigare del av det svenska försvarets materielförsörjning. Detta är en utveckling som sannolikt fortsätter. Som stöd för framtida beslut om internationellt materielsamarbete behövs en analys av hur internationella materielsamarbeten mellan företag i praktiken genomförs.

    Det specifika syftet med rapporten är därför att:

    • Identifiera faktorer som påverkar genomförandet av internationella försvarsmaterielsamarbeten mellan företag.

    Rapporten bygger på åtta fallstudier av internationella materielsamarbeten: Iris-T, Joint Strike Fighter, Meteor, MidCas, Neuron, NFR-90, Taurus, Viking.

    Centrala slutsatser avseende förutsättningar för genomförande av internationella försvarsmaterielsamarbeten mellan företag är att ett samarbetsprojekt har större förutsättning för framgång om: företagen ser samarbetet som strategiskt, företagen har tidigare erfarenheter av samarbete och ett enskilt företag är huvudansvarigt för samarbetet.

    Faktorer som skapar förutsättningar men som inte har en direkt påverkan på det operativa genomförandet är exempelvis: materielens innovationsgrad, antalet deltagande företag och antalet deltagande stater.

    Baserat på resultaten rekommenderar vi beslutsfattare inom Regeringskansliet och myndigheter att inför beslut om deltagande i internationella materielsamarbeten att fr.a.: analysera företagens motiv att samarbeta, utvärdera om företagen har gemensamma motiv med samarbetet, om företagen är på jämförbar teknologinivå, ställa krav på att ett företag är huvudleverantör.

  • 10.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Olsson, Per
    FOI.
    Öhrn-Lundin, Josefin
    FOI.
    Förutsättningar för undervattensförmåga - dagens resurser och morgondagens effekter2018Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Schröder, Karin
    FOI.
    Snabb anpassning av materielsystem - effektivt samarbete med leverantörer2017Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Castelacci, Fulvio
    et al.
    Department of International Economics, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).
    Fevolden, Arne
    Department of International Economics, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    How are defence companies responding to EU defence and security market liberalization?: A comparative study of Norway and Sweden2014In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1218-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new European Union Directive (Defence and Security Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC) intends to liberalize the European defence market. This article investigates whether this Directive leads to a more liberalized European defence market and how the defence companies respond to these changes, by carrying out a set of interviews with a selected sample of some of the most important defence contractors in Norway and Sweden. The article points out two main results. (1) The defence companies believe that the liberalization of the European defence market will at best be partial and fear that the new regulations might end up favouring the larger nations (e. g., Germany, the United Kingdom and France) at the expense of the smaller countries (e. g., Norway and Sweden). (2) The companies' scepticism and response to the Directive vary according to the defence industrial policy regime they are part of and their position in the defence industrial value-chain.

  • 13.
    Egevad, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad gör du just nu?: En kritisk diskursanalys av Försvarsmaktens reklamkampanjer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay has been to analyze two advertising campaigns made by the Swedish Armed Forces (Svenska Försvarsmakten) with the help of discourse analysis, focusing on the pictures involved and the dialectics between pictures and texts. The first one can be called “Someone will solve the problems” and the other one “What are you doing?”

    Questions involved are

    • What kind of discourse lies behind these campaigns?
    • What are the differences between the two campaigns?

    The main discourse can be described through the new security doctrine for the Swedish Armed Forces where they no longer focus on total war but a more complex and at the same time more unpredictable threatening global environment, due to unstable countries all over the world, terrorism and nature catastrophes, often dependent on global warming. Thus this is the present task for the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The two campaigns differ in the way that “Someone will solve it” focuses on the tasks for the modern defense and the other one, “What are you doing?” points out the defense as offering a meaningful future.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Egevad SA
  • 14.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Jönköping University, (SWE).
    Segmentation and differentiation in defence supply chain design: A dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important priority in the current Swedish Defence Bill is to increase the operational warfighting capability of the Swedish Armed Forces, which has implications for the defence supply chain. A recent study suggested that the Swedish Armed Forces should use segmentation of supplies and differentiation of supply chains to enable an affordable supply chain design (SCD). This raises questions regarding which segmentation model and which supply chain strategies (SCSs) the Swedish Armed Forces should use.

    The purpose of this research is to design and develop a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) for defence procurement, which will be of practical use for defence authorities. The author defines a PPM as consisting of a segmentation model, tactical levers, differentiation strategies and guidance for management decisions. The research builds on a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities. It addresses the operational requirements on readiness and sustainability that must be satisfied, as well as research gaps and open issues in the literature regarding PPM design and application.

    The findings include several novelties. The author proposes a dynamic PPM, including an innovative two-stage segmentation model, with a precursor and a two-dimensional model. The latter merges sixteen elements into one square and three other segments. Another originality is that the PPM is both prescriptive and serves as a catalyst for in-depth discussions. The author also develops guidance for management decisions, including twelve tactical levers, and eight SCSs to differentiate treatment of the supply segments.

    The research contributes to theory by combining constructs from the purchasing and supply management (PSM) literature and supply chain management (SCM) literature, and applying them in the context of military logistics, including defence procurement. It contributes to practice by developing a PPM that is relevant to practitioners in defence procurement and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces. It also contributes to methodology by investigating how researchers can use two panels in Delphi studies to enhance research validity.

  • 15.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design.
    The Delphi Technique – Limitations and Possibilities2020In: The 32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, 17 – 18 September on Internet: Book of abstracts, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The dual purpose of this paper is to analyse the implications on research rigour of using two panels in a Delphi study, and to take a first step towards investigating how researchers in logistics and SCM establish rigour in Delphi studies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Based on a literature review on research rigour in Delphi studies, this paper analyses how a modified design, with two panels, effected research rigour in a Delphi study that produced unexpected results. The paper also conducts a pilot literature review on Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research, and investigates how these authors establish research rigour.

    Findings

    This paper finds that with two panels, researchers may enhance rigour in a Delphi study, but also that such a design may lead to results that would be less likely with a conventional design, especially if combined with concluding workshops. The pilot literature review indicates that Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research establish rigour through the provision of an audit trail, rather than by explicitly discussing the quality criteria of correspondence and/or trustworthiness.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    The research indicates limitations with a conventional Delphi design, with one expert panel, and opportunities with a modified design, with two panels. Further research is required to explore these indicative findings.

    Original/value

    The paper demonstrates how a modified design of the Delphi technique, in combination with concluding workshops, can produce results and insights that would be more difficult to achieve with only one expert panel.

  • 16.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Department of Defence Economy, Defence Logistics Division, (SWE).
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains: A Swedish perspective2022In: The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE, June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson, NOFOMA , 2022, p. 83-83Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Differentiation strategies for defence supply chain design2020In: Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, ISSN 2399-6439, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 183-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Defence supply chains (SCs) aim at operational outcomes, and armed forces depend on them to provide availability and preparedness in peace and sustainability in war. Previous research has focussed on strategies for SCs aiming at financial outcomes. This raises the question of how suitable commercial supply chain strategies (SCSs) are for supply chain design (SCD) in defence. The purpose of this paper is to explain the constructs of SCSs that satisfy military operational requirements and to propose SCSs that are appropriate in defence. 

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on a Delphi study with 20 experts from Swedish defence authorities. Through three Delphi rounds, two workshops and a validation round, these experts contributed to the reported findings. 

    Findings – The findings demonstrate that commercial SC constructs are acceptable and applicable in defence but not sufficient. An additional strategy is required to satisfy requirements on availability, preparedness and sustainability. The paper shows that different requirements in peace and war make it challenging to design suitable defence SCs and proposes eight SCSs that satisfy these requirements. 

    Research limitations/implications – The results emanate from the Swedish defence context and further research is required for generalisation.

    Originality/value – This paper extends theory by investigating SCs aiming at operational outcomes. For managers in companies and defence authorities, it explicates how the unique issues in defence must influence SCD to satisfy operational requirements.

  • 18.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Guidance for Management Decisions in the Application of a Dynamic Purchasing Portfolio ModelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Towards a purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Delphi study of Swedish defence authorities2021In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 233, article id 107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains the constructs of a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) that defence authorities can use in practice in defence procurement and designs a segmentation model. We identify open PPM design and application questions in the literature and conduct a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities to design a segmentation model that is fit-for-purpose. The paper addresses the open design and application questions discussed in the literature and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF). The proposed segmentation model builds on three dimensions: the operational requirements of the SwAF, the market's ability to deliver supplies on time, and limitations in the SwAF operational capability if the market does not deliver supplies on time. To reduce complexity, we propose a two-stage model in which we use one dimension as a precursor to a two-dimensional model. In the latter, we merge sixteen elements into one square along with three other segments which users should treat differently. The paper contributes to extant academic knowledge on PPMs by eliciting practitioners' views on open design and application questions. We develop the proposed segmentation model in cooperation with practitioners and believe that it will be of value in defence procurement practice.

  • 20.
    Ericsson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military History, Military History Division. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, (SWE).
    Liquidating government debt and creating a secondary asset market: Trading patterns, market behavior and prices on government liabilities in Sweden, c. 1719–17652023In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 355-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies a previously unknown asset market in eighteenth-century Sweden. It emerged as a result of a partial default in 1719, when large amounts of recently released fiat coins were converted into government liabilities. These could only be redeemed as a customs duty on international trade, the licent. As merchants had to acquire such assets to conduct their trade, tens of thousands of transactions were carried out on a secondary market over a period of more than 45 years. Networks of local merchants bought assets from initial holders and sold them on to intermediaries or merchants, who deposited the liabilities with a newly established government agency, the Debt Office. Here, hundreds of account holders could transfer the value of their deposits between them. When a licent payment was due, the amount was deducted from the merchant's account. Prices on the liabilities were low and sometimes volatile, but the long-term trend was rising. We have distinguished three types of market participants: a small group of very active users, most of them professional dealers or brokers; merchants who traded on a regular basis as they needed to pay the licent, or when a favorable opportunity appeared; and finally, those who traded sporadically. The emergence of this market was part of a financial expansion that occurred in many European countries at the same time, the closest equivalent being the segmented default in France after the abolition of John Law's system. This study aims to broaden our understanding of eighteenth-century financial developments, which have rarely been studied in a semi-peripheral European economy.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, E Anders
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Johansson, Mattias
    FOI.
    Civil-military synergies in research and technology: Comparison of Sweden to six European nations2014Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Tillitsskapande ledarskap: Från teori till praktik2021Book (Other academic)
  • 23. Gasana, Emelyne Umunoza
    et al.
    Uwamariya, Denise
    Multivariate Analysis of Rwanda Economic Indicators using Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Model2018In: Afrika Statistika, ISSN 2316-090X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1539-1550Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Examining supplier, buyer, and customer triads in a defence setting - or what hides behind the hidden cloud?2023In: NOFOMA 2023 – Logistics During Global Crises, Helsinki, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hellberg, Roland
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Antai, Imoh
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    The role of logistics in a Swedish total defense concept2022In: The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson, NOFOMA , 2022, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bakken, Bjorn
    Inland School of Business and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, (NOR).
    Hoerem, Thorvald
    Inland School of Business and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, (NOR).
    Social psychological aspects of inter-organizational collaboration in a total defense context: a literature review2023In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 693-709Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to systematically review the extant research on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A systematic scoping studies review was performed. Peer-reviewed articles were searched in PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts. Inclusion criteria were met by 25 articles.

    Findings

    Four higher-order categories with underpinning categories were derived in the analysis. They were modeled as follows: antecedent conditions affect, informal processes and practical efforts, which, in turn, affect inter-organizational trust and collaboration. These higher-order categories are all influenced by formal organizational aspects and the society in which they are found.

    Research limitations/implications

    The existing literature covering the chosen study focus is limited. Further studies are needed and the presented model can serve as a road map. Practical implications A series of questions derived from the categories of the model is presented. The questions are included as a tool for practical reflection for collaborating actors in common education, training or exercise settings or in after-action reviews.

    Originality/value

    The focus on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context, is new. The suggested relationship between superior themes adds knowledge to a research field dominated by sociological and political science approaches.

  • 27.
    Lee, Sheryn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Understanding “security of supply”2023In: ReNEW 2023 program / [ed] Tore Rem, Oslo, 2023, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download (pdf)
    sammanfattning
  • 28.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge, (NOR).
    Hellberg, Roland
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Incubation - An evolutionary process2023In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 124, p. 102755-102755, article id 102755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a two-step approach, combining bibliometric analyse with a literature study investigating incubation as an evolutionary process. Incubation is a vast and multi-phased subject. In order to identify and classify articles we used a theoretical framework consisting of life cycle, underlying evolutionary process and resource-based theory, and dimensions of incubation. Through the bibliometric analysis we collected 429 articles in step one. Generating an attempt to bring a fragmented topic in to a systematic logic by using a literature study, we closely examined the subject matter in step two, summarizing and categorizing our findings into sub-themes and component themes. In so doing, we offer a reliable, ontologically constructed, and practical insight into the incubation evolutionary process is. We discuss the phenomena as an ecosystem that generates an interim debate on which new theory on incubation may be built and research may be conducted. We conclude that conceptualizing incubation as an evolutionary process has potential for future research and theory development.

  • 29. Lundmark, Martin
    Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defense technology Acquisition and the Asia-Pacific2016In: Emerging Critical Technologies and Security in the Asia-Pacific / [ed] Richard A. Bitzinger, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30. Lundmark, Martin
    Accept the Gap2003In: Transforming NATO Forces: European Perspectives / [ed] C. Richard Nelson, Jason S. Purcell, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council , 2003, p. 113-131Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Acquiring and Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defence Technology Acquisition for Defence-Aspiring Asia Pacific Nations Through Technology Policy and Bilateral Partnering2013In: Policy Brief / [ed] Richard A. Bitzinger, Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    CMTC Policy Renewal: A study of Civil-Military Technology Cooperation (CMTC) policies, and planning and management, in Korea, Sweden, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, and the European Defence Agency2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compares the policies for civil-military technology cooperation (CMTC) of six nations (France, Germany, Russia, South Korea, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and the European Defence Agency (EDA). ADD, Korea, commissioned FOI, Sweden, to perform the study.

    The concept of ‘dual-use’ is treated quite differently in different nations. In this report, we see dual-use as three different flows of technology:

    spin-on denotes that technology developed in the non-military sector can be utilized in military applications;

    spin-off denotes that technology developed in the defence sector can be utilized in the non-military sector;

    spin-up denotes that there is a shared commitment and interest among actors from both sides to develop a certain technology. Actors from each side will contribute with their knowledge and technology – both sides will learn from the other and also strive to mutually create some novel technology combination.

    The standpoint in this report is thereby that dual-use concerns the unidirectional flows between civil and military technology, whereas CMTC also comprises the spin-up phenomenon.

    The study shows that France and Korea have clear national policies and invest heavily in CMTC-related activities with a yearly budget of about USD 90 million. Korea is however expansive, whereas France’s efforts in CMTC have been shrinking in recent years. Sweden has had, for more than two decades, a strong commitment towards CMTC in aerospace technology, but has no explicit dual-use policy in general. The UK has a clear policy of only searching for non-military technologies that can be used in defence. The UK does not invest in spin-off or spin-up at all; the MoD is only allowed to fund very specific defence technology. The UK puts resources into identifying technologies for spin-on. Germany has non-transparent, decentralized CMTC activity, performed by institutes and industry. Defence R&D is a sensitive issue in Germany; there is CMTC-relevant innovation, but there is no explicit policy to support it. Russia has strong rhetoric about strengthening its defence-industrial base and its defence-relevant innovation. Russia invests in broad development in bio- and nano-technologies, which are intended to produce civil as well as military technologies in the long run. Russia, however, has fundamental difficulties in maintaining its innovation infrastructure, and its visions for CMTC have limited credibility.

    The CMTC policies of these nations and EDA have been compared, based on eleven competitive factors: CMTC policy consistent with defence policy, triple helix infrastructure, defence-related clusters of companies, access to CMTC funding, internationalization of CMTC investments, internationalization of defence industry, SME growth initiatives, human capital (CMTC relevant), dual-use demonstrators, CMTC match-making and processes for CMTC procurement.

    Based on these comparisons, we recommend that the CMTC institute at ADD:

    - increases the participation of academia in their CMTC activities;

    - strives to increase the degree of internationalization of its CMTC activities, with Germany, France and Sweden (in that order) as the best targets;

    - strives to increase the domestic support from other ministries by more clearly showing the benefits for both civil as well as military innovation.

  • 33.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Intégration et désintégration de la sécurité transatlantique–impact sur l’industrie de défense2003In: Géoéconomie, no No 26, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Is there a need for a new definition of what constitutes a “European defence company”?2013Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Kockums: the Repatriation of the Swedish Underwater Crown Jewel (Part.1)2014Other (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Nordic defence materiel cooperation2003In: The New Northern Security Agenda: Perspectives from Finland and Sweden / [ed] Bo Huldt, Tomas Ries, Jan Mörtberg och Elisabeth Davidson, Stockholm: FHS , 2003, p. 207-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Saab Kockums' maiden voyage (Part.2)2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    The defence industry integration: The institutional and industrial integration of a politico-industrial market2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    The development of the Swedish defence technology complex2013In: Export Voorusheny, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    The Future of the European Defence Industry2014In: The Global Arms Industry in 2030 (and beyond): Event Report, Singapore: Rjaratnam School of International Studies , 2014, p. 24-27Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    The need for rapid adaptation - organizational solutions2017Other (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    The Swedish defence industry: drawn between globalization and the domestic pendulum of doctrine and governance2019In: The Economics of the Global Defence Industry / [ed] Hartley, Keith & Belin, Jean, New York: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 290-311Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    The Transatlantic Defense Industry Market: Future Modes of Integration2002In: Breakthroughs, Vol. XI, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    To be or not to be - The integration and the non-integration of the French defence industry2004Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Transatlantic defence industry integration - Discourse and action in the organizational field of the defence market2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundmark, Martin
    et al.
    FOI.
    Axelson, Mattias
    FOI.
    Karlsson, Christer
    HHS.
    Khan, Malek
    FOI.
    Teknologipolicy för ledningsområde mark2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: I denna rapport presenteras ett förslag till en teknologipolicy som har syftet att tydliggöra regeringens mål för ledningsområde mark och att stödja en tillämpning av regeringens ambition. Teknologipolicyn avser den långsiktiga inriktningen för ledningsområde mark. Bakgrunden är regeringens beslut från 23 juni 2010: "Sverige ska inte sträva efter att vara ledande inom förmågor och funktioner som är kopplade till det nätverksbaserade försvaret utan snarare delta i, följa och anpassa sig till den internationella utvecklingen inom ledningsområdet."1 En policy är grundläggande principer för handlande och utgör således ett ramverk för beslutsfattande. En teknologipolicy kan sägas bestå av principer för val av teknologier och därtill hörande frågor såsom kunskapsnivåer, investeringsnivåer, förnyelsefrekvenser, genomförandeprocesser och organisationer, samt källor för valda teknologier. Teknologipolicyn innehåller sålunda en portfölj av val - av beslut - som ska möjliggöra förverkligandet av uppställda mål och samtidigt hantera uppkommande hot och möjligheter. Denna rapport vänder sig till personer som arbetar med tillämpning av regeringens inriktning. Det innebär tjänstemän på Försvarsdepartementet och personer inom försvarsmyndigheterna som arbetar med ledningsområde mark. Den teknologipolicy som presenteras här ger förslag på hur regeringens beslutade ambition för ledningsområde mark kan implementeras. Förslaget utgår från ambitionen att materiel som anskaffas eller vidareutvecklas inom ledningsområde mark i hög grad ska följa den internationella utvecklingen men inte leda den I rapporten föreslås bland annat att materiel inom ledningsområde mark ska ha internationellt hög funktionalitet, men ej nödvändigtvis vara i paritet med de teknologiskt främsta försvarsmakterna. Funktionaliteten ska vara tillräcklig för att klara kraven vid nationella och internationella insatser. En central princip är att tyngdpunkten förflyttas från ett utvecklings- och teknologiperspektiv till att i högre grad behärska köp och framtagning av integrerade system. Anskaffningsbeslut skall inriktas mot teknologi som är framgångsrikt beprövad, med hög funktionalitet och tillförlitlighet. Dominant design ska följas; dvs. lösningar som används av andra för Sverige väsentliga samarbetspartners utgör riktlinjer för val av teknologi. Det innebär att Sverige inte satsar på teknologiskt omogna områden. Därmed bör både risker och kostnader reduceras i anskaffningen av materiel inom ledningsområde mark. För att realisera de principer som föreslås i teknologipolicyn behövs tydliga val avseende centrala aktiviteter, resurser, processer och organisatoriska enheter med ansvar och förmåga till systemintegration av ledningssystem. Enheter med ansvar och förmåga till detta bör vara fristående från enheter som arbetar med produktsystem och delsystem. Hur systemintegration ska genomföras är väsentligt att analysera närmare.

  • 47.
    Lundmark, Martin
    et al.
    FOI, (SWE).
    Giovachini, Laurent
    DGA, (FRA).
    The development of the French defence industry in the 20th century2005Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Institut Polytechnique de Paris.
    Managing Mega technological projects: The case of the defence industry and Network Centric Warfare projects2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project consists of acomparative work on three different militarymegaprojects regarding Network CentricWarfare, in three different countries: theUnited States, France and Sweden. The aim ofthe comparison is to find similarities anddifferences with respect to why, and if, theprojects failed, or are failing, and if they failed - to what extent. The objectives of the militarymegaprojects were ambitious and a great dealof the involved technology was not yetdeveloped at the time and the technicalrequirements were incongruous. For thecomparative study a narrative case studymethodology has been employed, structuringand analysing the different militarymegaprojects.The result is three different descriptions of themilitary megaprojects reproducing the internaland external dynamics of two of the threeprojects. One project, the French one, has beenreproduced up to its present stage because it isplanned to continue to the 2030s. The result ofthe comparison between the militarymegaprojects has shown that such vast projectscan be managed like normal vast developmentprojects. On the other hand, these kinds of vastprojects are comprehensively complex. Suchprojects do also involve ideas leading to projectdevelopments of already known and unknownobstacles before and during the mega projectnot possible to manage and results in projectand development failure

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Mellgren, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Innovation inom den svenska försvarssektorn: En litteratur- och intervjubaserad studie för förståelse av innovation på försvarsområdet med möjliga bidrag till en framtida svensk modell för ökad militär innovationsförmåga2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade the Swedish defense sector has seen drastic cuts in research and development. Compared with ten years ago, only about one third of these funds remains. At the same time, rapid military technology development and security policy changes directly affect demands on the national defense's operational capability.

    In parallel with this, there is strong development and change in the surrounding society, rapid technological development and emergence of a knowledge and information society. Competitiveness in this environment requires continuous development, and refinement of the strategies and methods of innovation.

    This paper aims to critically examine and generate insight into the defense area's model and identify possible contributions to a future model for  developing innovative military capabilities. These findings are derived from qualitative deep interviews and visions on how the innovation system should be organized.

    Findings are presented as a collection of theories and key concepts, as well as recommendations on elements relevant to increased efficacy in a future model. These are organized in five main areas:  procurement strategy, knowledge and network, strength areas, new working methods and key competencies.

    In conclusion, the results of this study indicate an unrealized potential for increased innovation efficiency in the Swedish defense sector.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Innovation inom den svenska försvarssektorn
  • 50.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Limiting Diplomatic Friction: Sweden, the United States and SKF's ball bearing exports to Eastern Europe, 1950-522009In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 273-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the U.S. government’s efforts to curb the Swedish ball bearing producer SKF’s exports to the East early in the Cold War, 1950-1952, and interprets this process within the framework of hegemony theory. The period up to mid-1951 saw increasing U.S. pressure upon Sweden and SKF to consent to U.S. hegemony by abiding by the CoCom embargo. To achieve its objectives U.S. policymakers developed a flexible ‘’carrot and stick’’ approach, and the article adds considerable detail regarding the U.S. government’s handling of SKF. U.S. tolerance and flexibility was dependent upon Swedish consent to American hegemony in Western Europe, which was received through the signing of the Stockholm agreement in mid-June 1951, a hegemonic apparatus through which Sweden’s abidance by the embargo was handled. A small amount of exports was accepted by Washington as long as the main U.S. objective, to deny the Eastern Bloc strategic technology, was adhered to by SKF. The article also reveals the lack of policy coordination in the Swedish government, and the conflicts between the government and SKF regarding the responsibility for adhering to the embargo.

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