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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotions- och salutogenesstrategier och resurser hos resilienta barn: En förutsättning för ledarskapsförmåga. En kvalitativt grundad teori av två skönlitterära böcker av Marléne Lund Kopparklint2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Inadequacy of Bureaucratic Organizations: Organizational Adaptation through Boundary Spanning in a Civil-Military Context2012In: Res Militaris, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledarskap vid komplexa olyckor och kriser: Operativa chefers upplevelser av påverkan från den politiska nivån2007Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Psychol & Social Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leaders as emotional managers: Emotion management in response organisations during a hostage taking in a Swedish prison2015In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how leaders manage their own and others' emotions in professional crisis management organizations during severely demanding episodes. The empirical case is a hostage drama that occurred in a small Swedish town. Although staff at the local prison were situationally prepared and trained in incident exercises, two inmates with knives fled the prison after taking a warden hostage.

    Design/methodology/approach - A grounded theory approach was used. In all, 14 informants from four Swedish authorities were interviewed on the basis of their involvement in the hostage drama.

    Findings - According to the analysis, an emergency response leader's emotion management is framed by an organizationally embedded emotional regime which is summed up in two core themes: focus on the task and do not let emotions interfere; and provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security. The leader's emotion management within this framework consists of two interdependent processes, one more organization oriented and one more individual oriented.

    Research limitations/implications - Small sample, lack of representativeness, and lack of illumination of possible gender-related aspects.

    Practical implications - The suggested model may be valuable in educational settings.

    Originality/value - A new integrative, theoretical process model of leadership and emotion management in complex, stressful operations.

  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hoke Åberg, Pernilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sweden - Mission Command and Social Media: Old Leadership Philosophy Challenged by New Information Technology?2017In: Technology and Leadership: International Perspectives / [ed] Daniel J. Watola & Allister MacIntyre, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2017, 1, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Avgångar från Grundläggande Militär Utbildning (GMU): Intervjustudie med rekryter som avbrutit utbildningen i förtid2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Min roll är egentligen att vara länk: Ledarskap och organisering vid multinationella militära insatser: En reanalys av länkbegreppet ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv2008Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Emotional smoothness and confidence building: boundary spanners in a civil-military collaboration context2014In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illuminates a deeper understanding of the processes of confidence building and emotion management among boundary spanners from organisations with a bureaucratic structure in a multinational civil-military operational context. Twenty-one informants (mainly military officers) were interviewed. They had a variety of experiences and occupational roles in civil-military collaboration contexts. A grounded theory analysis of interview data yielded a model according to which the most central aspects of civil-military collaboration are confidence building, maintaining existing confidence, avoiding distrust and rebuilding damaged confidence. The study shows that boundary spanners strategically utilise a variety of emotion management strategies in order to fulfil the demands laid upon them by their collaborating counterparts in the hostile environment and by their own organisation. Three interrelated dimensions of smoothness were identified: cultural, structural and smoothness in risky situations. By acting ‘smoothly’, an adaption to the dynamic environment can be achieved. The proposed model is compared to existing writings on emotional labour and self-presentation.

  • 9.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Starrin, Bengt
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Rules of Emotional Engagement (RoEE): Samverkan och förtroendeskapande ur ett emotionsteoretiskt perspektiv2011Report (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att bränna eller bygga broar?: En pilotstudie om interkulturell samverkan under internationella missioner ur ett organisationsperspektiv2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 11.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Höga chefers arbetstillfredsställelse: sammanfattning av en intervjustudie2016Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Chefens roll i ledningsprocessen: Balansgång mellan informella och formella processer vid stabsarbete - fallstudie vid Marintaktiska staben (MTS)2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Organizational challenges and leaders' coping strategies: a qualitative study of Swedish military staff organization2020In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous societal change processes such as globalization, professionalization and social and technical acceleration have challenged military organizations. The aims of this study were to (1) gain a deeper understanding of coping strategies used by the military leaders at the strategic level to manage everyday organizational demands and (2) relate these strategies to multidisciplinary models of organizational challenges. Owing to an insufficiently developed base of research, an inductive approach was used. Interviews were performed with 23 Swedish brigadier generals and colonels. Five coping strategies were found for handling the negative organizational aspects: repair work, catching up, reproducing, using formal and informal strategies and managing loyalties. The theoretical concepts of narcissistic, anorectic and greedy organizations were used as a framework when interpreting the inductively generated coping strategies. It was suggested that the specific connection found between individual-level coping strategies and theoretically framed organizational challenges is new. The results of this study are discussed theoretically and may be valuable in educational settings when evaluating the working conditions and performance of high-level officers.

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  • 14.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Omgivningens påverkan på ledarskap: En studie av jägare i utlandstjänst2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att få en fördjupad förståelse för hur omgivnings­förhållanden påverkar militärt ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden på olika hierarkiska nivåer. Studien genomfördes genom intervjuer med 28 officerare från de tre svenska jägarförbanden AJB, Amf 1 och K 3. Samtliga hade erfarenhet av starkt påfrestande episoder. Intervjuerna tog sin utgångspunkt i en modell över kontextuella förhållanden som påver­kar ledarskap. Resultatet visade att modellen stämde relativt väl samt att ett antal nya påverkansfaktorer tillkom. I flertalet fall där skillnader framkom mellan chefer på lägre och högre nivåer tycktes skillnaderna spegla högre chefers större ansvar för verksamheten respektive lägre chefers mer vardagliga fälterfarenheter. Vid en fördjupad kvalitativ analys kom de ”mjuka” aspekterna ”jägarkultur” och ”grupp­kli­mat och sammansvetsning” att dominera svarsmönstret. Här rådde också samstämmighet mellan chefer på lägre och högre nivå. Detta resultat över­ensstämmer med resultaten i den ursprungliga studien där den teoretiska modellen togs fram och visar att organisations- och gruppför­hållanden av mellanmänsklig karaktär tycks ha en likvärdig inverkan på ledarskap oavsett chefsnivå. Resultatet från studien av jägare behöver prövas bland fler typer av officerare. Om resultaten står sig innebär det att ledarskapsmodellen Utvecklande ledarskap bättre kan situationsanpassas för en given chefsnivå vid framtida ledarskapsutbildning.

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  • 15. Andersson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Avlastande samtal inom personalgrupper : Handbok för samtalsledare2009 (ed. 2 [rev.])Book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Newcomers Taking Different Paths: Proximal Socialization Outcome Profiles among Police Officers2022In: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2022, p. 532-533, article id P37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify the complexity of organizational socialization, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Organizational socialization concerns the learning and adjustment process enabling newcomers to adapt to an organizational role. Proximal outcomes (or adjustment indicators) are assumed to reflect how well individuals adjust on their way to become organizational insiders, while distal outcomes reflect the ultimate organizational socialization outcomes. Thus, proximal outcomes precede distal outcomes, mediating effects of various organizational and individual socialization factors (known as antecedents) that foster the socialization process.

    Method: In this study, a person-centered analytic approach was used to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430), from three time points (T0 = Application process [spring 2008], T1 = Near end of field training [end of 2010], and T2 = Near end of first work year [end of 2011]), were analyzed. First, latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify proximal outcomes profiles. Then, the identified profiles were validated by a complementary analysis, which examined differences in antecedents and distal socialization outcomes among officers with different profiles.

    Results: Among the new police officers, three proximal outcome profiles were identified – a vulnerable (35%), a troublesome (11%), and a successful (54%) – with profiles exhibiting distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents (e.g., personality and psychosocial working conditions) and distal outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and work-related anxiety), thus emphasizing the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions in organizational socialization.

    Implications: The study showed that proximal socialization outcome indicators may form profiles that characterize subgroups of newcomers following different socialization paths. Depicting how the socialization process may differ among subgroups is a significant theoretical contribution that adds nuance to traditional stage models. Findings also emphasize that both psychosocial working conditions and personality are important antecedents, which support viewing organizational socialization as an interactive process including both the individual and the environment. Accordingly, the study suggests the person-centered approach as promising for gaining new insights regarding organizational socialization processes. Further, this study indicates that the socialization process was successful for most new police officers. Still, for a fairly large proportion (i.e., the Vulnerable and Troublesome groups), the proximal outcome profiles indicated a less favourable adjustment. The differences in proximal outcome profiles suggest that the Troublesome and the Vulnerable groups struggled with somewhat different adjustment challenges, which may yield organizational challenges. From an applied perspective, the findings suggest that targeting the challenges and needs that characterize different groups of newcomers may help organizations to tailor actions facilitating learning and adjustment among newcomers. Moreover, to facilitate newcomers’ socialization, organizations may also benefit from monitoring newcomers’ experiences of their working climate as well as their personality.

  • 17.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    On the same path? Profiles of proximal socialization outcomes among new police officers2022In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 301-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify complex relationships among organizational socialization variables, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. This approach is novel to organizational socialization research, contrasting the variable-centered approach dominating the field. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430) were analyzed using latent profile analysis (LPA). Three proximal outcome profiles - a vulnerable (n = 151), a troublesome (n = 47), and a successful (n = 232) - were identified, with distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents and distal outcomes, which emphasized the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions. Thus, the findings show that proximal socialization outcome indicators may yield profiles characteristic of subgroups of newcomers who follow different socialization paths. Importantly, the findings show that a person-centered approach can add nuance to the understanding of how socialization processes differ among newcomers. While these results are promising, their generalizability to other professions and organizations remains to be investigated, which calls for continued person-centered research of organizational socialization processes.

  • 18.
    Annerfjärd, Christoffer
    Swedish Defence University.
    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drones or Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) were first developed for military use in the start of the twentieth century and were part of a major push toward “airpower”. Nowadays they are available for the public, smaller and easier to fly. This comes with countless opportunities but also security risks. This essay aims to study military risk-taking in a context where this type of threat is prominent. To understand how future military commanders will act upon these threats, a quantitative study with hypothesis will form the basis for answering the question of which mechanism has effect on the level of risk-taking when the subject is faced with the threat of RPAS. The study shows that the support of the squad, self-experienced knowledge about the threat and previous experience of international service has an impact, but no statistical significance to support their effect on the degree of risk-taking in these survey-based scenarios. Surprisingly, age is one of the most significant results of increased risk-taking which forms new questions about risk, experience, and modern threats.

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    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare
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    Bilaga 1_Enkät om riskbenägenhet bland svensk militär
  • 19.
    Bencker, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Common demanding conditions among professional high-level military and sport leaders: a cross-contextual qualitative reflexive thematic analysis2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and sport have attracted increased research interest separately as two distinctly demanding performance- and leadership-driven contexts. However, cross-contextual psychological research in leadership is lacking. Such research has potential to expose unique cross-fertilising insights into resemblances in leadership challenges among military and sport leaders, transferable to a broader range of contexts. Thus, the current study simultaneously explored high-level military and sport leaders’ real-life experiences of similarities in demanding conditions and their psychological manifestations. Sixteen participants - eight Swedish high-level military leaders and eight Swedish high-level sport leaders, participated in the study. Using a qualitative inductive cross-contextual design enabled in-depth knowledge and transferability. A reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of sixteen interview transcripts generated four common themes of demanding conditions: (1) Developing organisations: Leading under an extensive workload and responsibility, (2) Managing destructive superiors and subordinates: Standing up for oneself, (3) Taking care of the minds and moods of others: Leading deliberated difficult conversations, and (4) Periods of extreme concentration: Leading critical coordination, decisions, and timing. The findings tie high-level military and sports leaders together into a high-stress and high-stakes leader role invoked to manoeuvre a complex buildup of demanding conditions. Implications are presented.

  • 20.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Granberg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Makt, pedagogik, ledarskap och organisation: En studie av ett mekaniserat skyttekompani2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar en studie som genomförts vid P4 i Skövde, där forskargruppen följt 414. Skkomp från augusti 2010 till juni 2011.

    Utbildningen av 414. skyttekompaniet aktualiserar frågor rörande rollspelet mellan solda­ter och officerare, utbildningens utformning, samt frågor om yrkeskunnande och yrkesidenti­tet.

    Mer konkret identifierar studien följande områden för Försvarsmakten att fokusera:

    • begreppen ”soldat” och ”officer” i det nya personalförsörjningssyste­met, och vad det innebär att vara professionell i Försvarsmakten.
    • soldaten och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • grpC tänkta roll och kompetensutveckling av dessa.
    • hur man på förbanden kan involvera GrpC i ”chain of command”?
    • hur kan Försvarsmakten i handling visa att soldaterna är viktiga”.
    • kring erfarenhetsresonemanget/trappan i syfte att stärka officerarna samt att utveckla professionen totalt sett.
    • hur utbildning skall genomföras när PRIO-org är intagen?

     

    Vidare pekar studien ut frågor kring hur man lokalt hanterar att alla anställda soldater inte kan ingå i en insats (givet att t ex FS-organisationen skiljer sig numerärt från förbandets grund­organisation), samt hur ett förband vidmakt­håller förmågor över tiden.

    I rapporten beskrivs även ett fenomen som handlar om ett informationsglapp mellan kompa­niets ordinarie ledningsstruktur (kompanichef och plutonchefer) och de som genomför olika utbildningsmoment, d v s när den som genomför en trupputbildning inte har ett direkt chefsansvar.

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  • 21.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Oskarsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Analysis of the psychometric properties of a dice test - strategies for item difficulty and targeting improvements2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Stridens psykologi: konsten att döda och överleva2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i de mest extrema situationer vi ofta finner människans mest onda och grymma handlingar. Men det är även där individer ofta uppvisar tapperhet, lojalitet och osjälviskt riskerar sitt eget liv för att hjälpa andra. När vi kan förstå mänskliga reaktioner i extrema situationer blir vi bättre rustade att fungera i dem, men också att förstå många fenomen vi omges av i vardagen. Stridens psykologi tar bland annat upp psykologiska aspekter på ondska, våldsutövning, fångenskap, tortyr och att möta döden. Men den diskuterar också coping, överlevnad och vägen tillbaka efter att ha upplevt extrema situationer, såsom krig. Boken tar sin utgångspunkt hos soldater i strid. Resonemangen är dock tillämpbara även för andra yrkesgrupper som regelmässigt arbetar i extrema situationer eller möter människor i kris såsom poliser, brandmän, sjukvårdspersonal, psykologer och präster. Men kriser drabbar inte bara yrkesfolk. Över 80 procent av oss kommer under vår livstid att uppleva något potentiellt traumatiserande, och denna bok kan göra dig bättre rustad att hantera det

  • 23.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Berntson, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Preparing to lead in combat: Development of leadership self-efficacy by static-line parachuting2019In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined whether a static-line parachute program could help prepare future military officers to lead in extreme situations by increasing leadership self-efficacy. Parachute training is commonly used for preparing to lead in combat since it presents a perceived threat to life which requires active mastery. Achieving such mastery facilitates the development of leader self-control efficacy and leader assertiveness efficacy. This assumption was tested in a real training situation within the Swedish Military Academy where two groups of cadets were included in the study. The group of cadets undertaking parachute training conducted repeated measures of assessment of their self-efficacy before and after the course as well as at a five-month follow-up. The results show that parachute training increased leader self-control efficacy when compared to a group of cadets who undertook different training. In addition, the training given contributed to increased leader assertiveness efficacy for both groups.

  • 24.
    Berndtsson, Joakim
    et al.
    a School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    A question of time? Deployments, dwell time, and work-life balance for military personnel in Scandinavia2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, interest in the different ways in which military employment affects individuals’ work-life balance (WLB) has grown. At the same time, research on military organizations and personnel has increasingly included time-related factors such as deploy-to-dwell (D2D) ratios to help explain adverse health effects of overseas deployments. The aim of this article is to explore connections between organizational systems for regulating deployment frequency and dwell (or respite) time with a particular focus on potential consequences for work-life balance. We focus on personal and organizational factors that shape the nature and outcome of work-life balance, including stress, mental health problems, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. To explore these links, we first provide an overview of research on the impact of deploy-to-dwell ratios on mental health and social relations. We then turn to the regulation and organization of deployment and dwell time in Scandinavia. Here, the ambition is to identify potential sources of work-life conflict and associated effects for deployed personnel. The results provide a basis for further research into time-related effects of military deployments.

  • 25.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden, (SWE).
    Samspel och tillit mellan chefer och stödfunktioner2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Anna Cregård; Tina Forsberg; Erik Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 29-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om chefer, experter och stödfunktioner i kommuner - och om deras administrativa arbete. Den kommunala sektorns administration har på några decennier förändrats genomgripande, både vad gäller omfattning, arbetsinnehåll och styrka. Inom flera områden har roller professionaliserats, och mer kraft och resurser har lagts på att styra organisationen med bakgrund i krav på granskningsbarhet, kommunövergripande policyer och mätbar måluppfyllelse. Det har kommit att påverka hela den kommunala organisationen. I den här boken redogör vi för hur samspel mellan olika administrativa funktioner (såsom chefer, stödverksamhet och staber) ser ut och förändras. Vi diskuterar också hur goda samspel kan se ut, och vad som krävs för att åstadkomma sådana. Boken riktar sig till alla med intresse för organisatoriskt samspel mellan chefer, experter av olika slag och servicefunktioner i dagens kommunala värld. Särskilt riktar den sig till studenter som läser utbildningar inom personal- och arbetsvetenskap, organisation och ledarskap, och offentlig förvaltning, samt till dem som arbetar med ledning och administration i kommuner.

  • 26. Birkheim, K.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    William Hystad, S.
    Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    Mearns, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Luthans, B.
    The Role of Psychological Capital in Perception of Safety Climate Among Air Traffic Controllers2013In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that psychological capital (PsyCap) is associated with desired employee behavioral and performance outcomes. Extending previous research, we examine, in two studies, if the PsyCap of Norwegian air traffic controllers is related to their perceptions of safety climate. Based on bootstrapping procedures, results from Study 1 (N = 77) and Study 2 (N = 38) revealed that PsyCap was positively correlated with safety climate. In Study 1, PsyCap explained 31% of the variance in safety climate. Controlling for mediating effects of positive and negative emotions in Study 2, PsyCap explained 15.5% of the variance. These results provide first-time empirical evidence linking PsyCap to safety climate in safety critical organizations.

  • 27.
    Borgersen, Hanne C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hystad, Sigurd W.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eid, Jarle
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Authentic Leadership and Safety Climate Among Seafarers2014In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 394-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined relationships between authentic leadership and safety climateamong 463 seafarers sailing on 23 merchant vessels in the international shipping industry. A multiple regression analysis was performed, where authentic leadership made a statistically significant contribution to explaining variance in safety climate, controlling for age, rank on board, and social desirable responding. Adding an interaction between authentic leadership and rank on board (officers vs. crew) to the multiple regression analysis did not add to the amount of explained variance (R 2 = .38). Implications for leadership training and safety in shipping are discussed.

  • 28.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Harmony Rather than Unity:  A Command Concept for Complex Endeavours2011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS): Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations / [ed] CCRP, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses concepts of command for complex endeavors. The traditional concepts of Unity of Command and Unity of Effort are found wanting, the former because there is no single individual in command of a complex endeavor, the latter because there is often no time to develop the comprehensive plan required, and if there is time, it is nevertheless difficult because different organizations have different planning methods and different planning cultures. A new command concept, based on our experience from studies of peace support operations is proposed. It is called Harmony of Efforts and it is a C2 concept for complex endeavors that involve a number of organizations, each of which does what it usually does, and for which there is no one commander with authority to enforce unity of command or unity of effort. Under these circumstances, Harmony of Efforts is all that one can hope for. The command concept of Harmony of Efforts specifies the spirit in which C2 issues should be approached, which is cooperation, the method to be used, which is negotiation, and the substance of C2, i.e., what C2 can usefully be concerned with in complex endeavors, which is the management of interfaces between organizations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Harmony Rather than Unity. A Command Concept for Complex Endeavours
  • 29.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Olsson, Sten-Olof
    Försvarsmakten, Markstridsskolan.
    Towards Understanding the Commander´s "Coup d´Oeil". Part 22011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS).: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second paper in a series where we try to understand what Clausewitz called the commander’s “coup d’oeil”, i.e., the ability to understand the situation on the battle field at a glance. We employ a standard paradigm from research on expertise where participants study a scenario and then reproduce it from memory. Last year we reported results consistent with other results from studies of expertise, viz., that experts recall meaningful scenarios better than meaningless scenarios whereas novices recall both types of scenarios equally badly. This year, we report four follow-up experiments. The first two study ex-perts’ and novices’ recall of scenarios after having seen how the scenario de-veloped over time and we do so under two conditions, one where the scenario develops violating constraints on how military units should move and one where they do not in an attempt to distinguish between two possible explana-tions for last year’s results: The constraints hypothesis and the pattern match-ing hypothesis. The results show that both experts perform better than novices but that both groups recall scenarios where the development did not violate constraints better than scenarios where the development violated constraints. We interpret these results as support for the constraints hypothesis. In Experi-ments 2 and 3 we vary the time allowed for inspecting static scenarios on the interpretation of these scenarios with both expert and novice participants. The results show that a short time for inspection affects the interpretation by novic-es to a greater extent than it affects the interpretation by experts, as was pre-dicted by Clausewitz. We interpret this to mean that novices and experts achieve their understanding of a military scenario in different ways.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Towards Understanding the Commander´s "Coup d´Oeil". Part 2
  • 30.
    Brodrej, Pepule Majken
    Swedish Defence University.
    Potential AI Application In The Swedish Army And Its Relation To The Holiness Of Life: A study of army officers' narratives on the military experience in the face of AI2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines army officer's view of the social implications of AI within the Swedish Army, as well as what is required of researchers to understand the implications of AI. The thesis is based on an interpretive study of the army officers' narrative and is supported by contemporary research on AI for military use. The theoretical framework includes ideas on social contracts, transrational sentiments, emotions (like love) as meaning making, human life as Holy and bounded rationality. The theme of the Holiness of human life opens up a discussion about the value of trust, hope and love within the activities of the Swedish Army. The analysis describes how the view of AI is partly positive, while simultaneously containing skepticism and fear that technical optimism will lead to a destructive use of it. Participants in the study describe AI's rationality in contrast to human rationality, and war is presented as a non-rational social process. This leads the study to an interpretation of the meaning of the officers distancing and fear towards AI. It addresses the risks of a higher AI usage rate in war, which include; decision makers loss of credibility, devaluation of life and the appearance of war as nonsensical and meaningless, which could contribute to an indifference towards human life and suffering. The conclusion addresses human life as a human responsibility because its meaning and value is socially constructed, the benefits of exploring AI capabilities and the significance of understanding the social culture where the AI is to be used - as it affects the application outcome.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Potential AI application in the Swedish Army and its relation to the Holiness of Life - Pepule Brodrej
  • 31.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Officer - att vara eller att icke vara: vad påverkar officerares återanvändbarhet för att delta i upprepade internationella insatser?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den aktuella analysen var att se vilka individvariabler som påverkade officerares fältduglighet och återhämtningsförmåga efter att ha deltagit i internationella insatser, det vill säga deras återanvändbarhet. Återanvändbarheten är en framgångsfaktor i det nya personalförsörjningssystemet då alla anställda och kontrakterade inom Försvarsmakten kan komma att behöva delta i flera internationella insatser under sin tjänstgöringstid. Deltagarna i denna undersökning utgjordes av yrkes- och reservofficerare från två utlandsförband som tjänstgjorde i Kosovo under 2006 och 2007 (N = 111). Utöver självskattningsdata som samlades in vid två tillfällen för respektive förband, före insatsen och efter insatsen, inhämtades också registerdata. Dels mönstringsresultat från Pliktverket eller Krigsarkivet, beroende på när i tiden de hade mönstrat, dels deras vitsord från den aktuella insatsen, från Försvarsmakten. Resultatet visade att mönstringsvariablerna inte hade samband med officerarnas fältduglighet eller återhämtningsförmåga. Överhuvudtaget var det få individvariabler som hade samband med fältdugligheten. Gällande återhämtningsförmåga var det främst Antonovskys formulär Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) som påvisade effekt, där officerare med låga värden på formuläret också var de som hade svårast att återanpassa sig vid hemkomst. Resultaten går i linje med tidigare analyser på soldatnivå, men behöver replikeras innan långtgående slutsatser kan dras.

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  • 32.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Construct Validation of a Profession-Focused Personality Questionnaire (PQ) Versus the FFPI and the SIMP2010In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and military context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modeled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the Five Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) (Hendricks, Hofstee, & de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the Single-Item Measures of Personality (SIMP) (Woods & Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ – 41 items and 7 aspects – showed good internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only nonconvergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely because of the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.

  • 33.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Elfgren, Malin
    Behåll lugnet och håll dig frisk: personlighetens och intelligensens påverkan på förmågan att hantera påfrestningar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet hälsa kan betyda olika saker för olika individer och teorier. Det kan handla om antingen fysiologiska eller psykologiska faktorer, men dessa kan också ses som intimt sammanbundna. Det är i det sista perspektivet som denna studie har sitt ursprung, där vi söker en djupare förståelse för ett psykologiskt fenomen som tycks vara svårt att precisera, nämligen en individs känsla av sammanhang (KASAM; eng. Sense of coherence, SOC). KASAM är en generell inställning till livet som tycks påverka förmågan att stå emot påfrestningar och i förlängningen behålla eller till och med förbättra hälsan (Antonovsky, 1993). Det finns en mängd forskning som stärker betydelsen av en hög KASAM för god hälsa och det samma gäller inom det militära. KASAM har tidigare visat sig ha starka samband med veteraners förmåga att återanpassa sig vid hemkomst. KASAM är med andra ord en teori som är av intresse att undersöka vidare.

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  • 34.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Individen och risker2017In: Rustad för risk: riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander, Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Risk- och säkerhetsuppfattningar inom det svenska försvaret: Sammanställning av 4 empiriska studier2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar fyra empiriska studier som genomfördes under perioden 2008-2010. Gemensamt för studierna är att de belyser faktorer som påverkar attityder till risk- och säkerhet vid militär verksamhet, med särskilt fokus på individuella karakteristika, ledarskap, och gruppsamman­hållning. Däremot uppvisar studierna en betydande bredd i tillämpningsom­rådet då de belyser dessa aspekter inom olika militära grupper.

    De samlade fynden från studierna visar att individuella karakteristika utryckt i termer av spänningssökande tendenser, säkerhetsskepticism och säkerhetsfatalism har en betydande påverkan på individens risk- och säker­hetsattityder. Resultatet visar också att den grad i vilken den närmaste chefen framhåller risktagning och/eller betonar säkerhet i sitt ledarskap får konsekvenser för underställdas risk- och säkerhetsuppfattningar. Det kan också konstateras utifrån studierna att graden av uppgiftssammanhållning och erfarenhet av utlandstjänst påverkar den enskildes risk- och säkerhets­uppfattningar. Variationer i risk- och säkerhetsattityder tycks i sin tur delvis kunna förklara bristande säkerhetsbeteenden.

    Dagens militära operationer ställer stora krav på militär personal, i syn­nerhet ledare, att bedöma, kommunicera och hantera risk- och säker­hetsfrågor inom ramen för ett brett spektrum av miljöer och uppdrag. Studierna bidrar i detta sammanhang med kunskap om aspekter som bör beaktas av ledare och i utbildningar för att skapa ett positivt och effektivt risk- och säkerhetsklimat.

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  • 36.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Riskprofiler inom militär verksamhet: Mätning av riskbenägenhet, impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka reliabiliteten för det internatio­nellt använda testet Evaluation of Risks Scale (EVAR) i en svensk militär kontext. EVAR mäter en generell riskbenägenhet men också olika subdi­mensioner av riskbenägenhet. I studien studerades också relationen mellan riskbenägenhet, olika typer av impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar. Slut­ligen undersöktes skillnader mellan respondentgrupperna för de studerade variablerna.  

    Resultatet visar att EVAR kan användas i en svensk militär kontext och på ett reliabelt sätt ge kunskap om variationer i riskbenägenhet hos militär personal. I synnerhet uppvisas tillfredsställande reliabilitet för gene­rell riskbenägenhet och delskalorna danger seeking, invincibility, risk/thrill seeking och self confidence. Resultatet ger också belägg för att impulsivitet och säkerhetsvärderingar utgör viktiga förklaringsfaktorer för individuella variationer i riskbenägenhet. Vidare indikerar studien att olika typer av ”riskprofiler” kan identifieras utifrån variationer i riskbenägenhet, impulsi­vitet och säkerhetsvärderingar. Slutligen visar resultatet att graden av risk­benägenhet kan skilja sig åt mellan olika militära grupper.

    Att tidigt kunna identifiera personer med farligt risktagande och/eller spänningssökande torde vara av betydelse för de riskfyllda verksamheter som tjänstgöring i insatsförsvaret innebär. Denna studie ger i detta sam­manhang intressanta implikationer vad gäller mätning och analys av rele­vanta aspekter och tar därmed ut riktningen för fortsatta studier inom det svenska försvaret.

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  • 37.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundqvist, Linda-Marie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Påfrestande förhållanden i militär verksamhet: Om definitioner, påverkan och attityder2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 38.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att hitta balansen: En intervjustudie av militära ledares syn på risk- och säkerhetsfrågor2013Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 39.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Akutpsykologiskt stöd efter en händelse: En studie kring hur stödet bedrivs under insats och plutonchefens roll2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After a traumatic incident, it is important to be able to care for those who are affected by the situation,both physically and mentally. This requires that you have a working support organization,whose chiefs know what to do.

    The aim of this essay has been to find out how the immediate psychological assistance works inthe Swedish Armed Forces in international missions, after an incident and what role the platooncommander have in it. Furthermore the study focused on the education that the platoon commandershave in immediate psychological assistance and what training they would need. The study wasconducted through qualitative text analysis and interviews with personnel in Försvarspsykiatrinand with soldiers and officers from FS19. Data processing of the results has been based ongrounded theory. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the results, is that there are currentlyno unified visions of how the acute psychological support should be conducted. The oldtheories, that a person who have been involved in a traumatic event, should undergo support in theform of a relief call or debriefing, is now considered to be incorrect by some of the interviewed.

    The study has further shown that the practice of the acute psychological assistance has been dividedbetween the units and the educational level of acute psychological assistance, which isvaried between the platoon commanders The study has also revealed several factors that affecthow the aid is being carried out and what effect it creates in the unit.

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    Akutpsykologiskt stöd
  • 40.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    De sista värnpliktiga har muckat: Kvalitet och vilja till engagemang i Försvarsmakten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att beskriva värnpliktskohorten 2009-2010 avseende grundläggande kapaciteter, upplevelse av värnpliktstjänstgöringen och vilja till olika slag av engagemang i Försvarsmakten (FM) efter värnplikten. Vad som bidrar till dessa olika slag av engagemang belyses med materialet uppdelat på män och kvinnor samt på befattningsnivå under tjänstgöringen. En positiv förväntan på militärtjänsten ser ut att vara en bra grund för att med goda erfarenheter av utbildning och ledarskap förstärka inställningen till FM attraktivitet och därmed viljan att fortsätta i denna organisation. Resultaten ger en bild av kvalitet och engagemang för FM hos de sista värnpliktiga i det svenska försvaret. Så mycket som 48 % av de värnpliktiga har uttryckt någon form av engagemang i FM – sökt till internationell tjänst, till officersutbildning, till Hemvärn/Nationella skyddsstyrkan, till någon frivilligorganisation eller har planer på att söka som soldat. Att döma av dessa resultat så är verkningsgraden av värnplikten hög.

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  • 41.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Gustafsson, J. E.
    Ullstadius, E.
    Item sequencing effects on the measurement of fluid intelligence2000In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 145-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions of the concept of intelligence typically emphasize two aspects, the ability to solve complex problems (the complexity aspect) and the ability to acquire new knowledge (the learning aspect). Complexity has been the most emphasized aspect in the psychometric approach to research on intelligence. The study investigated whether a change of test item sequencing, intended to increase test complexity, would cause increased involvement of general intelligence (G). Three types of problem-solving items (Groups, Series, and Bongard) were administered in a sequence (the homogeneous treatment, n = 363). In the treatment intended to increase complexity, items of different types were presented by turns (the heterogeneous treatment, n = 1,778). Three reference tests measuring verbal, spatial, and reasoning ability were used in the analysis. Contrary to what was expected, the items presented homogeneously showed higher G loadings. The reason for this might be that in the reasoning tests used, processes of learning took place from one item to another, and that the high-G individuals could take better advantage of this opportunity in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous treatment. The consequences of the results for testing in general and for computer adaptive testing in particular are discussed.

  • 42. Chaturvedi, Sankarp
    et al.
    Zyphur, Michael J.
    Arvey, Richard
    Avolio, Bruce J.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The heritability of emergent leadership: age and gender as moderating factors2012In: Leadership Quarterly, ISSN 1048-9843, E-ISSN 1873-3409, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 219-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined the moderating influences of gender and age with respect to testing the heritability of leadership emergence. A large data base of 12,112 twins from Sweden was used in the current study to decompose the variance of emergentleadership into an unobservable genetic component and environmental components that are either common or unshared among twin pairs. Consistent with prior leadership research on genetics, we found that a genetic factor is able to explain a significant proportion of the variation across individuals in predicting how twins perceive their emergentleadership behavior (about 44% for women and 37% for men). Furthermore, we also found that the magnitude of genetic influence on emergentleadership varied with age, but only for women with the heritability estimate being highest for the mid-age women versus lowest for the older women. Implications for advancing research on the genetic and environmental influences on leadership emergence are discussed.

  • 43.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Understanding Prime Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 44. Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledarskap och beslutsfattande vid komplexa olyckor och kriser: En sammanfattande rapport2007Report (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Reservofficeren: Från att fylla vakanser till att nyttja kompetenser2009Report (Other academic)
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  • 46.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Attraktionsarbete och förändring i Försvarsmakten: utmaningar och möjligheter2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om Försvarsmaktens strategiska arbete för att öka sin attraktionskraft med fokus på attraktionsstrategier på organisationsnivå. Frågor ställs om vilka strategier Försvarsmakten använder för att öka sin attraktionskraft och hur Försvarsmakten arbetar för att utveckla sitt varumärke. Jämförelser görs av hur väl Försvarsmaktens strategier stämmer med det som kännetecknar en attraktiv organisation av idag. I studien framkommer att Försvarsmaktens varumärke stärks av att det har en hög igenkänningsfaktor i samhället, samtidigt som det är ett stort problem att "Försvarsmakten" kan betyda så många olika saker.

    Bristen på stabilitet i organisationen, orsakad av de förändringar som ständigt pågår, bidrar också till otydlighet kring Försvarsmaktens varumärke och identitet. Denna otydlighet gör det svårt för personalen att identifiera sig med organisationen och agera i överensstämmelse med organisationens värden. Så även om informationskanaler finns är det svårt att informera då innehållet till del saknas.

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  • 47.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att komma ikapp: En studie om samverkan och ledarskap vid en svavelsyreolycka i Helsingborg 20052006Report (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Dückers, Michel L. A.
    et al.
    National knowledge and advice centre for psychosocial care concerning critical incidents, Diemen, The Netherlands; NIVEL – Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    Thormar, Sigridur B.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Juen, Barbara
    Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olff, Miranda
    Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0193285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project “Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis” (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: “planning and delivery system” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); “general evaluation criteria” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); and “essential psychosocial principles” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). “Measures and interventions applied”, theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some measures and interventions are more likely to be applied in programmes with more evolved planning and delivery systems, yet for most measures and interventions the likelihood of being applied is not linked to planning and delivery system status, nor to coordinator perceptions concerning psychosocial principles and evaluation criteria. Further research is necessary to validate and expand the findings and to learn more about success factors and obstacles for MHPSS programme implementation.

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  • 49.
    Eid, Jarle
    et al.
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen; Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Hansen, Anita Lill
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen; Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (NOR).
    Andreassen, Natalia
    Business School, Nord University Business School, Bodø (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen.
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (NOR).
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Developing local crisis leadership: A research and training agenda2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crisis triggered by Covid-19 has exposed the interdependencies of modern society and sparked interest in local response to protracted and complex crisis situations. There has been a growing awareness and interest in the key roles of political and professional stakeholders, their emotional regulation and how they influence team performance and outcomes in dealing with uncertainty and complex crisis situations. While cognitive and behavioral aspects of crisis leadership are well researched, less is understood about how one can mitigate negative emotions, instill trust, or restore public faith and support of security forces and emergency response teams during crises. In addressing this gap, we propose a simplified conceptual roadmap for research and training of local crisis leadership. In this, we emphasize complex problem solving, team interaction, team context and technology and team training design. These four factors represent significant barriers if neglected. On the other side, they may be considerable force multipliers when better understood and managed. We suggest how seven research and training questions could be linked to the four conceptual factors and guide an evidence-based approach to develop local crisis leadership.

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  • 50.
    Ekman, Olof
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    National Perspectives in Multinational Headquarters: The Case of EUFOR Tchad/RCA2012In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 190-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the European Union crisis management capability argue for establishing a permanent Operations Headquarters (OHQ) instead of the temporary alternatives currently available. These studies picture temporary OHQs as slow starters hampered by multiple interests and a lack of common grounds. This paper corroborates these studies by reporting on the empirical findings of a year-long case study of the EUFORTchad/RCA OHQ. The combined results of observations, interviews, and surveys indicate that national perspectives not only existed in the OHQ, but were also asymmetric in the sense that staff members from France and Ireland nations displayed stronger national perspectives than staff members from other nations. However, the general trust between staff members seems to have been largely unaffected by this. The findings also indicate a process of familiarization spanning over several months. This paper argues that temporary multinational headquarters are likely to work around frictions and mature into well-functioning organization, but that this is a time-consuming process in which national parallel chains of command may remain. Prior training should prepare staff members for this. In addition, leading nations need to understand their strong visibility and to be careful not to dominate the day-to-day staff work.

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