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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Krivanek, V., Brno, 2017, p. 123-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP (Armored Multirole Vehicle, in Swedish) and the Visby class corvette cases respectively. The focus was on signature management. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied. The main conclusions can be summarized in three points. 1) A preferred workflow from mission analysis to sub system design has been derived from lessons identified; 2) The three main success factors identified were: building technology demonstrators, having an Integrated Product Team approach, and establishing stealth as a key system design goal; 3) Coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements need further research.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. National Defence University, P.O. Box 7, FI-00861 Helsinki, Finland.
    Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft2017In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 65, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis scheme and a mission system model were applied to the evaluation of the military utility of efforts to reduce infrared signature in the conceptual design of survivable aircraft. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to contribute to the development of a methodological framework for assessing the military utility of spectral design, and secondly to assess the threat from advances in LWIR sensors and their use in surface-to-air-missile systems. The modeling was specifically applied to the problem of linking the emissivity of aircraft coatings to mission accomplishment. The overall results indicate that the analysis scheme and mission system model applied are feasible for assessing the military utility of spectral design and for supporting decision-making in the concept phase. The analysis of different strike options suggests that LWIR sensors will enhance the military utility of low emissive paint, at least for missions executed in clear weather conditions. Furthermore, results corroborate and further clarify the importance of including earthshine when modeling.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Brorson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Teknisk prognos: Rapport från seminarier vid Försvarshögskolans militärtekniska avdelning 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Mölleryd, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2012: Military utility of ten technologies: a report from seminars at the SNDC Department of Military Technology2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College (Note that there probably are other technology areas, equally interesting, but not included in this study). The task given by FMV was to assess the military utility of the chosen technologies in a time frame from 2025 to 2030, from a SwAF viewpoint.

    The method used was first to make a summary of each forecast report. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that are assessed to be the best in order to show possible utility as well as possibilities and drawbacks of the technology. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Conclusions regarding the military utility of the technology were drawn.

    We introduce our definition of military utility as being activities that efficiently and with the lowest cost in terms of lives and materiel lead to fulfilment of the mission objectives.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with a significant potential, with uncertain potential and with negligible potential.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a significant potential for military utility;

    • Augmented Reality

    • Nano air vehicles
    • Solid State Laser weapons

    In the scenarios studied, Augmented Reality (AR) is assessed to have a positive impact on several SwAF capabilities, especially for C2 and intelligence. AR is a relatively mature technology, applicable in many different branches. There are examples where AR is already applied with great success, e.g. Head-Up-Displays, HUD. The technology has proven its value. However, there are well known drawbacks to the technology such as weaknesses regarding models, increased weight for dismounted soldiers, power consumption etc. There is also a risk that personnel will have problems solving their tasks when AR systems fail, not being used to fighting without supporting systems.

    Nano air vehicles (NAV’s) have been assessed to contribute to a large range of capabilities, primarily intelligence. Their lifecycle cost has been assessed to be low, since development in this area is commercially driven, bringing down acquisition costs. Also, FAA has decided to allow NAV’s in controlled air space from 2015, which is expected to lead to an increase in civilian use of NAV’s. The technology is relatively mature even though there are obstacles concerning suitable materials, energy efficient propulsion systems as well as miniaturized microprocessors and software to control them.

    In the scenario studied, High Energy Solid State Lasers are assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capabilities to engage targets on surface and in the air. The technology can be used to protect 

    vessels on the surface and thereby increase survivability. The development of SSL in the given timeframe is expected to lower cost per shot and avoid the environmental problems with use of chemical lasers. Neighbouring military powers are expected to use laser weapons in the future, therefore SwAF should monitor the development of the laser weapons technology and develop and purchase adequate countermeasures.

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain potential for military utility;

    • Metamaterial cloaking

    • Electromagnetic gun

    • Small satellites
    • Ultra-violet communication

    Metamaterial cloaking, if realisable in the future, is assessed to be firstly implemented in the acoustic spectrum, since manufacturing of small structured cloaks for the shorter wavelengths in the optic and radar spectra is believed to be more difficult. Cloaking of submarines is primarily assessed to increase the survivability against torpedoes having active sonar. The use of cloaked mines could pose a deterring threat, even to advanced amphibious operations against Sweden. The technological development in this area should be closely monitored and compared to existing, maturing techniques for countermeasures and for the development of broad spectrum active torpedoes. The greatest concern is that cloaking will have negative impact on submarine manoeuvrability.

    The electro-thermal chemical (ETC) gun seems to be a first step towards a fully electrical gun such as the rail-gun or the coil-gun. The fully electrical guns have been a work in progress for some decades and there are still remaining challenges both concerning electrical power supply and design materials. When or if, they will be operational is difficult to say.

    The military utility of small satellites is disputed, despite an assessed contribution to several of the SwAF capabilities. The main reason for this is that there seems to be other alternatives which provide the desired capabilities, at a lower cost. Furthermore, the realisability and performance of small productionline manufactured nanosatellites is uncertain. However the scenario has shown that there are benefits to the military utility not met by other resources, e.g. the capability to perform surveillance and reconnaissance in operational areas globally without risking violation of the territorial integrity of other states or the lives of military personnel. Since there is a great interest in the technology area and several programmes are ongoing internationally the knowledgebase is assessed to be significantly better in a five year period. Also, the Swedish in depth study of space exploitation is soon to report.

    Ultra-violet communication has uncertain potential for military utility within the period, but the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capability to maintain communications. The theoretical understanding of the area is low It is therefore uncertain if systems can be realized in the time frame. However, if commercial applications are developed, the prospect of military applications might change. In that case UV-communication could be a complement to RF- communication but is not foreseen to replace it. 

    The following technologies were assessed to have negligible potential for military utility;

    • Biomimetic unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV)

    • Automated behaviour Analysis
    • Evolutionary Robotics

    Biomimetic UUV’s could be used for covert surveillance and inconspicuous naval reconnaissance missions at sea or in amphibious missions. Even though the report focuses on fishlike propulsion, the military utility of UUV’s is assessed to be mostly dependent on the development of advanced automation and learning systems. As of now, we assess other existing technologies as being preferable due to lower cost and less complexity. The performance of UUV’s needed for SwAF capabilities are assessed to be far off into the future. Simpler UUV systems could however be used by potential adversaries for monitoring our own base areas and hence the development should be monitored from a protection point of view.

    Automated behaviour analysis may be of some relevance for increased security screening and surveillance. The primary military utility of the technology will however probably be for international activities and to a lesser extent for increased base security in Sweden. Generally the main applications for this kind of technology are assessed to be for civilian use in public spaces and close to high value areas like airports, important official buildings and other similar objects.

    Evolutionary Robotics, here restricted to the sub domain Advanced Robotics, has uncertain potential for military utility within the period. In the scenarios studied the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on a broad range of SwAF capabilities. The area is large and inconsistent comprising sub areas that are assessed to have significant potential, but also those that are believed to have negligible potential or where technological obstacles might retard the development.

    Our evaluation of the used method shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all possible aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the ten technologies’ military utility in the presented scenarios, not the technology itself. The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the trade off that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. 

  • 7.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hall, Richard
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Häggkvist, Markus
    Johansson, Lars-Åke
    Kedeby, Magnus
    Knape, Henrik
    Lindh, Jens
    Nord, Mats
    Nordström, Rasmus
    Sikvad, Conny
    Strand, Asle
    Stål, Martin
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Introduktion till Operationsanalys: En antologi med essäer av studerande i militärteknik 20112012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ämnesplanen definieras militärteknik som ”den vetenskap som beskriver och förklarar hur tekniken inverkar på militär verksamhet på alla nivåer, strategisk, operativ och taktisk, samt hur officersprofessionen påverkar och påverkas av tekniken.”[1]  En militärteknikers uppgift brukar, utgående från definitionen, uttryckas som att beskriva och förklara den militära nyttan med tekniken. För att kunna göra detta behövs verktyg. Och många av dem kommer från den vetenskapliga disciplinen Operationsanalys.

    Syftet med den här antologin är att introducera studerande i militärteknik på Försvarshögskolan till två av de mest refererade boktitlarna i operationsanalys – Methods for conducting military operational analysis editerad av Andrew G. Loerch och Larry B. Rainey samt Military Operations Research, quantitative decision making av N.K. Jaiswal.

    Kapitlen utgörs av essäer skrivna av studerande på den högre stabsofficersutbildningen med teknisk inriktning, som examinationsuppgift i en fördjupningskurs. Essäerna är till del referat av kapitel i de två böckerna ovan, men kryddade med exempel satta i svenskt sammanhang och med de studerandes egen värdering av metodernas användbarhet.

    [1]Försvarshögskolan, Ämnesplan militärteknik, 2007.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited2015In: Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein & Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This new security development is expected to increase interest fromNorthern European states in supporting the development of conceptually newstealthy ground platforms, incorporating a decade of advances in technology andexperiences from stealth platforms at sea and in the air. The scope of thiscase study is to draw experience from where we left off. At the end of the1990s there was growing interest in stealth for combat vehicles in Sweden. Anambitious technology demonstrator project was launched. One of the outcomes wasa proposed Systems Engineering process tailored for signature managementpresented to SPIE in 2002.(Olsson et.al, A systems approach…, Proc. SPIE 4718 )The process was used for the Swedish/BAE Systems Hägglunds AB development of amultirole armored platform (The Swedish acronym is SEP). Before development wascompleted there was a change of procurement policy in Sweden from domesticdevelopment towards Governmental Off-The-Shelf, preceded by a Swedish ArmedForces change of focus from national defense only, towards expeditionarymissions. Lessons learned, of value for future development, are presented. Theyare deduced from interviews of key-personnel, on the procurer and industrysides respectively, and from document reviews.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Förstudie angående DTAG-metodik2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgör slutrapport på FMV beställning ”förstudie angående DTAG-metodik”.

    RTO har genomfört en studie för att utröna hur NATO bäst identifierar och nyttjar eller skyddar sig mot potentialen i s.k. ”Disruptive Technology”, d.v.s. teknologi som på kort tid signifikant förändrar genomförandet av operationer. Sverige har medverkat i studien. Den tillämpning av metoden DTAG (Disruptive Technology Assessment Games) som beskrivs i RTO studierapport är utvecklad till stöd för beslutsfattning på lång sikt, d.v.s. avseende FoT, konceptutveckling, förbandsutveckling- och materielplanering. Idén bakom den här förstudien är emellertid att undersöka möjligheterna att överföra metoden till erfarenhetsanalys och planering i ett kortare tidsperspektiv - med bibehållande av de rapporterade positiva effekterna för erfarenhetsutbytet mellan personal inom försvarsfamiljen av alla kategorier.

    Rapporten inleds med en diskussion och beskrivning av möjliga anpassningar av DTAG för den nya föreslagna tillämpningen. Slutsatsen är att metoden har potential att effektivt återkoppla speldeltagarnas erfarenheter från uppdrag de deltagit i - dels från egen användning av tekniska system och dels från andra aktörers teknologi - till utvecklingen av de materielsystem som bedöms vara i drift inom en tidsperiod av ca fem år. En analys av identifierade styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och risker leder sedan fram till ett förslag till implementering av metoden och förslag till fortsatt arbete. En positiv bieffekt med att arrangera en återkommande DTAG-aktivitet inom ramen för FHS, i samarbete med FMV och FM, är t.ex. en förbättrad erfarenhetsöverspridning till utbildningen av officerare.

    Förstudien rekommenderar en studie till FHS under 2011 med uppgifterna att:

    • pröva och uppdatera metodramverket till förstudiens DTAG-tillämpning
    • planera och genomföra prov och försök med bemanning enl. förstudiens förslag till organisation
    • genomföra en litteraturstudie och utvärdera den tillämpade DTAG-metoden
    • med andra relevanta metoder och deras tillämpningar avseende: erfarenhetsåtermatning,
    • konceptval och scenariebaserad analys, även i andra domäner än den militära.
    • rapportera skriftligen med rekommendation om implementering av metoden i produktionsledningen av materielprocessen – inkl. lämpliga årliga återkommande tidpunkter för genomförande, m.h.t. rotationer och årliga avvägningar i materielplanen.

    Ett förslag till organisation, aktivitetsplan och en uppskattning av kostnaderna presenteras.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Möjliga efterträdare till robotsystem 702012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, there has been a discussion about the needs to replace missilesystem 70 witha more modern short range air defense unit. The anti-aircraft regiment has prepared a conceptproposal against a possible successor to the current robotsystem. In order to show that thereare other options which can be potential replacements instead of the concept proposal, ananalysis of three quite different launchers is made along certain valuation criteria, which arereflected against the Swedish Armed Forces basic abilities. The analysis is made of three scenariosin order to reflect some of the tasks that a short range air defense has to handle. Thescenarios will also show the advantages and disadvantages of the different units. By the scenariosseven criteria are revealed as extra important to take into account when a new air defenseunit is ordered to be able to solve the expected tasks.These criteria’s are: Multi-Targeting, darkness capacity, performance area, protection of theterrain - camouflage, Small Claims Act, all-weather capability and set up time.

  • 11.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 9: Teori och metod2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet militärteknik utgår från att tekniska system är officerens arbetsredskap och att en förståelse för och kunskap om dessa verktyg är central för att kunna utöva professionen framgångsrikt. Denna nionde volym av Lärobok i Militärteknik, benämnd Teori och Metod, behandlar centrala begrepp, teorier och postulat samt metoder för värdering av teknik och består av ett antal texter författade av 16 forskare och lärare vid den militärtekniska avdelningen. Volymen riktar sig främst till de som inlett sin officersutbildning och utgörs till stora delar av ett kompilat av publicerade och opublicerade militärtekniska texter och kan sägas utgöra militärteknikens ”state of the art”.

  • 12.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 13.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    The Deployment of the Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines and US Policy towards Scandinavia2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 35-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Computer Security Training: A Military Officer Case Study2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Experimental Approach to Improve on the Situational Awareness of Soldiers Transported in an Armored Vehicle2011In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2010 / [ed] Åke Sivertun, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2011, 1, p. 95-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inside armored vehicles, such as e.g. Hägglunds CV90 or Mowag Piranha, the possibilities for looking out are rather limited. That is especially true for the soldiers being transported inside the personnel compartment. Because of this, the soldiers are in effect expected to put themselves into harms way with very limited knowledge of what is happening outside the vehicle. One possible way to improve the situational awareness inside an armored vehicle is to have screens showing live images of the outside environment. The current investigation utilizes a set of carefully placed cameras connected to screens streaming live images inside the vehicle. It is found that this will significantly improve the situational awareness of the soldiers inside the armored vehicle. Field trials conducted in a realistic environment show that a careful placement of the cameras and the screens will increase the safety, and the efficiency, of the soldiers when they dismount the vehicle. 

  • 16.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tactical Optical Information System: improving the situational awareness inside an APC2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bystedt, Rasmus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Möjlig efterträdare till skolflygplan SK 602014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The SK 60 Aircraft has been a workhorse for the Air Force’s training of future pilots since the late 1960s. The aging SK60 aircraft is going out of style, and the system has merely a few years of total running time left. A replacement for the SK 60 needs to be implemented in the coming years, and the Armes Forces Flying School has been commissioned to conduct flight tests on suitable replacement systems. This study will conduct a system analysis of two aircrafts mentioned in the Flying Schools report. The systems are mainly valued on their suitability as a replacement for the SK 60 from a training perspective. The systems are also valued based on the possibility of expanding the military utility of each system such as their ability to carry out attack operations. Based on the sample the Pilatus Aircraft PC -21 and BAE Systems Hawk MK 120 aircrafts were chosen for evaluation. The two planes are different yet comparable which makes them suitable for comparison in this study. Hawk MK 120 was deemed as the most suitable replacement for the SK 60. The MK 120 appeared as slightly more favorable than the PC-21 after valuation and appraisal, both from an educational point of view but also with regard to its ability for extended military purposes.

  • 18. Dulanya, Zuze
    et al.
    Morales-Simfors, Nuri
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Comparison Between Silica and Cation Geo-thermometry of the Malawi Hotsprings2010In: World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Elofsson, Mats
    et al.
    Försvarets Materielverk.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Forsman, Björn
    SSPA.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Riskanalys för att fatta bättre beslut2016In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, Vol. 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Flodin, Jimmie
    Swedish Defence University.
    Cyberkrigföring i kombination med elektronisk krigföring: En analys av morgondagens krigföringsmetod2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accelerating technology development together with the increased digitalization of society has changed the way in which conventional warfare today is carried out, and a decisive in the battle is no longer achieved only by the use of bullets and gunpowder. Today’s military personnel are dependent on unhindered use of wireless information and communication technology (ICT). Military vehicles and weapons systems are increasingly dependent on software, wireless network access and control/sensor systems in order to operate. This has given rise to a new defense arena, Cyberspace. As physical access to the opponent's system may be limited, wireless access may become the key to success in military operations. This in the form of combining cyber- and electronic warfare. As Sweden has now begun to rebuild the national defense capability and a high-tech opponent who has come a long way in the development of electronic warfare is at our doorstep, this new type of warfare must be highlighted. This thesis aims to explore how the combination of cyber-and electronic warfare can be utilized during military operations in today's conventional warfare and whether the ability can be implemented at tactical echelon. This is done by a case study on a military operation from 2011, when Iran, using their cyber and electronic warfare capability, supposedly managed to hijack an American Stealth-UAV, RQ-170 Sentinel. The result shows that the ability to influence the opponent within the cyberspace, denying them access to the electromagnetic spectrum, and thus denying their use of wireless ICT, can provide a decisive advantage in military operations in today's conventional warfare.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-01 18:13
  • 21.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Femdagarskriget som avgjordes på 48 timmar!2009In: Hemvärnsnytt: Tidning för Hemvärnets personal i Livgardesgruppen, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Förnyelse av svenska stridsfordon2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Katastrofövning på Frankfurts flygplats2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 10-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kriget i Libanon 2006: ett tekniskt genombrott?2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Livgardesgruppen deltog i stor katastrofövning2010In: Hemvärnsnytt: Tidning för Hemvärnets personal i Livgardesgruppen, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Luftlandsättningstrupperna får nya stridsfordon 2S252010In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nytt ryskt rekord i vapenexport2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    När Sverige köpte östtyska stridsfordon2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryska luftlandsättningsförband övar igen2011In: Vårt Luftvärn, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryssland omstrukturerar sitt stridsflyg2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsubildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryssland omstrukturerar sitt stridsflyg2011In: Vårt Luftvärn, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Segerparaden i Moskva 9 maj 20102010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Storövning med ny materiel2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svenska Leoparder klara för utlandsmission2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, no 3, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svenska Leoparder klara för utlandsmission2011In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    T-90 en utveckling av T-72 och T-80U2010In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tyska Panzerlehrbrigade 9 visar tänderna2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ännu en storövning med ryska luftlandsättningsförband2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Geranpayeh, Sam
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridsvagnar i urban miljö: Ställer användning av stridsvagnssystemet i urban miljö nya krav på systemet?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) is currently in a phase of evolution transferring from being an old strategic defense to an expeditionary force. The SAF has forces deployed in several locations all over the world and the threat they meet is different from place to place, the conflicts often conducted by low-tech insurgents in urban terrain.The insurgents have learned how to fight in urban terrain and can operate in every dimension of the battlefield. It is believed that the battle in this type of environment will increase in future. Being where we are today in terms of operations the threat against our troops has increased which has led us to a greater need for protection.The purpose of this paper is that using a qualitative textual analysis and a model study to show how the new threat can be met in urban terrain with the help of technical adjustments on heavy vehicles such as tanks. At first the writer will describe the threat that is common in urban terrain today. Then the lessons learned from wars where tanks have been used and later on the tank’s vulnerability in urban terrain will be described. Thereafter, the model study will elaborate a potential environment and threat in order to highlight the most advantageous adjustment for tanks to meet the new threat.The result shows that the greatest threat that our troops are exposed to today is; battles that takes place in urban terrain. The study shows that we need more protection in form of armour. The Swedish tanks should be adapted with different systems to meet today’s threat in the urban terrain.

  • 40.
    Gillsparr, Torbjörn
    Swedish Defence University.
    IT-system: Försvarsanställdas främsta frustration: Vad kan göras för att öka användarnas uppskattning av IT-systemen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on the fact that the service members of the Swedish Armed Forces have repeatedly stated a low estimate of the IT systems in the annual employee survey FM VIND. 

    This work has investigated underlying causes of the outcome, by studying the conditions of the three Component Commands; LCC, MCC and ACC. With a number of underlying factors identified, and with the support from theoretical models, suggestions are made for measures that can help the IT systems gain a higher appreciation among users.

    The study reports, among other things, that FM AP is the most appreciated IT system, and that SWECCIS is the least valued IT system in the selection group.

  • 41.
    Guggenberger, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Komplettering av rapporter från allmänheten med smart teknik för att förbättra positionering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökande mängd information finns tillgänglig i privatägd smart teknik. Försvarsmakten har möjlighet att använda sig av information från befintlig smart teknik. En värdering av möjliga användningsområden för tillgänglig information är första steg i en sådan utveckling.

    Denna studie undersöker de praktiska effekterna av att använda positionsdata och bilder från smartmobiler i kombination med traditionella berättande rapporter från allmänheten.Studien påvisar att tillförandet av information från smart teknik under vissa förutsättningar förbättrar positioneringsförmågan när den utförs av försvarsmaktens personal.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Obemannade sensorbärare i urban miljö: En komparativ studie mellan UAV och UGV för förband på stridsteknisk nivå2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is one of the most difficult environments that Swedish units are supposed to fight in. Inadequate information, a three-dimensional threat, close range combat and civilians are just a few of the challenges that face soldiers in urban environment. Some of these challenges could be reduced by the use of unmanned sensors, which could enhance the situational awareness.

    This study has been conducted as a comparative case study, where a representative aerial system has been compared with a ground system. The aim of the study is to determine which system has the highest military utility. The study is based on a concept model for military utility that has compared the systems within three dimensions; military effectiveness, military suitability and affordability.

    The result of the study indicates that the ground system, UGV, has a slight advantage in military utility compared to the aerial system. Further the study indicates that there are apparent differences between the systems depending on where they are used and in what combat situation. The aerial system has a clear advantage when used outside buildings and in offensive actions, whereas the ground system has an advantage inside buildings. The study also shows that both systems contributes with military utility to units in urban terrain. 

  • 43.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    AESA-teknik för framtida artillerilokaliseringsradar, en nödvändighet eller lyx?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are living in a world where technology development is accelerating and seemingly exponentially and tirelessly will continue to increase. How this will affect the Armed Forces' choice of technology for future generations of sensor capability regarding weapon location systems and related to operational requirements, interoperability and economics is particularly interesting when the radar technology is in a generation shift. Proven technology, international and military requirements for a weapon locating radar system are set against new antenna technology and the Swedish research and development of the Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA).

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether new technology is necessary for weapon locating systems or is "yesterday's" technology as good as, or maybe even better, in certain applications and situations than AESA? Is AESA technology a necessary step for weapon locating systems?

    The method of this paper is a comparative literature study, i.e. a qualitative textual analysis from a given theoretical framework. This essay is also investigating where I have linked theory with empirical data from interviews with Saab EDS, FMV and FOI.

    The results show that the new radar technology adds new abilities and can improve sensor performance, but to only use AESA technology for weapon locating purposes is both expensive and exclusive. The active antenna technology is also suitable for multi-functionality, which may play a crucial role in the future.

  • 44.
    Holmberg, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftförsvar för stärkt kustförsvar: En studie om burna Lv-robotsystem i amfibiebataljonen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional landings with large warships near the coastline have been replaced by means of vessels moving beyond the horizon from the coast where the landing will take place. The old landing crafts have been replaced by transport helicopters and close air support, a threat that the amphibious battalion lacks resources to meet.

    The Swedish Armed Forces faces a possible acquisition of MANPADS and therefore the main purpose with this study was to examine the systems: FIM-92 Stinger RMP, Mistral and RBS70 NG, in order to assess which one of them who had the greatest potential to be effective when used by the amphibious battalion in a coastal defense operation. The study was conducted as a multiple criteria decision analysis, based on the concept of military utility.

    The result indicated that the RBS70 NG was the system that best met the requirements and demonstrated the greatest potential to be military efficient, although Mistral with minor exceptions fulfilled the requirements. As the study was delimited to a theoretical study based on three specific scenarios, further studies are recommended with simulations, as well as field trials before the result can be given a higher validity. The result, however, already helps us to understand how MANPADS contributes with military utility in coastal defense operations.

  • 45.
    Hugo, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Olika motortypers påverkan på Sveriges transportflygskapacitet: En komparativ analys av Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules och Embraer KC-3902018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers the problem of Sweden currently having some of Europe's oldest military Hercules transport aircraft of the type TP 84 Lockheed Martin C-130H Hercules. The Swedish Armed Forces have decided to modify the aircraft to extend it to 2030, but in the long term a new system must be procured. This thesis deals with the proven aircraft Lockheed Martin C-130J compared to the new Embraer KC-390.

    The approach uses Andersson et al's theory of military utility to compare two different transport aircraft as well as the system's introduction into the Swedish Armed Forces. The case is part of a comparison of aircraft with turboprop against turbofan engines.

    The conclusions from the analysis are that the C-130J is an operational system with long experience of operating in conflict zones from provisional runways, and the aircraft's performance and limitations are already known. With the KC-390, performance and limit data are an uncertainty whilst the system is not yet in service; as is its ability to operate from temporary airports. However, this aircraft is better in terms of range, load capacity and speed, due to the aircraft's turbofan engines.

  • 46.
    Hård af Segerstad, Per
    Swedish Defence University.
    Artificiella neurala nät för datorseende hos en luftmålsrobot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is aimed at increasing the knowledge to those concerned within the Armed Forces by providing information on the possibilities of modern artificial intelligence (AI).

    Motivation comes from observations of civilian technology on the use of AI in the field of Computer Vision showing performance equaling the level of the human vision when using the technology of Deep Learning of Artificial Neural Nets. In air-combat aircraft the pilot´s vision is used for recognizing the aircraft that is about to be shot down. For example when utilizing helmet mounted displays, the seeker of an air-target-missile is directed upon the aircraft on which the pilot´s eyes are looking. However when air-target-missiles are utilized beyond visual range the pilot´s vision cannot help in directing the seeker on a specific target. Therefore computer vision within an air-target-missile is studied.

    The results of the study support that the technology of neural networks may be used in an air-target-missile and that computer vision provided by this technology can do the job of recognizing a combat aircraft.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tillvaratagande av möjligheter med ledningsstödssystem inom teknisk tjänst.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New Command and Control Support systems are being introduced within the Swedish Armed Forces. Military maintenance units are therefore presented with new conditions. This study aims to evaluate how well this implementing of systems is adapted to said organizations and what should be done to further improve the effects of this change. Directorial documents are studied and active personnel are interviewe to provide data for this study. There are technical solutions to put in place an effective use of maintenance units and today there are several systems used side by side. Sensemaking is hard to achieve on the field, in particular with important items like spare parts and technical systems. The largest hindrance is within transmission resources and common transmission system, which are sometimes different and sometimes absent. Information security and capability to exchange information with other nations restricts operational effect, both nationally and internationally. This study suggests that the implementation will not reach optimum effect since the changes doesn’t reach low enough within the organization, or are focused on a single system to achieve maximum effect. More effective Command and Control systems enable more mobile maintenance units. A wise implementation will lead to both rational operations and economical efficiency. 

  • 48.
    Klint, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    En ny motmedelsprincip: Kan HPM användas som motmedelssystem för helikopterplattformar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker ifall man i framtiden skulle kunna använda High Power Microwaves (HPM) som skyddssystem på helikopterplattformar. Skulle HPM kunna slå robotsystem på det elektroniska djupet istället för att avhaka eller blända hotsensorn, vilket idag görs med hjälp av facklor eller remsor.

    Uppsatsen beskriver funktion och ingående komponenter för HPM-konstruktioner, olika  verkansformer samt skydd mot elektromagnetisk strålning. En beskrivning av hotrobotars olika delar och hur HPM påverkar dess funktioner ges.

    Ett scenario utarbetas för att skapa ett fast utgångsläge för SWOT-analys och beräkningar av ett HPM-baserat motmedelssystem. Scenariot är gjort för att skapa sämsta tänkbara läge för en helikopterplattform.

    Uppsatsen jämför även HPM-teknik med Directed Infrared Counter Measures (DIRCM), vilket är ett relativt nytt elektrooptiskt motmedel för skydd av helikoptrar mot IR-robotar. Efter jämförelsetabell och SWOT-analys forstätter studiens fokus vara HPM.

    Slutsatsen visar att det, av vikt-, volym-, uteffekt- och tidsskäl i en nära framtid inte lämpar sig att slå robotsystem på det elektroniska djupet för att skydda en mindre helikopterplattform mot hotrobotar. HPM- system lämpar sig däremot väl för rörligare större plattformar som TP84.

    HPM-teknik på helikopter visar sig emellertid kunna nyttjas som verkans- och Understödssystem för skydd av större geografiskt område, vid förflyttning eller som telekrigsunderstöd av markförband, vilket möjliggörs av helikopterns höga rörlighet.

  • 49.
    Larsson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Stormakt vs. småstat: En studie om skydd av flygplan på marken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter Aircraft are an exclusive resource that are most vulnerable when standing on the ground. Due to the uncertain geosecurity situation surrounding the Baltic Sea, the government has determined that investment is required in the airbase system to increase the survival of air force assets in the case of war. Based on John A Warden III theories of factors for success for aircraft protection on the ground, this multi-case study compares the superpower view with that of the small state regarding principles for such protection. The study indirectly aims to provide clues for the development of future wartime basing concepts. The result of the study shows similarities, for example in view of the need for dispersal of aircraft and the logistic challenge of supplying this, as well as differences e.g. in views of deception measures such as screening and camouflage.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Lars-åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En kvalitetsbedömning av några av flygvapnets kravunderlag2012Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper firstly examines if the FOI principles for formulating requirements need to be complemented as a result of the Armed Forces needs and then examines the quality of some of the Air Force requirements documents relative to the principles of requirements formulation. The results show that the principles can be complemented by the principles of priority and contextual description. The case studies results show that the quality of the air force's requirements documentation relative to the principles is generally low, that it varies between the documents and that they in some cases are very low in terms of fulfilling the principles. The paper recommends that the FOI principles for formulating requirements are complemented with the principles of priority and contextual description. It recommends the Air Force to improve the quality of future requirement formulations so that the military utility of such work also may increase. Finally, as a spin-off product, it shows how a should-requirement can be used in a different way than what has been the Armed Forces tradition.

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