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  • 1.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

  • 2.
    Björnberg, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med mobiltelefoni och Radio180: En systemanalys av sambandssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military communication system RA180 is aging while mobile telephony is evolving rapidly. These systems differ from each other in many aspects, but the overall skill in using a mobile phone offers benefits for military communication. Previous research has shown that there are some flaws in mobile telephony, but how these deficiencies relate to a communication system that is already in use by the Armed Forces have not been studied yet.

    This essay aims to investigate whether there is any military utility of using mobile telephony for the communication instead of RA180. A systems analysis, where the systems are compared and evaluated, will be implemented for this purpose. The essay reveals several opportunities available when mobile telephony is used as communication systems and one of the main potential is that the system has a higher availability due to the existing infrastructure. Mobile telephony has a lower military utility than RA180 in a specific scenario, but for several of the reasons that resulted in a lower military utility there are solutions. Encryption is one of these and there are options that would improve security significantly in mobile telephony.

  • 3.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Crisisplan & Leiden University.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pintore, Giovanni
    CRS4 Visual Computing Group Pula(CA), Italy.
    Ganovelli, Fabio
    ISTI-CNR Pisa, Italy.
    Leventakis, George
    Center for Security Studies - KEMEA Athens, Greece.
    Ahmad, Alexandre
    DIGINEXT Toulouse, France.
    Balet, Olivier
    DIGINEXT Toulouse, France.
    Building an IT Platform for Strategic Crisis Management Preparation2014In: 10th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 20-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result of the work achieved in the frame of three successive European Projects, which aimed to build an innovative system to assist security managers in the crisis preparation, training and management phases. The iterative approach of the consortium is presented, as well as the results. A novel interactive and shared Common Operational Picture is proposed which has been validated by three large scale demonstrations. On-going and future work focusing on the security concepts and measures of building interiors is moreover presented.

  • 4.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using AI and games for decision support in command and control2007In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1454-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of tomorrow's command and control centers are facing numerous problems related to the vast amount of available information obtained from various sources. On a lower level, huge amounts of uncertain reports from different sensors need to be fused into comprehensible information. On a higher level, representation and management of the aggregated information will be the main task, with prediction of future course of events being the uttermost goal. Unfortunately, traditional agent modeling techniques do not capture situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning. To cope with this problem, we propose a decision support tool for command and control situation awareness enhancements based on game theory for inference and coupled with traditional AI methods for uncertainty modeling.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University.
    HPM-vapen vs. kommersiell UAV2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper in military technology discusses whether high power microwaves can affect commercial UAVs. Two non-lethal HPM-weapons are analyzed. The data is collected from a scenario where there is a high risk for collateral damage. A Swedish Armed Forces study stated that the Air Defence Battalion lacks ability to affect small UAVs. The latest knowledge is obtained from the environment in the scenario, from research and from the industry. This knowledge has enabled a logical-mathematical parametric study on the scenario within a military perspective. The result of the study is the assessment that commercial UAVs are assessed to have low protection factor, facilitates decision to act in all environments and provides an electronic shield protection of a large surface at the same time. HPM-weapons can´t stand as a single system for protection against commercial UAVs and achieve guaranteed effect. However, HPM-weapons can complement other weapon systems and thus make the air defense stronger through systems of systems. HPM-weapons can reduce the capability deficiency against commercial UAVs.

  • 6.
    Gradh, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    En stabs nätverkstrafik: En analys av användningen av datornätverkskapacitet i en operativ stab under övningen VIKING 112015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) spent almost SEK 20 million on the procurement of satellite capacity for use during training, exercises and operations. However, according to SwAF Headquarters, the capacity procured did not meet unit demands.

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the capacity usage in an operational headquarters, based on the headquarters’ staff procedures and to see if there is any military utility to be gained in connection with this capacity.

    The starting point for the study is quantitative data about network usage. This quantitative data is then compared with staff work based on quantitative and qualitative data from war diaries, governing documentation and studies.

    The study shows that capacity usage is not related to staff work, but is instead linked to the presence of staff and their use of the Internet. The study also indicates that there could be potential for greater military utility of network capacity, but this will require the introduction of network priority mechanisms and further studies into user traffic.

  • 7.
    Hultberg, Anton
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett luftburet ledningssystem i en taktisk kontext2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about an airborne command-and-control (C2) system, and seeks to examine how this specific airborne C2- system can increase the risk of fratricide in military operations.

    Based on earlier studies that defines and describes the most common causes for fratricide, a system analysis were made on the airborne C2-system. The analysis treated three different efficacy-measurements, and each one of these were put in specific scenarios.

    Beyond literature studies, the information in the paper has been collected through qualitative interviews with personnel who works with the airborne C2-system and with Swedish military personnel within the air command-and-control organization.

    The result shows that the airborne C2-system can risk to contribute to fratricide due to a poor radar resolution in the horizontal plane or because the “zero-doppler-limit” is set too high.

    The result is only valid in conjunction with the defined scenarios, and there may be more ways the system can contribute to fratricide. To examine this, more efficacy-measurements according to the airborne C2-system’s performance must be presented and analyzed.

  • 8.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Påverkansfaktorer i pansarduellen: människans roll i bekämpningskedjan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the technical and human factors that affect the time a gunner detects, identifies and destroy a target. The paper submits suggestions on technical and educational measures that can be rectified to save time in a combat process.

    Many battles between combat vehicles take place in swiftly situations, duel fighting. The combat distance is derived from simulated battles from all over Sweden and is set to as short distance as 300 m. The gunner can, under good weather conditions, identify a 2.3 m high target at a distance of 1520 m, but under difficult conditions like in fog, it may be hard to identify at the given distance of 300 m. This, together with, the hit probability of hitting the target due to system scattering and selection of aim point at the target, makes it difficult to determine the effect of the given fire. There is a risk that the gunner will overcompensate that with firing to many rounds at the target, which in turn leads to time losses.

    The purpose of the paper is to study the Kill chain process to build up knowledge of the processes, in order to understand where it is possible to optimize. This optimization should then reduce the time from detection until the target is destroyed.

    The results of the analysis show that the proven experience contained in the Armed Forces manuals and regulations is well balanced but lacks references so that traceability is inadequate. The result also shows that if rules of firing are followed, the opponent will be destroyed with sufficient effect. However, it depends on where the target is hit. In the front, it will be difficult to observe the effect, but a hit in the side of the target the effect will be fairly easy to observe as it leads to fire in a high number of extent. The gunner may have to fire up to eight rounds to be sure to destroy a combat vehicle depending on the distance to the target and where the round hit the target.

    With this result, it is recommended that a further examination be carried out on which algorithms can support image enhancing electro optics.  Fusion of sensors plus fire and control systems ought to be examined to find solutions that enable predictive automatically sets of fire to speed up the kill chain.

     

  • 9.
    Lien, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    ”LIDAR, en sensorrevolusjon for Hæren?”2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LIDAR is a type of sensor that has not yet been put into operation by the army's combat units. The technology's scope is broad, and for this thesis limited to a sensor role in a ground-to-ground scenario in combat units, where the sensor is used to build a commander's situational awareness (SA).

    In this thesis the results from both social scientific and scientific methods have been merged to measure the military utility of a sensor and its role for a military leader in contributing to his situational awareness and how this enables him to execute basic tactical principles. Data has been collected via literature studies, interviews and study visits to the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI). The results show the important role a sensor has as a direct contributor to a military leader’s situational awareness and his ability to execute basic tactical principles. Furthermore, the results clearly indicate where a LIDAR sensor can improve this role. It will do this because of its capability to detect well, classify and identify at long ranges, and its ability to penetrate natural and man-made obscurants and camouflage.

    The conclusions are that a LIDAR can be used by armoured combat units as a targeting sensor, and that the fielding of such a system will give a leader increased SA and a better basis for decisions. It is also clear that it cannot replace the systems in use today, but will be a complementary system that can be used under given circumstances.

  • 10.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Conservative RCS models for simulationArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Conservative RCS Models for Tactical Simulation2015In: IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, ISSN 1045-9243, E-ISSN 1558-4143, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a procedure for generating conservative radar cross section (RCS) models able to meet the computational requirements imposed by simulation and related applications. The key concept is to downsample calculated or measured RCS data retaining local extreme values; thus, a conservative RCS matrix is obtained. Spline approximations are used in order to obtain continuity in the RCS models. RCS models with varying resolution have been generated and analyzed, and it is shown how spatial Fourier transforms can be used when determining feasibility for certain decision making applications. Furthermore, it is found that the interpolation errors obtained from the conservative RCS models are well described by generalized extreme value theory.

  • 12.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. KTH.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On Modeling RCS of Aircraft for Flight Simulation2014In: IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, ISSN 1045-9243, E-ISSN 1558-4143, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the implementation of the radar cross section (RCS) of aircraft in modeling and simulation (M&S). More specifically, it addresses the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost introduced by spatial RCS fluctuations. High-resolution RCS matrices, generated using Physical Optics (PO), were used in an investigation of RCS matrix resolution, and an evaluation of different bilinear interpolation methods is presented. The spatial Fourier transform was used for resolution analysis. It was found that the smallest RCS interpolation error was obtained using splines. Furthermore, results showed that the distribution of the relative interpolation error in detection range was well approximated by a log-normal distribution.

  • 13.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Vehicle Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Reduction of RCS Samples Using the Cubed Sphere Sampling Scheme2016In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, ISSN 1937-8726, Vol. 48, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to the traditional method of sampling radar cross section data from measurements or electromagnetic code is presented and evaluated. The Cubed Sphere sampling scheme solves the problem of oversampling at high and low elevation angles and at equal equatorial resolution the scheme can reduce the number of samples required by approximately 25%. The analysis is made of an aircraft model with a monostatic radar cross section at C-band and a bistatic radar cross section at VHF-band, using Physical Optics and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method, respectively. It was found that for the monostatic radar cross section, the Cubed Sphere sampling scheme required approximately 12% fewer samples compared to that required for traditional sampling while maintaining the same interpolation accuracy ever the entire domain. For the bistatic data, it was possible to reduce the number of samples by approximately 45% for high sampling resolutions. Using spline interpolation the number of samples required could be reduced even further. 

  • 14.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Backstrom, M.
    Loren, J.
    Microwave field-to-wire coupling measurements in anechoic and reverberation chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section sigma(w) and the effective antenna length of the wire, h(e), are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of sigma(w) may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to sigma(w) measured in the RC. Large variations in sigma(w) show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, a. measured in the RC follows a chi(2)-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 15.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of antenna receiving properties of wires and cables is essential in the analysis of susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. This paper presents measurements of receiving parameters for basic wire geometries. Directional properties of realized gain, receiving cross section and of effective antenna lenght for the wires are presented. The impact of measured directivity effects of the order of 15 dB on radiated susceptibility testing in anechoic and mode-stirred chambers is discussed.

  • 16.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements in Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section and the effective antenna length of the wire, he, are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of the antenna receiving cross section may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC. Large variations in the antenna receiving cross section show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC follows a Chi-square-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 17.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Ye, Ming
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Scuka, Viktor
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Induced Voltages in a Low-Voltage Power Installation Network Due to Lightning Electronmagnetic Fields: An Experimental Study1999In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental results on the induced common-mode (CM) voltages in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to electromagnetic fields from lightning. The objective of this investigation was to find out the severity of inducedvoltages in a low voltage network due to direct coupling of the lightning electromagnetic fields with the network in the absence of transient overvoltages coming through the distribution lines. Therefore, during the experiment the LVPI network was disconnected from the distribution network to exclude conducted transients in the measured signals entering through the mains. The induced CM voltages in a power outlet of the network were measured simultaneously with the vertical component of the electric field near the installation. The sequence of induced voltage events during the complete duration of one negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, one positive CG flash, and one cloud flash (CC), thought to be typical, is presented simultaneously with the electric field. It is shown that in addition to the return strokes in ground flashes, other discharge events taking place in the cloud; notably, the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, are also important in determining the transient environment of electronic devices connected to a LVPI network. Flashes at a distance of about 25 km produced many induced-voltage pulses as large as 100 V, six such pulses in a time period of 0.4 ms in a negative CG flash, and 11 such pulses in a time period of 3 ms in a CC that immediately followed the ground flash.

  • 18.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. MTA Försvarhögskolan.
    Critique systems for Geographic information and GIS2009In: Proceedings at 24th International Cartographic Conference ICC 2009 Santiago, Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Sivertun, Åke
    2Department of Computer and Information Science (IDA), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Integration of remote sensed images and semantic based Descriptors for Hazards and risks management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    The Role of ICT in Defence Industry and Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

1 - 21 of 21
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