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  • 1.
    Andréasson, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönarsvärmar inom ramen för spaningsuppdrag2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, drones are used in both a civilian and military context, a swarm being a group of autonomous drones which are partly controlled by an operator. Swarms are a concept that is still in the research stage and previous research has consisted of how a swarm will communicate with the operator and how the swarm will work technically. However, the problem with the research available today is that it largely lacks the military connection. Hence, this study has aimed to investigate how the Armed Forces want to use swarms in the context of reconnaissance missions. The questions posed were, how do personnel within the Armed Forces want to plan swarm missions? What behaviors and capabilities do Armed Forces personnel want a swarm to possess? How do Armed Forces personnel want to receive information from swarms? Empirical data were collected by conducting three interviews with three individuals employed by the Armed Forces. The empirical data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis where the responses were divided into smaller groups and sub-groups.  The study resulted in tables of desired abilities and behaviors that can be used in later research to create a real swarm system.

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  • 2.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

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    Alexander Andrén - Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik
  • 3.
    Annerfjärd, Christoffer
    Swedish Defence University.
    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drones or Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) were first developed for military use in the start of the twentieth century and were part of a major push toward “airpower”. Nowadays they are available for the public, smaller and easier to fly. This comes with countless opportunities but also security risks. This essay aims to study military risk-taking in a context where this type of threat is prominent. To understand how future military commanders will act upon these threats, a quantitative study with hypothesis will form the basis for answering the question of which mechanism has effect on the level of risk-taking when the subject is faced with the threat of RPAS. The study shows that the support of the squad, self-experienced knowledge about the threat and previous experience of international service has an impact, but no statistical significance to support their effect on the degree of risk-taking in these survey-based scenarios. Surprisingly, age is one of the most significant results of increased risk-taking which forms new questions about risk, experience, and modern threats.

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    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare
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    Bilaga 1_Enkät om riskbenägenhet bland svensk militär
  • 4.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Mjölken spillde ut sig: artificiell intelligens, etik och autonoma vapensystem2023In: Drönare/UAS: Teknik och förmågor / [ed] Stig Rydell; Mats Olofsson, Stockholm: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2023, p. 61-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Björnberg, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med mobiltelefoni och Radio180: En systemanalys av sambandssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military communication system RA180 is aging while mobile telephony is evolving rapidly. These systems differ from each other in many aspects, but the overall skill in using a mobile phone offers benefits for military communication. Previous research has shown that there are some flaws in mobile telephony, but how these deficiencies relate to a communication system that is already in use by the Armed Forces have not been studied yet.

    This essay aims to investigate whether there is any military utility of using mobile telephony for the communication instead of RA180. A systems analysis, where the systems are compared and evaluated, will be implemented for this purpose. The essay reveals several opportunities available when mobile telephony is used as communication systems and one of the main potential is that the system has a higher availability due to the existing infrastructure. Mobile telephony has a lower military utility than RA180 in a specific scenario, but for several of the reasons that resulted in a lower military utility there are solutions. Encryption is one of these and there are options that would improve security significantly in mobile telephony.

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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Crisisplan & Leiden University.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pintore, Giovanni
    CRS4 Visual Computing Group Pula(CA), Italy.
    Ganovelli, Fabio
    ISTI-CNR Pisa, Italy.
    Leventakis, George
    Center for Security Studies - KEMEA Athens, Greece.
    Ahmad, Alexandre
    DIGINEXT Toulouse, France.
    Balet, Olivier
    DIGINEXT Toulouse, France.
    Building an IT Platform for Strategic Crisis Management Preparation2014In: 10th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 20-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result of the work achieved in the frame of three successive European Projects, which aimed to build an innovative system to assist security managers in the crisis preparation, training and management phases. The iterative approach of the consortium is presented, as well as the results. A novel interactive and shared Common Operational Picture is proposed which has been validated by three large scale demonstrations. On-going and future work focusing on the security concepts and measures of building interiors is moreover presented.

  • 7.
    Bousquet, Antoine
    Birkbeck, University of London, UK.
    A Brief History of Wargames2015In: Simulation, Exercise, Operations / [ed] Robin Mackay, Falmouth: Urbanomic , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bousquet, Antoine
    Birkbeck College, University of London, London, UK.
    Lethal visions: the eye as function of the weapon2017In: Critical Studies on Security, ISSN 2162-4887, E-ISSN 2162-4909, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 62-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In measure to the development of projectile weaponry, the conduct of modern war has accorded perception with destruction, marshalling and enfolding human vision into ever more sophisticated sociotechnical assemblages of targeting. Drawing upon Paul Virilio’s notion of a ‘logistics of perception’, this article charts the four successive orders of targeting constituted by the alignment of the line of sight with the line of fire (aiming), the measurement of distance to a target (ranging), the trailing and prediction of a target’s movement (tracking) and the directed navigation to a target’s position in space (guiding). Alongside the functional specification of each of these orders is concurrently drawn out the accompanying corporeal regimentations of the organisms thus imbricated. With its capillaries now spanning the wider ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, the contemporary war machine has however extended its sensorial reach far beyond the confines of its original human strictures. Its culmination may well lie in the advent of laser technology and the promise of a weaponisation of light itself through which the definitive coincidence of perception and annihilation is to be realised, even as it dispenses with the ocular orb.

  • 9.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using AI and games for decision support in command and control2007In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1454-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of tomorrow's command and control centers are facing numerous problems related to the vast amount of available information obtained from various sources. On a lower level, huge amounts of uncertain reports from different sensors need to be fused into comprehensible information. On a higher level, representation and management of the aggregated information will be the main task, with prediction of future course of events being the uttermost goal. Unfortunately, traditional agent modeling techniques do not capture situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning. To cope with this problem, we propose a decision support tool for command and control situation awareness enhancements based on game theory for inference and coupled with traditional AI methods for uncertainty modeling.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University.
    HPM-vapen vs. kommersiell UAV2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper in military technology discusses whether high power microwaves can affect commercial UAVs. Two non-lethal HPM-weapons are analyzed. The data is collected from a scenario where there is a high risk for collateral damage. A Swedish Armed Forces study stated that the Air Defence Battalion lacks ability to affect small UAVs. The latest knowledge is obtained from the environment in the scenario, from research and from the industry. This knowledge has enabled a logical-mathematical parametric study on the scenario within a military perspective. The result of the study is the assessment that commercial UAVs are assessed to have low protection factor, facilitates decision to act in all environments and provides an electronic shield protection of a large surface at the same time. HPM-weapons can´t stand as a single system for protection against commercial UAVs and achieve guaranteed effect. However, HPM-weapons can complement other weapon systems and thus make the air defense stronger through systems of systems. HPM-weapons can reduce the capability deficiency against commercial UAVs.

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  • 11.
    Fox Franke, Daniel
    et al.
    Akamai Technologies, Cambridge, (USA).
    Sibold, Dieter
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, (DEU).
    Teichel, Kristof
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, (DEU).
    Dansarie, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Sundblad, Ragnar
    Netnod, Sweden, (SWE).
    Network Time Security for the Network Time Protocol2020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This memo specifies Network Time Security (NTS), a mechanism for using Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) to provide cryptographic security for the client-server mode of the Network Time Protocol (NTP).

    NTS is structured as a suite of two loosely coupled sub-protocols. The first (NTS Key Establishment (NTS-KE)) handles initial authentication and key establishment over TLS. The second (NTS Extension Fields for NTPv4) handles encryption and authentication during NTP time synchronization via extension fields in the NTP packets, and holds all required state only on the client via opaque cookies.

  • 12.
    Gradh, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    En stabs nätverkstrafik: En analys av användningen av datornätverkskapacitet i en operativ stab under övningen VIKING 112015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) spent almost SEK 20 million on the procurement of satellite capacity for use during training, exercises and operations. However, according to SwAF Headquarters, the capacity procured did not meet unit demands.

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the capacity usage in an operational headquarters, based on the headquarters’ staff procedures and to see if there is any military utility to be gained in connection with this capacity.

    The starting point for the study is quantitative data about network usage. This quantitative data is then compared with staff work based on quantitative and qualitative data from war diaries, governing documentation and studies.

    The study shows that capacity usage is not related to staff work, but is instead linked to the presence of staff and their use of the Internet. The study also indicates that there could be potential for greater military utility of network capacity, but this will require the introduction of network priority mechanisms and further studies into user traffic.

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    bilaga
  • 13. Hedén, Hugo
    Systems methodology for Analysis of Airborne Electronic Warfare Systems2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one of the first to examine how system methodology can be applied as a tool to facilitate a holistic view of fighter aircraft survivability. This is done through the application of a modified version of multi-agent influence diagrams (MAIDs), as an analytical tool of two generic one-on-one scenarios based on Robert E. Balls The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability, Analysis and Design. The concept of survivability has been limited to susceptibility because this is where ECM, ECCM and ESM operate.

    The result: three influence diagrams for each scenario and a generic MAID developed for the first scenario. These should not be seen as an exact technical description of the interaction between threats and countermeasures, but as a pilot application of system methodology within the study area. Furthermore, the user validation indicates that the diagrams can convey the complexity of the interactions between threats and countermeasures through a graphical presentation. The diagrams led to a deeper discussion about which influences are important for survival.

    The conclusion is that MAID and systems methodology can serve as a tool to describe and help communicate the complex relationships between elements and influences that affect the aircraft's survivability between different actors, provided they are modelled correctly.

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    2FS003_Heden_22.04.13.pdf
  • 14.
    Hultberg, Anton
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett luftburet ledningssystem i en taktisk kontext2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about an airborne command-and-control (C2) system, and seeks to examine how this specific airborne C2- system can increase the risk of fratricide in military operations.

    Based on earlier studies that defines and describes the most common causes for fratricide, a system analysis were made on the airborne C2-system. The analysis treated three different efficacy-measurements, and each one of these were put in specific scenarios.

    Beyond literature studies, the information in the paper has been collected through qualitative interviews with personnel who works with the airborne C2-system and with Swedish military personnel within the air command-and-control organization.

    The result shows that the airborne C2-system can risk to contribute to fratricide due to a poor radar resolution in the horizontal plane or because the “zero-doppler-limit” is set too high.

    The result is only valid in conjunction with the defined scenarios, and there may be more ways the system can contribute to fratricide. To examine this, more efficacy-measurements according to the airborne C2-system’s performance must be presented and analyzed.

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    sammanfattning
  • 15.
    Iftimie, Ion A.
    et al.
    NATO Defense College, Rome, (ITA) / European Union Research Center, George Washington School of Business, Washington, D.C., (USA) / Central European University, Vienna, (AUT).
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Strengthening the cybersecurity of smart grids: The role of artificial intelligence in resiliency of substation intelligent electronic devices2020In: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security: a virtual conference hosted by University of Chester UK 25-26 June 202 / [ed] Thaddeus Eze, Lee Speakman, Cyril Onwubiko, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2020, p. 143-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Executive Order 13800—Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure—issued by the President of the United States, calls for an evaluation of the “readiness and gaps in the United States’ ability to manage and mitigate consequences of a cyber incident against the electricity subsector.” In May of 2018, the Office of Management and Budget finished evaluating the 96 risk assessments conducted by various agencies and published Federal Cybersecurity Risk Determination Report and Action Plan (Risk Report). While the report embraced a broad defending forward strategy, it made no reference to smart grids or their vulnerable intelligent substations and did not address how federal agencies plan to respond to emerging threats to these systems. While the paper does not discuss how to attack the smart grids in the cyber domain, the contribution to the academic debate lies in validating some of the vulnerabilities of the grid’s substations in order for government, private industry, academia, and civil society to better collaborate in disrupting or halting malicious cyber activities before they disrupt the power supply of the United States and its Transatlantic allies. We also discuss how Artificial Intelligence and related techniques can mitigate security risks to cyber-physical systems. Until this technology becomes available, however, standardization of cyber security efforts must be enforced through regulatory means, such as the enforcement of security-by-design Intelligent Electronic Devices and protocols for the smart grid. 

  • 16.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Påverkansfaktorer i pansarduellen: människans roll i bekämpningskedjan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the technical and human factors that affect the time a gunner detects, identifies and destroy a target. The paper submits suggestions on technical and educational measures that can be rectified to save time in a combat process.

    Many battles between combat vehicles take place in swiftly situations, duel fighting. The combat distance is derived from simulated battles from all over Sweden and is set to as short distance as 300 m. The gunner can, under good weather conditions, identify a 2.3 m high target at a distance of 1520 m, but under difficult conditions like in fog, it may be hard to identify at the given distance of 300 m. This, together with, the hit probability of hitting the target due to system scattering and selection of aim point at the target, makes it difficult to determine the effect of the given fire. There is a risk that the gunner will overcompensate that with firing to many rounds at the target, which in turn leads to time losses.

    The purpose of the paper is to study the Kill chain process to build up knowledge of the processes, in order to understand where it is possible to optimize. This optimization should then reduce the time from detection until the target is destroyed.

    The results of the analysis show that the proven experience contained in the Armed Forces manuals and regulations is well balanced but lacks references so that traceability is inadequate. The result also shows that if rules of firing are followed, the opponent will be destroyed with sufficient effect. However, it depends on where the target is hit. In the front, it will be difficult to observe the effect, but a hit in the side of the target the effect will be fairly easy to observe as it leads to fire in a high number of extent. The gunner may have to fire up to eight rounds to be sure to destroy a combat vehicle depending on the distance to the target and where the round hit the target.

    With this result, it is recommended that a further examination be carried out on which algorithms can support image enhancing electro optics.  Fusion of sensors plus fire and control systems ought to be examined to find solutions that enable predictive automatically sets of fire to speed up the kill chain.

     

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  • 17.
    Lien, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    ”LIDAR, en sensorrevolusjon for Hæren?”2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LIDAR is a type of sensor that has not yet been put into operation by the army's combat units. The technology's scope is broad, and for this thesis limited to a sensor role in a ground-to-ground scenario in combat units, where the sensor is used to build a commander's situational awareness (SA).

    In this thesis the results from both social scientific and scientific methods have been merged to measure the military utility of a sensor and its role for a military leader in contributing to his situational awareness and how this enables him to execute basic tactical principles. Data has been collected via literature studies, interviews and study visits to the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI). The results show the important role a sensor has as a direct contributor to a military leader’s situational awareness and his ability to execute basic tactical principles. Furthermore, the results clearly indicate where a LIDAR sensor can improve this role. It will do this because of its capability to detect well, classify and identify at long ranges, and its ability to penetrate natural and man-made obscurants and camouflage.

    The conclusions are that a LIDAR can be used by armoured combat units as a targeting sensor, and that the fielding of such a system will give a leader increased SA and a better basis for decisions. It is also clear that it cannot replace the systems in use today, but will be a complementary system that can be used under given circumstances.

  • 18.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Systems Science for Defence and Security.
    Towards a conceptual framework for system of systems2023In: Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium Papers Presented at the 35th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2023), s. 18-24 / [ed] Raimundas Matulevičius; Daniel Mendez Fernandez, 2023, p. 18-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the shadow of the Ukrainian war, many western countries will increase their armed forces capabilities and this in an environment where new technology will have strong influence. The increased capabilities will be implemented in a context of automation, machine learning and other types of artificial intelligence (AI). At the same time, the new or enhanced capabilities must harmonize with multi-domain operations, where the need for speed, flexibility and interoperability are essential. Additionally, future defense forces will be forced to manage newand old systems and methods and integrate these so that the desired functionality and capabilityis achieved. At the same time, as new technical systems are introduced, methods and processes will develop. Consequently, new technology will bring possibilities of solving military problems in new ways.

  • 19.
    Moberg, Viktor Erik Olof
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den obemannade tröskeln2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den obemannade tröskeln är en uppsats på magisternivå efter avslutade studier på HOP1 vid Försvarshögskolan. Syftet med att skriva den var att försöka ge ett bidrag till anskaffningsprocessen av nya autonoma system till den svenska marinen. Detta gjordes genom att använda de tydligast framträdande dimensionerande teorierna ur svensk militärstrategisk doktrin och skapa ett analysverktyg utifrån detta, tillsammans med andra enligt författaren viktiga svenska kulturella principer, nämligen efterlevnaden av krigets lagar och hänsyn till kostnad.

    Studien är konstruerad som en kvalitativ, utforskande fallstudie med den svenska marinens undervattensförmåga som studerat fall. Resultaten visar på att marinen kan ha mycket stor nytta av dessa system, men att det initialt är viktigt att få ut system tidigt som direkt stödjer befintliga plattformar i deras verksamhet.

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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Conservative RCS models for simulationArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Download (mp4)
    Model of the F117
  • 21.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Conservative RCS Models for Tactical Simulation2015In: IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, ISSN 1045-9243, E-ISSN 1558-4143, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a procedure for generating conservative radar cross section (RCS) models able to meet the computational requirements imposed by simulation and related applications. The key concept is to downsample calculated or measured RCS data retaining local extreme values; thus, a conservative RCS matrix is obtained. Spline approximations are used in order to obtain continuity in the RCS models. RCS models with varying resolution have been generated and analyzed, and it is shown how spatial Fourier transforms can be used when determining feasibility for certain decision making applications. Furthermore, it is found that the interpolation errors obtained from the conservative RCS models are well described by generalized extreme value theory.

  • 22.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. KTH.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On Modeling RCS of Aircraft for Flight Simulation2014In: IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, ISSN 1045-9243, E-ISSN 1558-4143, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the implementation of the radar cross section (RCS) of aircraft in modeling and simulation (M&S). More specifically, it addresses the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost introduced by spatial RCS fluctuations. High-resolution RCS matrices, generated using Physical Optics (PO), were used in an investigation of RCS matrix resolution, and an evaluation of different bilinear interpolation methods is presented. The spatial Fourier transform was used for resolution analysis. It was found that the smallest RCS interpolation error was obtained using splines. Furthermore, results showed that the distribution of the relative interpolation error in detection range was well approximated by a log-normal distribution.

  • 23.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Vehicle Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Reduction of RCS Samples Using the Cubed Sphere Sampling Scheme2016In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, ISSN 1937-8726, Vol. 48, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to the traditional method of sampling radar cross section data from measurements or electromagnetic code is presented and evaluated. The Cubed Sphere sampling scheme solves the problem of oversampling at high and low elevation angles and at equal equatorial resolution the scheme can reduce the number of samples required by approximately 25%. The analysis is made of an aircraft model with a monostatic radar cross section at C-band and a bistatic radar cross section at VHF-band, using Physical Optics and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method, respectively. It was found that for the monostatic radar cross section, the Cubed Sphere sampling scheme required approximately 12% fewer samples compared to that required for traditional sampling while maintaining the same interpolation accuracy ever the entire domain. For the bistatic data, it was possible to reduce the number of samples by approximately 45% for high sampling resolutions. Using spline interpolation the number of samples required could be reduced even further. 

  • 24.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Backstrom, M.
    Loren, J.
    Microwave field-to-wire coupling measurements in anechoic and reverberation chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section sigma(w) and the effective antenna length of the wire, h(e), are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of sigma(w) may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to sigma(w) measured in the RC. Large variations in sigma(w) show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, a. measured in the RC follows a chi(2)-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 25.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of antenna receiving properties of wires and cables is essential in the analysis of susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. This paper presents measurements of receiving parameters for basic wire geometries. Directional properties of realized gain, receiving cross section and of effective antenna lenght for the wires are presented. The impact of measured directivity effects of the order of 15 dB on radiated susceptibility testing in anechoic and mode-stirred chambers is discussed.

  • 26.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements in Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section and the effective antenna length of the wire, he, are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of the antenna receiving cross section may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC. Large variations in the antenna receiving cross section show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC follows a Chi-square-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 27.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Ye, Ming
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Scuka, Viktor
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Induced Voltages in a Low-Voltage Power Installation Network Due to Lightning Electronmagnetic Fields: An Experimental Study1999In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental results on the induced common-mode (CM) voltages in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to electromagnetic fields from lightning. The objective of this investigation was to find out the severity of inducedvoltages in a low voltage network due to direct coupling of the lightning electromagnetic fields with the network in the absence of transient overvoltages coming through the distribution lines. Therefore, during the experiment the LVPI network was disconnected from the distribution network to exclude conducted transients in the measured signals entering through the mains. The induced CM voltages in a power outlet of the network were measured simultaneously with the vertical component of the electric field near the installation. The sequence of induced voltage events during the complete duration of one negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, one positive CG flash, and one cloud flash (CC), thought to be typical, is presented simultaneously with the electric field. It is shown that in addition to the return strokes in ground flashes, other discharge events taking place in the cloud; notably, the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, are also important in determining the transient environment of electronic devices connected to a LVPI network. Flashes at a distance of about 25 km produced many induced-voltage pulses as large as 100 V, six such pulses in a time period of 0.4 ms in a negative CG flash, and 11 such pulses in a time period of 3 ms in a CC that immediately followed the ground flash.

  • 28.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. MTA Försvarhögskolan.
    Critique systems for Geographic information and GIS2009In: Proceedings at 24th International Cartographic Conference ICC 2009 Santiago, Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Sivertun, Åke
    2Department of Computer and Information Science (IDA), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Integration of remote sensed images and semantic based Descriptors for Hazards and risks management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    The Role of ICT in Defence Industry and Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 32.
    Zaff, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Automatic compilation and summarization of documented Russian equipment losses in Ukraine: A method development2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th of February 2022 – most of the United Nations have, in one way or another, participated in the most significant war of many decades. The war is characterized by Russia’s atrocious war crimes, illegal annexations, terror, propaganda, and complete disrespect for international law. On the other hand, the war has also been characterized by Ukrainian resilience, a united Europe, and a new dimension of intelligence gathering through social media.Due to the internet, social media, the accessibility of mobile devices, and Ukraine’s military and civilianeffort in documenting Russian equipment – its whereabouts, status, and quantity, Open-Source Intelligence possibilities have reached new levels for both professionals and amateurs. Despite these improved possibilities, gathering such a vast amount of data is still a Herculean effort.Hence, this study contributes a starting point for anyone wanting to compile equipment losses by providing a process specialized in automatic data extraction and summarization from an existing database. The database in question is the image collection from the military analysis group Oryxspioenkop. To further complement the information provided by Oryxspioenkop, the method automatically extracts and annotates dates from the images to provide a chronological order of the equipment loss as well as a graphical overview.The process shows promising results and manages to compile a large set of data, both the information provided by Oryx and the extracted dates from its imagery. Further, the automated process proves to be many times faster than its manual counterpart, showing a linear relationship between the number of images analysed and manhours saved. However, due to the limited development time – the process still has room for improvement and should be considered semi-automatic, rather than automatic. Nevertheless, thanks to the open-source design, the process can be continuously updated and modified to work with other databases, images, or the extraction of other strings of text from imagery.With the rise of competent artificial image generation models, the study also raises the question if this kind of imagery will be a reliable source in the future when studying equipment losses, or if artificial intelligence will be used as a tool of propaganda and psychological operations in wars to come. 

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