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  • 1.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Jönköping University, (SWE).
    Segmentation and differentiation in defence supply chain design: A dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important priority in the current Swedish Defence Bill is to increase the operational warfighting capability of the Swedish Armed Forces, which has implications for the defence supply chain. A recent study suggested that the Swedish Armed Forces should use segmentation of supplies and differentiation of supply chains to enable an affordable supply chain design (SCD). This raises questions regarding which segmentation model and which supply chain strategies (SCSs) the Swedish Armed Forces should use.

    The purpose of this research is to design and develop a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) for defence procurement, which will be of practical use for defence authorities. The author defines a PPM as consisting of a segmentation model, tactical levers, differentiation strategies and guidance for management decisions. The research builds on a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities. It addresses the operational requirements on readiness and sustainability that must be satisfied, as well as research gaps and open issues in the literature regarding PPM design and application.

    The findings include several novelties. The author proposes a dynamic PPM, including an innovative two-stage segmentation model, with a precursor and a two-dimensional model. The latter merges sixteen elements into one square and three other segments. Another originality is that the PPM is both prescriptive and serves as a catalyst for in-depth discussions. The author also develops guidance for management decisions, including twelve tactical levers, and eight SCSs to differentiate treatment of the supply segments.

    The research contributes to theory by combining constructs from the purchasing and supply management (PSM) literature and supply chain management (SCM) literature, and applying them in the context of military logistics, including defence procurement. It contributes to practice by developing a PPM that is relevant to practitioners in defence procurement and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces. It also contributes to methodology by investigating how researchers can use two panels in Delphi studies to enhance research validity.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design.
    The Delphi Technique – Limitations and Possibilities2020In: The 32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, 17 – 18 September on Internet: Book of abstracts, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The dual purpose of this paper is to analyse the implications on research rigour of using two panels in a Delphi study, and to take a first step towards investigating how researchers in logistics and SCM establish rigour in Delphi studies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Based on a literature review on research rigour in Delphi studies, this paper analyses how a modified design, with two panels, effected research rigour in a Delphi study that produced unexpected results. The paper also conducts a pilot literature review on Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research, and investigates how these authors establish research rigour.

    Findings

    This paper finds that with two panels, researchers may enhance rigour in a Delphi study, but also that such a design may lead to results that would be less likely with a conventional design, especially if combined with concluding workshops. The pilot literature review indicates that Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research establish rigour through the provision of an audit trail, rather than by explicitly discussing the quality criteria of correspondence and/or trustworthiness.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    The research indicates limitations with a conventional Delphi design, with one expert panel, and opportunities with a modified design, with two panels. Further research is required to explore these indicative findings.

    Original/value

    The paper demonstrates how a modified design of the Delphi technique, in combination with concluding workshops, can produce results and insights that would be more difficult to achieve with only one expert panel.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Differentiation strategies for defence supply chain design2020In: Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, ISSN 2399-6439, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 183-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Defence supply chains (SCs) aim at operational outcomes, and armed forces depend on them to provide availability and preparedness in peace and sustainability in war. Previous research has focussed on strategies for SCs aiming at financial outcomes. This raises the question of how suitable commercial supply chain strategies (SCSs) are for supply chain design (SCD) in defence. The purpose of this paper is to explain the constructs of SCSs that satisfy military operational requirements and to propose SCSs that are appropriate in defence. 

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on a Delphi study with 20 experts from Swedish defence authorities. Through three Delphi rounds, two workshops and a validation round, these experts contributed to the reported findings. 

    Findings – The findings demonstrate that commercial SC constructs are acceptable and applicable in defence but not sufficient. An additional strategy is required to satisfy requirements on availability, preparedness and sustainability. The paper shows that different requirements in peace and war make it challenging to design suitable defence SCs and proposes eight SCSs that satisfy these requirements. 

    Research limitations/implications – The results emanate from the Swedish defence context and further research is required for generalisation.

    Originality/value – This paper extends theory by investigating SCs aiming at operational outcomes. For managers in companies and defence authorities, it explicates how the unique issues in defence must influence SCD to satisfy operational requirements.

  • 4.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning.
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Guidance for Management Decisions in the Application of a Dynamic Purchasing Portfolio ModelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ekström, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Jönköping University, JTH, Industriell produktutveckling, produktion och design, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, JTH, Logistik och verksamhetsledning, (SWE).
    Skoglund, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Towards a purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Delphi study of Swedish defence authorities2021In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 233, article id 107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains the constructs of a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) that defence authorities can use in practice in defence procurement and designs a segmentation model. We identify open PPM design and application questions in the literature and conduct a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities to design a segmentation model that is fit-for-purpose. The paper addresses the open design and application questions discussed in the literature and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF). The proposed segmentation model builds on three dimensions: the operational requirements of the SwAF, the market's ability to deliver supplies on time, and limitations in the SwAF operational capability if the market does not deliver supplies on time. To reduce complexity, we propose a two-stage model in which we use one dimension as a precursor to a two-dimensional model. In the latter, we merge sixteen elements into one square along with three other segments which users should treat differently. The paper contributes to extant academic knowledge on PPMs by eliciting practitioners' views on open design and application questions. We develop the proposed segmentation model in cooperation with practitioners and believe that it will be of value in defence procurement practice.

  • 6.
    Sundell, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Framtidens hybrida stridsfordon2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Combat Vehicle 90 together with Stridsvagn 122 is currently the backbone of the Swedish Armed Forces mechanized battalions. In the defence decision from 2020, the Swedish parliament decided that Combat Vehicle 90 will be gradually replaced with a new combat vehicle after 2030. According to a report from the Swedish Defence Research Agency, technology that is mature 10 years before deployment of a new platform will be used to provide sufficient time for procurement, system integration, commissioning and more. The Swedish Defence Research Agency has also identified that hybrid propulsion of combat vehicles is considered mature and ready to be introduced after 2025.

    Based on the above, a concept was constructed for a hybrid driveline for future combat vehicles to answer the question. How do the technical framework conditions of the hybrid series driveline affect the combat vehicles of the future and what will be the consequences on a tactical level?

    The concept's driveline was put together with existent technology that can be acquired on the market and was chosen according to performance that was better or similar to Combat Vehicle 90.

    After the concept had been designed, two analyzes were performed with different battery weights for the concept. The first analysis had a battery weight of 660kg and the second 3860kg. These two weights were dimensioned according to the total weight of Combat Vehicle 90A and Combat Vehicle 90C.

    The result of the analysis is that with a hybrid series driveline, the combat vehicles of the future will have increased performance, the ability to run on battery power and a higher efficiency.

    With the results, expected changes in mobility, endurance and protection were discussed. The query led to the conclusions that the combat vehicles of the future can, with a hybrid series driveline, obtain a better technical performance, which increases the mobility. The combat vehicles also have a better efficiency, which means that the combat vehicles have a better endurance and a smaller IR-signature and therefore, an enhanced protection on low light warfare. Finally, the vehicles can also be all-electrically driven, which creates opportunities for the tactical commander to choose one with stealth behaviour with the combat vehicles.

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  • 7. Tärnholm, Therese
    et al.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Systems Science for Defence and Security. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, (SWE).
    Military autonomous underwater vehicles: An implementation perspective on legal and ethical aspects2022In: Journal of Maritime Research, ISSN 1697-4840, E-ISSN 1697-9133, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology development in the areas of uncrewed and autonomous systems is creating many opportunities for use, both in the civil and the military realm. The technology itself has become faster and more precise in the situations it is exposed to compared to a human in the same situation, bringing on the discussion of where and when these systems are acceptable to use. This study investigates how the use of autonomous systems in naval applications are affected by legal, for example UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and ethical concerns, such as meaningful human control, when performing a mission at sea. The aim is to support development and implementation efforts. Legal and ethical aspects are applied to two hypothetical cases using small autonomous underwater vehicles to illustrate challenges. The challenges are often connected to trust in the system and the accountability for its actions, making it difficult to see the benefits of using such systems, resulting in the benefits being overridden by possible negative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to have a balance between trust and risk and a balance between technology opportunities and governance regulations, where the two opposites must evolve together for a reliable system.

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