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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotions- och salutogenesstrategier och resurser hos resilienta barn: En förutsättning för ledarskapsförmåga. En kvalitativt grundad teori av två skönlitterära böcker av Marléne Lund Kopparklint2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Inadequacy of Bureaucratic Organizations: Organizational Adaptation through Boundary Spanning in a Civil-Military Context2012In: Res Militaris, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledarskap vid komplexa olyckor och kriser: Operativa chefers upplevelser av påverkan från den politiska nivån2007Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Psychol & Social Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leaders as emotional managers: Emotion management in response organisations during a hostage taking in a Swedish prison2015In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how leaders manage their own and others' emotions in professional crisis management organizations during severely demanding episodes. The empirical case is a hostage drama that occurred in a small Swedish town. Although staff at the local prison were situationally prepared and trained in incident exercises, two inmates with knives fled the prison after taking a warden hostage.

    Design/methodology/approach - A grounded theory approach was used. In all, 14 informants from four Swedish authorities were interviewed on the basis of their involvement in the hostage drama.

    Findings - According to the analysis, an emergency response leader's emotion management is framed by an organizationally embedded emotional regime which is summed up in two core themes: focus on the task and do not let emotions interfere; and provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security. The leader's emotion management within this framework consists of two interdependent processes, one more organization oriented and one more individual oriented.

    Research limitations/implications - Small sample, lack of representativeness, and lack of illumination of possible gender-related aspects.

    Practical implications - The suggested model may be valuable in educational settings.

    Originality/value - A new integrative, theoretical process model of leadership and emotion management in complex, stressful operations.

  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hoke Åberg, Pernilla
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sweden: Mission Command and Social Media: Old Leadership Philosophy Challenged by New Information Technology?2017In: Technology and Leadership: International Perspectives / [ed] Lieutenant Colonel Daniel J. Watola, PhD & Allister MacIntyre, PhD, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2017, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Avgångar från Grundläggande Militär Utbildning (GMU): Intervjustudie med rekryter som avbrutit utbildningen i förtid2012Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Min roll är egentligen att vara länk: Ledarskap och organisering vid multinationella militära insatser: En reanalys av länkbegreppet ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv2008Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotional smoothness and confidence building: boundary spanners in a civil-military collaboration context2014In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illuminates a deeper understanding of the processes of confidence building and emotion management among boundary spanners from organisations with a bureaucratic structure in a multinational civil-military operational context. Twenty-one informants (mainly military officers) were interviewed. They had a variety of experiences and occupational roles in civil-military collaboration contexts. A grounded theory analysis of interview data yielded a model according to which the most central aspects of civil-military collaboration are confidence building, maintaining existing confidence, avoiding distrust and rebuilding damaged confidence. The study shows that boundary spanners strategically utilise a variety of emotion management strategies in order to fulfil the demands laid upon them by their collaborating counterparts in the hostile environment and by their own organisation. Three interrelated dimensions of smoothness were identified: cultural, structural and smoothness in risky situations. By acting ‘smoothly’, an adaption to the dynamic environment can be achieved. The proposed model is compared to existing writings on emotional labour and self-presentation.

  • 9.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Starrin, Bengt
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Rules of Emotional Engagement (RoEE): Samverkan och förtroendeskapande ur ett emotionsteoretiskt perspektiv2011Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att bränna eller bygga broar?: En pilotstudie om interkulturell samverkan under internationella missioner ur ett organisationsperspektiv2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Höga chefers arbetstillfredsställelse: sammanfattning av en intervjustudie2016Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Chefens roll i ledningsprocessen: Balansgång mellan informella och formella processer vid stabsarbete - fallstudie vid Marintaktiska staben (MTS)2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Omgivningens påverkan på ledarskap: En studie av jägare i utlandstjänst2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att få en fördjupad förståelse för hur omgivnings­förhållanden påverkar militärt ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden på olika hierarkiska nivåer. Studien genomfördes genom intervjuer med 28 officerare från de tre svenska jägarförbanden AJB, Amf 1 och K 3. Samtliga hade erfarenhet av starkt påfrestande episoder. Intervjuerna tog sin utgångspunkt i en modell över kontextuella förhållanden som påver­kar ledarskap. Resultatet visade att modellen stämde relativt väl samt att ett antal nya påverkansfaktorer tillkom. I flertalet fall där skillnader framkom mellan chefer på lägre och högre nivåer tycktes skillnaderna spegla högre chefers större ansvar för verksamheten respektive lägre chefers mer vardagliga fälterfarenheter. Vid en fördjupad kvalitativ analys kom de ”mjuka” aspekterna ”jägarkultur” och ”grupp­kli­mat och sammansvetsning” att dominera svarsmönstret. Här rådde också samstämmighet mellan chefer på lägre och högre nivå. Detta resultat över­ensstämmer med resultaten i den ursprungliga studien där den teoretiska modellen togs fram och visar att organisations- och gruppför­hållanden av mellanmänsklig karaktär tycks ha en likvärdig inverkan på ledarskap oavsett chefsnivå. Resultatet från studien av jägare behöver prövas bland fler typer av officerare. Om resultaten står sig innebär det att ledarskapsmodellen Utvecklande ledarskap bättre kan situationsanpassas för en given chefsnivå vid framtida ledarskapsutbildning.

  • 14. Andersson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Avlastande samtal inom personalgrupper : Handbok för samtalsledare2009 (ed. 2 [rev.])Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Granberg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Makt, pedagogik, ledarskap och organisation: En studie av ett mekaniserat skyttekompani2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar en studie som genomförts vid P4 i Skövde, där forskargruppen följt 414. Skkomp från augusti 2010 till juni 2011.

    Utbildningen av 414. skyttekompaniet aktualiserar frågor rörande rollspelet mellan solda­ter och officerare, utbildningens utformning, samt frågor om yrkeskunnande och yrkesidenti­tet.

    Mer konkret identifierar studien följande områden för Försvarsmakten att fokusera:

    • begreppen ”soldat” och ”officer” i det nya personalförsörjningssyste­met, och vad det innebär att vara professionell i Försvarsmakten.
    • soldaten och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • grpC tänkta roll och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • hur man på förbanden kan involvera GrpC i ”chain of command”?
    • hur kan Försvarsmakten i handling visa att soldaterna är viktiga”.
    • kring erfarenhetsresonemanget/trappan i syfte att stärka officerarna samt att utveckla professionen totalt sett.
    • hur utbildning skall genomföras när PRIO-org är intagen?

     

    Vidare pekar studien ut frågor kring hur man lokalt hanterar att alla anställda soldater inte kan ingå i en insats (givet att t ex FS-organisationen skiljer sig numerärt från förbandets grund­organisation), samt hur ett förband vidmakt­håller förmågor över tiden.

    I rapporten beskrivs även ett fenomen som handlar om ett informationsglapp mellan kompa­niets ordinarie ledningsstruktur (kompanichef och plutonchefer) och de som genomför olika utbildningsmoment, d v s när den som genomför en trupputbildning inte har ett direkt chefsansvar.

  • 16. Birkheim, K.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    William Hystad, S.
    Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    Mearns, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Luthans, B.
    The Role of Psychological Capital in Perception of Safety Climate Among Air Traffic Controllers2013In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that psychological capital (PsyCap) is associated with desired employee behavioral and performance outcomes. Extending previous research, we examine, in two studies, if the PsyCap of Norwegian air traffic controllers is related to their perceptions of safety climate. Based on bootstrapping procedures, results from Study 1 (N = 77) and Study 2 (N = 38) revealed that PsyCap was positively correlated with safety climate. In Study 1, PsyCap explained 31% of the variance in safety climate. Controlling for mediating effects of positive and negative emotions in Study 2, PsyCap explained 15.5% of the variance. These results provide first-time empirical evidence linking PsyCap to safety climate in safety critical organizations.

  • 17.
    Borgersen, Hanne C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hystad, Sigurd W.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eid, Jarle
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Authentic Leadership and Safety Climate Among Seafarers2014In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 394-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined relationships between authentic leadership and safety climateamong 463 seafarers sailing on 23 merchant vessels in the international shipping industry. A multiple regression analysis was performed, where authentic leadership made a statistically significant contribution to explaining variance in safety climate, controlling for age, rank on board, and social desirable responding. Adding an interaction between authentic leadership and rank on board (officers vs. crew) to the multiple regression analysis did not add to the amount of explained variance (R 2 = .38). Implications for leadership training and safety in shipping are discussed.

  • 18.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Harmony Rather than Unity:  A Command Concept for Complex Endeavours2011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS): Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations / [ed] CCRP, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses concepts of command for complex endeavors. The traditional concepts of Unity of Command and Unity of Effort are found wanting, the former because there is no single individual in command of a complex endeavor, the latter because there is often no time to develop the comprehensive plan required, and if there is time, it is nevertheless difficult because different organizations have different planning methods and different planning cultures. A new command concept, based on our experience from studies of peace support operations is proposed. It is called Harmony of Efforts and it is a C2 concept for complex endeavors that involve a number of organizations, each of which does what it usually does, and for which there is no one commander with authority to enforce unity of command or unity of effort. Under these circumstances, Harmony of Efforts is all that one can hope for. The command concept of Harmony of Efforts specifies the spirit in which C2 issues should be approached, which is cooperation, the method to be used, which is negotiation, and the substance of C2, i.e., what C2 can usefully be concerned with in complex endeavors, which is the management of interfaces between organizations.

  • 19.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Olsson, Sten-Olof
    Försvarsmakten, Markstridsskolan.
    Towards Understanding the Commander´s "Coup d´Oeil". Part 22011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS).: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second paper in a series where we try to understand what Clausewitz called the commander’s “coup d’oeil”, i.e., the ability to understand the situation on the battle field at a glance. We employ a standard paradigm from research on expertise where participants study a scenario and then reproduce it from memory. Last year we reported results consistent with other results from studies of expertise, viz., that experts recall meaningful scenarios better than meaningless scenarios whereas novices recall both types of scenarios equally badly. This year, we report four follow-up experiments. The first two study ex-perts’ and novices’ recall of scenarios after having seen how the scenario de-veloped over time and we do so under two conditions, one where the scenario develops violating constraints on how military units should move and one where they do not in an attempt to distinguish between two possible explana-tions for last year’s results: The constraints hypothesis and the pattern match-ing hypothesis. The results show that both experts perform better than novices but that both groups recall scenarios where the development did not violate constraints better than scenarios where the development violated constraints. We interpret these results as support for the constraints hypothesis. In Experi-ments 2 and 3 we vary the time allowed for inspecting static scenarios on the interpretation of these scenarios with both expert and novice participants. The results show that a short time for inspection affects the interpretation by novic-es to a greater extent than it affects the interpretation by experts, as was pre-dicted by Clausewitz. We interpret this to mean that novices and experts achieve their understanding of a military scenario in different ways.

  • 20.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Officer - att vara eller att icke vara: vad påverkar officerares återanvändbarhet för att delta i upprepade internationella insatser?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den aktuella analysen var att se vilka individvariabler som påverkade officerares fältduglighet och återhämtningsförmåga efter att ha deltagit i internationella insatser, det vill säga deras återanvändbarhet. Återanvändbarheten är en framgångsfaktor i det nya personalförsörjningssystemet då alla anställda och kontrakterade inom Försvarsmakten kan komma att behöva delta i flera internationella insatser under sin tjänstgöringstid. Deltagarna i denna undersökning utgjordes av yrkes- och reservofficerare från två utlandsförband som tjänstgjorde i Kosovo under 2006 och 2007 (N = 111). Utöver självskattningsdata som samlades in vid två tillfällen för respektive förband, före insatsen och efter insatsen, inhämtades också registerdata. Dels mönstringsresultat från Pliktverket eller Krigsarkivet, beroende på när i tiden de hade mönstrat, dels deras vitsord från den aktuella insatsen, från Försvarsmakten. Resultatet visade att mönstringsvariablerna inte hade samband med officerarnas fältduglighet eller återhämtningsförmåga. Överhuvudtaget var det få individvariabler som hade samband med fältdugligheten. Gällande återhämtningsförmåga var det främst Antonovskys formulär Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) som påvisade effekt, där officerare med låga värden på formuläret också var de som hade svårast att återanpassa sig vid hemkomst. Resultaten går i linje med tidigare analyser på soldatnivå, men behöver replikeras innan långtgående slutsatser kan dras.

  • 21.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Construct Validation of a Profession-Focused Personality Questionnaire (PQ) Versus the FFPI and the SIMP2010In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and military context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modeled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the Five Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) (Hendricks, Hofstee, & de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the Single-Item Measures of Personality (SIMP) (Woods & Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ – 41 items and 7 aspects – showed good internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only nonconvergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely because of the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.

  • 22.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Elfgren, Malin
    Behåll lugnet och håll dig frisk: personlighetens och intelligensens påverkan på förmågan att hantera påfrestningar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet hälsa kan betyda olika saker för olika individer och teorier. Det kan handla om antingen fysiologiska eller psykologiska faktorer, men dessa kan också ses som intimt sammanbundna. Det är i det sista perspektivet som denna studie har sitt ursprung, där vi söker en djupare förståelse för ett psykologiskt fenomen som tycks vara svårt att precisera, nämligen en individs känsla av sammanhang (KASAM; eng. Sense of coherence, SOC). KASAM är en generell inställning till livet som tycks påverka förmågan att stå emot påfrestningar och i förlängningen behålla eller till och med förbättra hälsan (Antonovsky, 1993). Det finns en mängd forskning som stärker betydelsen av en hög KASAM för god hälsa och det samma gäller inom det militära. KASAM har tidigare visat sig ha starka samband med veteraners förmåga att återanpassa sig vid hemkomst. KASAM är med andra ord en teori som är av intresse att undersöka vidare.

  • 23.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Individen och risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Risk- och säkerhetsuppfattningar inom det svenska försvaret: Sammanställning av 4 empiriska studier2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar fyra empiriska studier som genomfördes under perioden 2008-2010. Gemensamt för studierna är att de belyser faktorer som påverkar attityder till risk- och säkerhet vid militär verksamhet, med särskilt fokus på individuella karakteristika, ledarskap, och gruppsamman­hållning. Däremot uppvisar studierna en betydande bredd i tillämpningsom­rådet då de belyser dessa aspekter inom olika militära grupper.

    De samlade fynden från studierna visar att individuella karakteristika utryckt i termer av spänningssökande tendenser, säkerhetsskepticism och säkerhetsfatalism har en betydande påverkan på individens risk- och säker­hetsattityder. Resultatet visar också att den grad i vilken den närmaste chefen framhåller risktagning och/eller betonar säkerhet i sitt ledarskap får konsekvenser för underställdas risk- och säkerhetsuppfattningar. Det kan också konstateras utifrån studierna att graden av uppgiftssammanhållning och erfarenhet av utlandstjänst påverkar den enskildes risk- och säkerhets­uppfattningar. Variationer i risk- och säkerhetsattityder tycks i sin tur delvis kunna förklara bristande säkerhetsbeteenden.

    Dagens militära operationer ställer stora krav på militär personal, i syn­nerhet ledare, att bedöma, kommunicera och hantera risk- och säker­hetsfrågor inom ramen för ett brett spektrum av miljöer och uppdrag. Studierna bidrar i detta sammanhang med kunskap om aspekter som bör beaktas av ledare och i utbildningar för att skapa ett positivt och effektivt risk- och säkerhetsklimat.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Riskprofiler inom militär verksamhet: Mätning av riskbenägenhet, impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka reliabiliteten för det internatio­nellt använda testet Evaluation of Risks Scale (EVAR) i en svensk militär kontext. EVAR mäter en generell riskbenägenhet men också olika subdi­mensioner av riskbenägenhet. I studien studerades också relationen mellan riskbenägenhet, olika typer av impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar. Slut­ligen undersöktes skillnader mellan respondentgrupperna för de studerade variablerna.  

    Resultatet visar att EVAR kan användas i en svensk militär kontext och på ett reliabelt sätt ge kunskap om variationer i riskbenägenhet hos militär personal. I synnerhet uppvisas tillfredsställande reliabilitet för gene­rell riskbenägenhet och delskalorna danger seeking, invincibility, risk/thrill seeking och self confidence. Resultatet ger också belägg för att impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar utgör viktiga förklaringsfaktorer för individuella variationer i riskbenägenhet. Vidare indikerar studien att olika typer av ”riskprofiler” kan identifieras utifrån variationer i riskbenägenhet, impulsi­vitet och säkerhetsvärderingar. Slutligen visar resultatet att graden av risk­benägenhet kan skilja sig åt mellan olika militära grupper.

    Att tidigt kunna identifiera personer med farligt risktagande och/eller spänningssökande torde vara av betydelse för de riskfyllda verksamheter som tjänstgöring i insatsförsvaret innebär. Denna studie ger i detta sam­manhang intressanta implikationer vad gäller mätning och analys av rele­vanta aspekter och tar därmed ut riktningen för fortsatta studier inom det svenska försvaret.

  • 26.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundqvist, Linda-Marie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Påfrestande förhållanden i militär verksamhet: Om definitioner, påverkan och attityder2014Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att hitta balansen: En intervjustudie av militära ledares syn på risk- och säkerhetsfrågor2013Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Akutpsykologiskt stöd efter en händelse: En studie kring hur stödet bedrivs under insats och plutonchefens roll2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After a traumatic incident, it is important to be able to care for those who are affected by the situation,both physically and mentally. This requires that you have a working support organization,whose chiefs know what to do.

    The aim of this essay has been to find out how the immediate psychological assistance works inthe Swedish Armed Forces in international missions, after an incident and what role the platooncommander have in it. Furthermore the study focused on the education that the platoon commandershave in immediate psychological assistance and what training they would need. The study wasconducted through qualitative text analysis and interviews with personnel in Försvarspsykiatrinand with soldiers and officers from FS19. Data processing of the results has been based ongrounded theory. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the results, is that there are currentlyno unified visions of how the acute psychological support should be conducted. The oldtheories, that a person who have been involved in a traumatic event, should undergo support in theform of a relief call or debriefing, is now considered to be incorrect by some of the interviewed.

    The study has further shown that the practice of the acute psychological assistance has been dividedbetween the units and the educational level of acute psychological assistance, which isvaried between the platoon commanders The study has also revealed several factors that affecthow the aid is being carried out and what effect it creates in the unit.

  • 29.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    De sista värnpliktiga har muckat: Kvalitet och vilja till engagemang i Försvarsmakten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att beskriva värnpliktskohorten 2009-2010 avseende grundläggande kapaciteter, upplevelse av värnpliktstjänstgöringen och vilja till olika slag av engagemang i Försvarsmakten (FM) efter värnplikten. Vad som bidrar till dessa olika slag av engagemang belyses med materialet uppdelat på män och kvinnor samt på befattningsnivå under tjänstgöringen. En positiv förväntan på militärtjänsten ser ut att vara en bra grund för att med goda erfarenheter av utbildning och ledarskap förstärka inställningen till FM attraktivitet och därmed viljan att fortsätta i denna organisation. Resultaten ger en bild av kvalitet och engagemang för FM hos de sista värnpliktiga i det svenska försvaret. Så mycket som 48 % av de värnpliktiga har uttryckt någon form av engagemang i FM – sökt till internationell tjänst, till officersutbildning, till Hemvärn/Nationella skyddsstyrkan, till någon frivilligorganisation eller har planer på att söka som soldat. Att döma av dessa resultat så är verkningsgraden av värnplikten hög.

  • 30.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Gustafsson, J. E.
    Ullstadius, E.
    Item sequencing effects on the measurement of fluid intelligence2000In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 145-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions of the concept of intelligence typically emphasize two aspects, the ability to solve complex problems (the complexity aspect) and the ability to acquire new knowledge (the learning aspect). Complexity has been the most emphasized aspect in the psychometric approach to research on intelligence. The study investigated whether a change of test item sequencing, intended to increase test complexity, would cause increased involvement of general intelligence (G). Three types of problem-solving items (Groups, Series, and Bongard) were administered in a sequence (the homogeneous treatment, n = 363). In the treatment intended to increase complexity, items of different types were presented by turns (the heterogeneous treatment, n = 1,778). Three reference tests measuring verbal, spatial, and reasoning ability were used in the analysis. Contrary to what was expected, the items presented homogeneously showed higher G loadings. The reason for this might be that in the reasoning tests used, processes of learning took place from one item to another, and that the high-G individuals could take better advantage of this opportunity in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous treatment. The consequences of the results for testing in general and for computer adaptive testing in particular are discussed.

  • 31. Chaturvedi, Sankarp
    et al.
    Zyphur, Michael J.
    Arvey, Richard
    Avolio, Bruce J.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The heritability of emergent leadership: age and gender as moderating factors2012In: Leadership Quarterly, ISSN 1048-9843, E-ISSN 1873-3409, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 219-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined the moderating influences of gender and age with respect to testing the heritability of leadership emergence. A large data base of 12,112 twins from Sweden was used in the current study to decompose the variance of emergentleadership into an unobservable genetic component and environmental components that are either common or unshared among twin pairs. Consistent with prior leadership research on genetics, we found that a genetic factor is able to explain a significant proportion of the variation across individuals in predicting how twins perceive their emergentleadership behavior (about 44% for women and 37% for men). Furthermore, we also found that the magnitude of genetic influence on emergentleadership varied with age, but only for women with the heritability estimate being highest for the mid-age women versus lowest for the older women. Implications for advancing research on the genetic and environmental influences on leadership emergence are discussed.

  • 32.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Understanding Prime Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 33. Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledarskap och beslutsfattande vid komplexa olyckor och kriser: En sammanfattande rapport2007Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Reservofficeren: Från att fylla vakanser till att nyttja kompetenser2009Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Attraktionsarbete och förändring i Försvarsmakten: utmaningar och möjligheter2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om Försvarsmaktens strategiska arbete för att öka sin attraktionskraft med fokus på attraktionsstrategier på organisationsnivå. Frågor ställs om vilka strategier Försvarsmakten använder för att öka sin attraktionskraft och hur Försvarsmakten arbetar för att utveckla sitt varumärke. Jämförelser görs av hur väl Försvarsmaktens strategier stämmer med det som kännetecknar en attraktiv organisation av idag. I studien framkommer att Försvarsmaktens varumärke stärks av att det har en hög igenkänningsfaktor i samhället, samtidigt som det är ett stort problem att "Försvarsmakten" kan betyda så många olika saker.

    Bristen på stabilitet i organisationen, orsakad av de förändringar som ständigt pågår, bidrar också till otydlighet kring Försvarsmaktens varumärke och identitet. Denna otydlighet gör det svårt för personalen att identifiera sig med organisationen och agera i överensstämmelse med organisationens värden. Så även om informationskanaler finns är det svårt att informera då innehållet till del saknas.

  • 36.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att komma ikapp: En studie om samverkan och ledarskap vid en svavelsyreolycka i Helsingborg 20052006Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Dückers, Michel L. A.
    et al.
    National knowledge and advice centre for psychosocial care concerning critical incidents, Diemen, The Netherlands; NIVEL – Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    Thormar, Sigridur B.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Juen, Barbara
    Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olff, Miranda
    Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0193285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project “Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis” (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: “planning and delivery system” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); “general evaluation criteria” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); and “essential psychosocial principles” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). “Measures and interventions applied”, theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some measures and interventions are more likely to be applied in programmes with more evolved planning and delivery systems, yet for most measures and interventions the likelihood of being applied is not linked to planning and delivery system status, nor to coordinator perceptions concerning psychosocial principles and evaluation criteria. Further research is necessary to validate and expand the findings and to learn more about success factors and obstacles for MHPSS programme implementation.

  • 38.
    Ekman, Olof
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    National Perspectives in Multinational Headquarters: The Case of EUFOR Tchad/RCA2012In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 190-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the European Union crisis management capability argue for establishing a permanent Operations Headquarters (OHQ) instead of the temporary alternatives currently available. These studies picture temporary OHQs as slow starters hampered by multiple interests and a lack of common grounds. This paper corroborates these studies by reporting on the empirical findings of a year-long case study of the EUFORTchad/RCA OHQ. The combined results of observations, interviews, and surveys indicate that national perspectives not only existed in the OHQ, but were also asymmetric in the sense that staff members from France and Ireland nations displayed stronger national perspectives than staff members from other nations. However, the general trust between staff members seems to have been largely unaffected by this. The findings also indicate a process of familiarization spanning over several months. This paper argues that temporary multinational headquarters are likely to work around frictions and mature into well-functioning organization, but that this is a time-consuming process in which national parallel chains of command may remain. Prior training should prepare staff members for this. In addition, leading nations need to understand their strong visibility and to be careful not to dominate the day-to-day staff work.

  • 39.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kassandra möter dr Pangloss: om krisberedskapens psykologi2013In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vilken syn har allmänheten på risk och säkerhet?2009In: Räddningsledaren: medlemsinformation, ISSN 1104-3776, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Scorched communities: recovery and learning after wildfire2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, towards the end of a hot and very dry summer in Sweden, a fire broke out in the forests of the county of Västmanland. Fanned by high winds, this forest fire rapidly swept out of control, developing into a major disaster and national emergency. The acute phase continued for eleven days, resulting in one death, one seriously injured, 71 buildings and over 13,800 hectares of forest destroyed. Approximately 1000 persons and 1700 livestock were evacuated. In the aftermath of the fire, considerable criticism has been raised regarding the firefighting operation, communication with the affected communities and the functioning of the Swedish crisis management system in general. A number of inquiries and analyses have been initiated, some of which are still in progress. The fire has had dramatic effects on the environment, which will be clearly visible in the landscape for many years to come. Less visible, but equally far-reaching are the psychological and social consequences for the affected communities. This paper describes a project initiated in 2015 to study the impact of the Västmanland fire in affected local communities, focusing temporally on the first two years after the event. The impact is conceived of as deriving from the experience of the fire itself and its immediate physical consequences, and from adjusting to physical and social changes in the local environment, but it is also taken to stem from the multiple perceptions and varying understandings among different social actors of how the event has been managed and how it has been framed in the media. In the project these different perspectives are reflected in analyses of reporting in the media, examination of inquiry reports and other materials, observations and interviews with key actors, various stakeholders and community representatives. The purpose of the project is to understand how people and organizations have coped with and recovered from this particular environmental disaster in order to identify factors that support or prevent short term recovery and medium term resilience at the individual and community level. An overall outline of the project will be presented, together with some preliminary findings relating to implications of the post-fire period for recovery and learning processes. 

  • 42.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Uppfattningar och reaktioner inför risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why worry?: Motivation for crisis preparedness work among municipal leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 44.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Det händer mitt ibland oss: kommunala erfarenheter av socialt genererade kriser2008Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Yrkesofficerares drivkrafter: En studie i motivationsfaktorer hos svenska yrkesofficerare2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted using a multiple research method with an exploratory approach. The empirical material was based on interviews and surveys with a total of 238 professional officers. 228 officers were employed by the Swedish Armed Forces at the time of the study. The survey questions dealt with the prime movers that motivated professional officers to remain in their profession. The result of the study showed the key prime movers for the officer profession consisted of a number of factors, which grouped in Maslow's theory of needs, turned out to complete all the steps in the needs hierarchy. Some of the major motivation factors however, showed differences in their weighting rate considering different variables such as age and weapons branch affiliation, but also variables such as motivation level, international experience and previous civilian experience. The Swedish Armed Forces constitute an arena for satisfaction for a large part of the officer's personal needs. However, this arena is currently perceived as having some deficiencies, mainly structural ones, leading to a clearly reduced level of motivation in a large part of the population.

  • 46.
    Estrada, Armando X.
    et al.
    Washington State Univ, Dept Psychol, Vancouver, WA USA.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sexual Harassment and its Impact for Women Officers and Cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 162-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the incidence, dimensions, and impact of sexual harassment on women officers and cadets in the Swedish military (N = 324). We expected that harassment rates for direct measures would be lower than for indirect measures; hostile environment harassment would be more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment would negatively influence women's job-related outcomes and their psychological and physical health. We found that harassment rates for direct measures were lower than indirect measures; hostile environment harassment was more prevalent than quid pro quo harassment; and harassment was associated with decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work group effectiveness, and psychological and physical health. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of our findings for studying harassment across cultures.

  • 47.
    Fjellman, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Mental practice for military performance2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine whether the Swedish Armed Forces can use mental training to develop the soldiers and officers in the military profession, a secondary objective was to examine how mental training methods can be integrated into the Swedish Armed Forces' daily activities. The study was carried out in the form of a literature review. The search of literature was done in scientific and military data bases, and retrieval from the Department of Leadership and Management (ILM) in Karlstad. The literature and articles were reviewed which resulted in only 19 out of 64 collected works were judged to have acceptable scientific quality and be of relevance for the topic. The results of the survey show that the use of mental training techniques goal setting, imagery, self-talk and relaxation strategies can produce positive effects for individual development of soldiers and officers. First, by allowing them to improve performance and stress management ability, secondly by creating motivation. An integration of the mental training techniques requires a training of officers carried out by experts and an individual motivation in soldiers.

  • 48.
    Fors Brandebo, maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstads universitet.
    Leadership: Is bad stronger than good?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstads universitet.
    Military Leaders and Trust2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study trust in military leaders. Empirical data was gathered through interviews and questionnaires with military personnel mostly from Sweden, but also from four other European countries.

    Paper I illustrates that trust in military leaders can be theoretically understood in terms of a hierarchical system of categories, higher-level categories and two superior categories labelled Individual-related and Communication- and relationship-related characteristics.

    Paper II examines how trust between military leaders and their subordinates is related to negative critical incidents in international operations. The results show that trust can be affected by pre-existing influences, of both an individual and contextual nature. The level of trust that develops between leaders and subordinates appears to have an influence on perceptions and re-evaluations of leaders’ trustworthiness during and after involvement in critical incidents.

    In Paper III, an instrument, Destrudo-L, was developed to measure destructive leadership behaviours on five different dimensions: Arrogant, unfair, Threats, punishments, overdemands, Ego-oriented, false, Passive, cowardly, and Uncertain, unclear, messy.

    In Paper IV the relationship between constructive and destructive leadership behaviours and trust is examined. The results show that constructive leadership contributed most to trust in the immediate supervisor. A great deal of trust in immediate supervisors can be understood by evaluating both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours.

    This thesis contributes with context-specific knowledge on trust in leaders in a military context and knowledge of psychological processes and individual dispositions that shape and change the willingness to trust leaders. The main findings presented in this thesis are the identification of characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the context which influences trust in military leaders.

  • 50.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The development and consequences of trust in Irregular warfare2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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