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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Färgdisplayen i det taktiska uppträdandet: färgdisplayerna i JAS 39 Gripen bidrag till att behålla initiativet i det dynamiska stridsförloppet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Airosto, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    TLZ: temporary landing zone2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Alexandersson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tungt reaktivt pansar: Hur ska Strv 122 möta hot där pilprojektil inte får genomslag?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to develop one or more ways to neutralize an enemy equipped with heavy reactive armour. Reactive armour has previously only protected against shaped charges. Technological advances have now led to today's reactive armour in addition to protection against shaped charges also capable of protecting against an Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS). The Americans discovered that this technology was available to the Russians and developed new types of APFSDS to deal with it. But what have we done in Sweden since this technology was discovered?

    In this essay, the author makes the assumption that the Swedish APFSDS can’t penetrate a tank equipped with reactive armour. A comparative model will compare three different ways to deal with this problem. Before doing the comparative model study, there will be a chapter which describes for example reactive armour, APFSDS, Kontakt-5 (a type of reactive armour), tank protection in general.

    The model consists of one Leopard 2A5 S (Leo 2) and one enemy tank equipped with reactive armour. By comparing different ways for the Leo 2 to defeat the enemy, the author will reach a conclusion for the problem.

    The conclusion drawn from this essay is that the normal procedure when the Leo 2 initially has an APFSDS loaded in the canon should be changed to it having a grenade loaded instead. Bursting a grenade towards the enemy will destroy or damage Kontakt-5 and the second projectile, which should be an APFSDS, will now penetrate the damaged Kontakt-5 and the hostile tank will be defeated.  

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  • 4.
    Alvesparr, Oliver
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur påverkar mänskliga kvarlevor åtgärderna på en skadeplats?: Hur påverkar mänskliga kvarlevor den tekniska åtgärdstiden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Armed Forces use their material under warlike conditions, both persons and material can come to harm. How human remains are to be disposed of from a damage vehicle is unknown today. The problem of managing human remains is not found in technical service regulations or any other control. The issue of human remains in an object can be an issue both for the logistical, medical, police, legal, technical service or a combination of those. The man in charge needs to keep in mind three different steps, such as taking care of the deceased, cleaning the equipment and finally repairing the equipment. The purpose of the essay is to investigate how the management of human remains in scene of an accident should be regulated. The work is limited to studying how human remains should suitably be handled by the Swedish Armed Forces, from when a person has been injured or killed in a vehicle, until the vehicle can be repaired. The methods used for data collecting are interview, questionnaire and literature study. The results of the study show that indirectly, almost all measures on a scene of an accident and technical response time are affected due to human remains. There is a need to take care of the deceased body and to clean the equipment, which is lacking or no routines for. The procedures available are too general to provide support to the decision maker. Who to clean and how to implement it within the Armed Forces is still unknown. The author has developed seven different recommendations for further studies

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  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hoke Åberg, Pernilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sweden - Mission Command and Social Media: Old Leadership Philosophy Challenged by New Information Technology?2017In: Technology and Leadership: International Perspectives / [ed] Daniel J. Watola & Allister MacIntyre, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2017, 1, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    am Ende, Patrick
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kan kortvågsradion öka rörligheten på våra förband?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min målsättning med denna uppsats har varit att forska kring hur kortvågsradion kan öka rörligheten på svenska förband i utlandsstyrkan. Inledningsvis har jag definerat vad jag menar med manöverkrigsföring, uppdragstaktik, de sex grundläggande förmågorna och radio. Jag har intervjuat individer som varit på enheter som rört sig i terrängen i Afghanistan och Kosovo. Jag har sedan diskuterat kring hur man kan öka rörligeheten genom att använd sig av uppdragstaktik och kortvågsradion. Jag har jämfört ledningsätt och radioanvändande mellan Afghanistan och Kosovo och dragit slutsatser från detta.

    En av slutsatserna som har dragits ur uppsatsen är att det är räckvidden som möjliggör en högre rörlighet genom att enheterna inte blir styrda till att hålla sig inom t.ex. en RAP-täckningskarta utan ger dem större möjlighet att själva välja framryckningsväg och möjliggöra att uppdragstaktik[1] kan utnyttjas på ett effektivare sätt.

    Denna slutsats beskriver hur rörlighet och uppdragstaktik blir effektivare genom att använda sig av kortvågsradion.

    Jag anser att kortvågsradion är ett radiosystem som försvarsmakten böra behålla och utveckla. Det som bör utvecklas är antenner och radio utrustningen som har tagit upp i uppsatsen. Förslag på förbättringar är att antennerna utvecklas så att man kan ha en antenn för alla frekvensområden så man inte behöver stanna fordonet och upprätta en deltaantenn[2] för att kunna sända på den lämpligaste frekvensen vid tillfället. Att det finns en individ vid campen som har som uppgift att uppdaterade frekvenspaketen varje vecka eftersom frekvenserna är väderberoende, för att mögligöra att radioförbindelsen blir så bra som mögligt. Radioapparaterna borde byggas med dagen elektronikkomponenter vilket skulle medföra mindre radioapparater, bättre batteritid och en mer lättmanövrerad radioapparat. 

    Jag kommer att avsluta med ett citat ur doktrin för markoperationer som jag anser styrker min uppsats:

    ”De ledningssystem som försvarsmakten använder ska medge en så stor flexibilitet som mögligt i valet av medel och metoder. Detta innebär att det bör finnas en inbyggd förmåga som möjliggör ledning från såväl en framskjuten plats inom ett operationsområde som från en stabsplats[3]”.

     

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  • 7.
    Amann, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. Herr.
    Affordability management and its influence on concept development2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Amann, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, (SWE).
    Changing Path and Curbing Cost Escalation: Lessons Learnt from the Gripen Case2022In: Defence and Peace Economics, ISSN 1024-2694, E-ISSN 1476-8267, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 421-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant theory suggests that paths of development, although identified as being unsustainable, might be difficult to depart from. The aim of this study has therefore been to explore and understand how a path change can be facilitated in a setting of complex product systems. A unique single case of product development that managed to curb an unsustainable intergenerational cost escalation for complex defence equipment has been studied. The study shows a relation between a path change and a challenging opportunity, and also indicates how this relation can be moderated by the company management and the customers. The study provides both theoretical and practical implications, supporting understanding and facilitation of path changes.

  • 9.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Affordability aspects in the concept generation of defence systems2017In: Proceedings of 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, Twente: Continuous Innovation Network, 2017, p. 26-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost escalation for fighter aircraft is arguably not sustainable. Pushing frontiers oftechnology by incremental improvements of traditional platforms has led to anexponential increase in cost. This paper addresses the process of concept generationwith the purpose to explore how affordability is managed in that process, in order toidentify possible measures to improve the likelihood of generating affordableconcepts. This is done by studying two cases of concept generation of future combatair systems. The concepts generated in these two cases are however not curbing thecost escalation and are, with only one notable exception, based on incrementalinnovation. Nevertheless, the empirical observations offer leads to potentially fostera more innovative and cost conscious concept generation process, indicatingavenues for future research.

  • 10.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Affordability Aspects in the Development of Defence Equipment: Case Studies of Concept Generation in the Defence Industry2021In: Defence and Peace Economics, ISSN 1024-2694, E-ISSN 1476-8267, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 847-863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost escalation for many complex defence equipment is arguably not sustainable. Customer driven requirements have led to an exponential increase in costs by pushing frontiers of technology to support primarily incremental improvements of traditional equipment concepts. Accordingly, affordability has become a more discussed subject indefence acquisition. This paper addresses the process of generating complex defence equipment concepts. The purpose is to explore how affordability is managed in that process and to identify possible leads to how an unsustainable cost escalation for this type of equipment can be curbed. This is done by studying two cases of concept generation of future combat air equipment systems from a company process perspective. This applied micro perspective on cost escalation showed that none of the concepts generated in these two cases were assessed to curb the cost escalation. Further, the innovation model for the generated concepts, with only one notable exception, was incremental. Nevertheless, the empirical observations from these two cases offer leads on how to potentially foster a more innovative and affordability-oriented concept generation process for future defence equipment, as well as indicating avenues for future research.

  • 11.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE); RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Inducing affordability? Observations from an experimental study of concept generation2021In: Proceedings of the 22th CINet conference, September 12 – 14, Gothenburg, Sweden, Enschede, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early preliminary concepts are claimed to have a profound impact on the final product. Since these concepts often are based on intuitive judgements, it is important that these judgements are appropriate for the desired outcome. Intuition is derived from what one brings to mind, and consequently, the access to information is important for making relevant judgements. Therefore, when a departure from a present path of development is sought for, access to new information is likely to be required. Results from an experimental study, addressing affordability and concept generation, indicated that individuals were influenced, by the provision of selective information, to make more cost considerations and even to change approach when generating new concepts. It was further recognized that weak abilities to estimate costs in a lifecycle and capability perspective likely hampered low-cost ambitions. The findings from this study are suggested to contribute to theory on product development, and to support affordability when new products are developed.

  • 12.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, (SWE).
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, (SWE); RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, (SWE).
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, (SWE).
    Managing affordability in concept development of complex product systems (CoPS)2023In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study originates in a recognised unsustainable cost escalation for complex defence equipment. In order to understand how such cost escalation for complex product systems (CoPS) can be avoided, this study comparatively explores four different industrial sectors - energy, transportation, healthcare and defence - with and without intergenerational increasing costs, represented by four international companies. The results, collected from studying the development of one of each company’s products, reveal some characteristic differences in market factors between those sectors and companies having problems with intergenerational escalating costs and customer affordability, as compared to other sectors and companies. It is suggested that dependent on market characteristics, it might be necessary to actively manage affordability when CoPS are developed. Efforts made by the companies to make products more affordable were identified, and several factors enabling and disabling the development of less costly products without compromising customer needs were explored. Further, the implications of affordability management in a CoPS setting are elaborated on.

  • 13.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Matos, Carlos
    Instruction Center for Operations on Law and Order Assurance - CIOpGLO, Exército Brasileiro.
    Cuperschmid, Ana R. M.
    University of Campinas.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Pozzer, Cesar T.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.
    Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality Technologies: Enhancing Training and Mission Preparation with Simulations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Instruction Centre for Operations on Law and Order Assurance (CIOpGLO) is a Brazilian Army facility created in March 2005 in Campinas, Brazil. The mission of this centre involves the offering of training in different perspectives, which includes the preparation of soldiers to enter in slums areas in Rio de Janeiro and other cities to arrest criminals, whenever a federal intervention is required. This centre is involved in training to guarantee law and order and, at the same time, prepare officers and soldiers for interventions even in urban areas. To allow such training, this facility counts with physical built sites to allow soldiers to train how to get inside houses, how to shoot at short ranges (from 0 to 30 meters), how to move and shelter while going up in a hill with many houses and corridors on the way, and so on. The Brazilian Army, in the last few years, started operating in slums like the ones of the "Alemão" and the "Penha" complex in Rio de Janeiro. The Army is also participating in operations out of Brazil in countries like Haiti. In situations like this, the armed forces take over the coordination of public security temporarily to recover the control of certain areas. Since the armed forces were not originally created to act in situations like this, there is a need to train all military stakeholders involved so that the operations are successful. Additionally, major events like the Confederations Cup, the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympics in 2016, generate additional demands for the armed forces, which are likely to be called to act at specific times. Moreover, it is noteworthy that there is a growing trend in which conflicts around the world occur, more than ever, inside the cities, where civilians take great risk and suffer many casualties, something called as “collateral damage” of the urban warfare. Recent examples include Afghanistan and Iraq. In this work, the preparation of soldiers at CIOpGLO is discussed while the possibility of using new approaches based on augmented reality and mixed reality technologies are considered. As a way to enhance training and mission preparation with simulations, this research focus on augmented reality (AR) supported by head-mounted displays (HMDs). HDMs may have many shapes, which include pairs of glasses with lenses that present AR with superposed images, enabling its wearer a total immersion in the simulation. The method used in this work involves a literature review on AR and HMDs, assessment of training needs at the Brazilian Army and an evaluation of emerging technologies from the ICT sector. The technologies to be considered are the HDMs, in this specific case the available programming languages, software and hardware from suppliers of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and military off-the-shelf (MOTS). The main contribution of this work is the comparative study of the main solutions for HDM. This study represents an essential step for concept development and for the experimentation to exploit and evaluate the use of simulations. The research presented suggests that the approach is effective and that future work should be on both development of new applications and its evaluation in real training sets in Brazil.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Emanuel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    MQ-1 Predator: ett rovdjur för Sverige?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Hagstedt, Daniel S
    Nylander, Martin
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 3: Teknik till stöd för ledning2009Book (Other academic)
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  • 16. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Hagstedt, Daniel S
    Nylander, Martin
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 3: Teknik till stöd för ledning: reviderad 20212021 (ed. 2: rev. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Case study report on signature engineering: The SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present consolidated results from case studies of the development processes of the SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively.

    The report is intended as an annex to a journal article named “Key requirements in the procurement of future Low Observable combat vehicles: A European perspective” published in the journal of Systems Engineering in 2017.

    Results filtered from interviews and document reviews are presented based on the structure of the Friedman-Sage framework (Friedman & Sage, 2004) for case studies on systems engineering. Firstly, data collected from the two case studies are presented and then the lessons identified consistent with both cases. The sources, an overview of the two cases studied and the application of the framework are described in the journal article.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Krivanek, V., Brno: Brno University of Defence , 2017, p. 123-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP (Armored Multirole Vehicle, in Swedish) and the Visby class corvette cases respectively. The focus was on signature management. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied. The main conclusions can be summarized in three points. 1) A preferred workflow from mission analysis to sub system design has been derived from lessons identified; 2) The three main success factors identified were: building technology demonstrators, having an Integrated Product Team approach, and establishing stealth as a key system design goal; 3) Coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements need further research.

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  • 19.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft2017In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 65, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis scheme and a mission system model were applied to the evaluation of the military utility of efforts to reduce infrared signature in the conceptual design of survivable aircraft. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to contribute to the development of a methodological framework for assessing the military utility of spectral design, and secondly to assess the threat from advances in LWIR sensors and their use in surface-to-air-missile systems. The modeling was specifically applied to the problem of linking the emissivity of aircraft coatings to mission accomplishment. The overall results indicate that the analysis scheme and mission system model applied are feasible for assessing the military utility of spectral design and for supporting decision-making in the concept phase. The analysis of different strike options suggests that LWIR sensors will enhance the military utility of low emissive paint, at least for missions executed in clear weather conditions. Furthermore, results corroborate and further clarify the importance of including earthshine when modeling.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Notes on military capability concepts and their relevance for analysis of system characteristics2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A plethora of views, definitions and concepts concerning military capability can cause misunderstandings among scholars and professionals in the defence and security sector, as well as they can confuse the public on important issues. This study captures and describes a few in an effort to increase awareness; Combat Power, Fighting Power, Joint functions, Warfighting functions, Elements of combat power, Warfighting Capability, DOTMLPF(I), TEPIDOIL, Fundamental inputs to capability, Defence lines of Development, and Military Power. The study also highlights their systemic character and guides the reader briefly in matching issues with suitable concepts.

    Appendix 1 matches Swedish concepts to those listed in the study.

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  • 22.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Marcus, Carina
    SAAB Aerosystems.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Military utility: A proposed concept to support decision-making2015In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 43, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept called Military Utility is proposed for the study of the use of technology in military operations. The proposed concept includes a three-level structure representing key features and their detailed components. On basic level the Military Utility of a technical system, to a military actor, in a specific context, is a compound measure of the military effectiveness, of the assessed technical system's suitability to the military capability system and of the affordability. The concept is derived through conceptual analysis and is based on related concepts used in social sciences, the military domain and Systems Engineering. It is argued that the concept has qualitative explanatory powers and can support military decision-making regarding technology in forecasts, defense planning, development, utilization and the lessons learned process. The suggested concept is expected to contribute to the development of the science of Military-Technology and to be found useful to actors related to defense.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Brorson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Teknisk prognos: Rapport från seminarier vid Försvarshögskolans militärtekniska avdelning 20112011Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 25.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Mölleryd, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2012: Military utility of ten technologies: a report from seminars at the SNDC Department of Military Technology2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College (Note that there probably are other technology areas, equally interesting, but not included in this study). The task given by FMV was to assess the military utility of the chosen technologies in a time frame from 2025 to 2030, from a SwAF viewpoint.

    The method used was first to make a summary of each forecast report. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that are assessed to be the best in order to show possible utility as well as possibilities and drawbacks of the technology. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Conclusions regarding the military utility of the technology were drawn.

    We introduce our definition of military utility as being activities that efficiently and with the lowest cost in terms of lives and materiel lead to fulfilment of the mission objectives.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with a significant potential, with uncertain potential and with negligible potential.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a significant potential for military utility;

    • Augmented Reality

    • Nano air vehicles
    • Solid State Laser weapons

    In the scenarios studied, Augmented Reality (AR) is assessed to have a positive impact on several SwAF capabilities, especially for C2 and intelligence. AR is a relatively mature technology, applicable in many different branches. There are examples where AR is already applied with great success, e.g. Head-Up-Displays, HUD. The technology has proven its value. However, there are well known drawbacks to the technology such as weaknesses regarding models, increased weight for dismounted soldiers, power consumption etc. There is also a risk that personnel will have problems solving their tasks when AR systems fail, not being used to fighting without supporting systems.

    Nano air vehicles (NAV’s) have been assessed to contribute to a large range of capabilities, primarily intelligence. Their lifecycle cost has been assessed to be low, since development in this area is commercially driven, bringing down acquisition costs. Also, FAA has decided to allow NAV’s in controlled air space from 2015, which is expected to lead to an increase in civilian use of NAV’s. The technology is relatively mature even though there are obstacles concerning suitable materials, energy efficient propulsion systems as well as miniaturized microprocessors and software to control them.

    In the scenario studied, High Energy Solid State Lasers are assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capabilities to engage targets on surface and in the air. The technology can be used to protect 

    vessels on the surface and thereby increase survivability. The development of SSL in the given timeframe is expected to lower cost per shot and avoid the environmental problems with use of chemical lasers. Neighbouring military powers are expected to use laser weapons in the future, therefore SwAF should monitor the development of the laser weapons technology and develop and purchase adequate countermeasures.

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain potential for military utility;

    • Metamaterial cloaking

    • Electromagnetic gun

    • Small satellites
    • Ultra-violet communication

    Metamaterial cloaking, if realisable in the future, is assessed to be firstly implemented in the acoustic spectrum, since manufacturing of small structured cloaks for the shorter wavelengths in the optic and radar spectra is believed to be more difficult. Cloaking of submarines is primarily assessed to increase the survivability against torpedoes having active sonar. The use of cloaked mines could pose a deterring threat, even to advanced amphibious operations against Sweden. The technological development in this area should be closely monitored and compared to existing, maturing techniques for countermeasures and for the development of broad spectrum active torpedoes. The greatest concern is that cloaking will have negative impact on submarine manoeuvrability.

    The electro-thermal chemical (ETC) gun seems to be a first step towards a fully electrical gun such as the rail-gun or the coil-gun. The fully electrical guns have been a work in progress for some decades and there are still remaining challenges both concerning electrical power supply and design materials. When or if, they will be operational is difficult to say.

    The military utility of small satellites is disputed, despite an assessed contribution to several of the SwAF capabilities. The main reason for this is that there seems to be other alternatives which provide the desired capabilities, at a lower cost. Furthermore, the realisability and performance of small productionline manufactured nanosatellites is uncertain. However the scenario has shown that there are benefits to the military utility not met by other resources, e.g. the capability to perform surveillance and reconnaissance in operational areas globally without risking violation of the territorial integrity of other states or the lives of military personnel. Since there is a great interest in the technology area and several programmes are ongoing internationally the knowledgebase is assessed to be significantly better in a five year period. Also, the Swedish in depth study of space exploitation is soon to report.

    Ultra-violet communication has uncertain potential for military utility within the period, but the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capability to maintain communications. The theoretical understanding of the area is low It is therefore uncertain if systems can be realized in the time frame. However, if commercial applications are developed, the prospect of military applications might change. In that case UV-communication could be a complement to RF- communication but is not foreseen to replace it. 

    The following technologies were assessed to have negligible potential for military utility;

    • Biomimetic unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV)

    • Automated behaviour Analysis
    • Evolutionary Robotics

    Biomimetic UUV’s could be used for covert surveillance and inconspicuous naval reconnaissance missions at sea or in amphibious missions. Even though the report focuses on fishlike propulsion, the military utility of UUV’s is assessed to be mostly dependent on the development of advanced automation and learning systems. As of now, we assess other existing technologies as being preferable due to lower cost and less complexity. The performance of UUV’s needed for SwAF capabilities are assessed to be far off into the future. Simpler UUV systems could however be used by potential adversaries for monitoring our own base areas and hence the development should be monitored from a protection point of view.

    Automated behaviour analysis may be of some relevance for increased security screening and surveillance. The primary military utility of the technology will however probably be for international activities and to a lesser extent for increased base security in Sweden. Generally the main applications for this kind of technology are assessed to be for civilian use in public spaces and close to high value areas like airports, important official buildings and other similar objects.

    Evolutionary Robotics, here restricted to the sub domain Advanced Robotics, has uncertain potential for military utility within the period. In the scenarios studied the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on a broad range of SwAF capabilities. The area is large and inconsistent comprising sub areas that are assessed to have significant potential, but also those that are believed to have negligible potential or where technological obstacles might retard the development.

    Our evaluation of the used method shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all possible aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the ten technologies’ military utility in the presented scenarios, not the technology itself. The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the trade off that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. 

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hall, Richard
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Häggkvist, Markus
    Johansson, Lars-Åke
    Kedeby, Magnus
    Knape, Henrik
    Lindh, Jens
    Nord, Mats
    Nordström, Rasmus
    Sikvad, Conny
    Strand, Asle
    Stål, Martin
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Introduktion till Operationsanalys: En antologi med essäer av studerande i militärteknik 20112012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ämnesplanen definieras militärteknik som ”den vetenskap som beskriver och förklarar hur tekniken inverkar på militär verksamhet på alla nivåer, strategisk, operativ och taktisk, samt hur officersprofessionen påverkar och påverkas av tekniken.”[1]  En militärteknikers uppgift brukar, utgående från definitionen, uttryckas som att beskriva och förklara den militära nyttan med tekniken. För att kunna göra detta behövs verktyg. Och många av dem kommer från den vetenskapliga disciplinen Operationsanalys.

    Syftet med den här antologin är att introducera studerande i militärteknik på Försvarshögskolan till två av de mest refererade boktitlarna i operationsanalys – Methods for conducting military operational analysis editerad av Andrew G. Loerch och Larry B. Rainey samt Military Operations Research, quantitative decision making av N.K. Jaiswal.

    Kapitlen utgörs av essäer skrivna av studerande på den högre stabsofficersutbildningen med teknisk inriktning, som examinationsuppgift i en fördjupningskurs. Essäerna är till del referat av kapitel i de två böckerna ovan, men kryddade med exempel satta i svenskt sammanhang och med de studerandes egen värdering av metodernas användbarhet.

    [1]Försvarshögskolan, Ämnesplan militärteknik, 2007.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited2015In: Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein & Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This new security development is expected to increase interest fromNorthern European states in supporting the development of conceptually newstealthy ground platforms, incorporating a decade of advances in technology andexperiences from stealth platforms at sea and in the air. The scope of thiscase study is to draw experience from where we left off. At the end of the1990s there was growing interest in stealth for combat vehicles in Sweden. Anambitious technology demonstrator project was launched. One of the outcomes wasa proposed Systems Engineering process tailored for signature managementpresented to SPIE in 2002.(Olsson et.al, A systems approach…, Proc. SPIE 4718 )The process was used for the Swedish/BAE Systems Hägglunds AB development of amultirole armored platform (The Swedish acronym is SEP). Before development wascompleted there was a change of procurement policy in Sweden from domesticdevelopment towards Governmental Off-The-Shelf, preceded by a Swedish ArmedForces change of focus from national defense only, towards expeditionarymissions. Lessons learned, of value for future development, are presented. Theyare deduced from interviews of key-personnel, on the procurer and industrysides respectively, and from document reviews.

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  • 28.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    The Military Utility Assessment Method for Future Technologies2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe the Swedish Defence University (SEDU) Military Utility Assessment Method for Future Technologies (MUAFT). The report describes the actions taken in each step of the process and ends with references and a template for the technology memos used as basis for assessment.

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Förstudie angående DTAG-metodik2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgör slutrapport på FMV beställning ”förstudie angående DTAG-metodik”.

    RTO har genomfört en studie för att utröna hur NATO bäst identifierar och nyttjar eller skyddar sig mot potentialen i s.k. ”Disruptive Technology”, d.v.s. teknologi som på kort tid signifikant förändrar genomförandet av operationer. Sverige har medverkat i studien. Den tillämpning av metoden DTAG (Disruptive Technology Assessment Games) som beskrivs i RTO studierapport är utvecklad till stöd för beslutsfattning på lång sikt, d.v.s. avseende FoT, konceptutveckling, förbandsutveckling- och materielplanering. Idén bakom den här förstudien är emellertid att undersöka möjligheterna att överföra metoden till erfarenhetsanalys och planering i ett kortare tidsperspektiv - med bibehållande av de rapporterade positiva effekterna för erfarenhetsutbytet mellan personal inom försvarsfamiljen av alla kategorier.

    Rapporten inleds med en diskussion och beskrivning av möjliga anpassningar av DTAG för den nya föreslagna tillämpningen. Slutsatsen är att metoden har potential att effektivt återkoppla speldeltagarnas erfarenheter från uppdrag de deltagit i - dels från egen användning av tekniska system och dels från andra aktörers teknologi - till utvecklingen av de materielsystem som bedöms vara i drift inom en tidsperiod av ca fem år. En analys av identifierade styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och risker leder sedan fram till ett förslag till implementering av metoden och förslag till fortsatt arbete. En positiv bieffekt med att arrangera en återkommande DTAG-aktivitet inom ramen för FHS, i samarbete med FMV och FM, är t.ex. en förbättrad erfarenhetsöverspridning till utbildningen av officerare.

    Förstudien rekommenderar en studie till FHS under 2011 med uppgifterna att:

    • pröva och uppdatera metodramverket till förstudiens DTAG-tillämpning
    • planera och genomföra prov och försök med bemanning enl. förstudiens förslag till organisation
    • genomföra en litteraturstudie och utvärdera den tillämpade DTAG-metoden
    • med andra relevanta metoder och deras tillämpningar avseende: erfarenhetsåtermatning,
    • konceptval och scenariebaserad analys, även i andra domäner än den militära.
    • rapportera skriftligen med rekommendation om implementering av metoden i produktionsledningen av materielprocessen – inkl. lämpliga årliga återkommande tidpunkter för genomförande, m.h.t. rotationer och årliga avvägningar i materielplanen.

    Ett förslag till organisation, aktivitetsplan och en uppskattning av kostnaderna presenteras.

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    FHS 1063_2010_bil1_Förstudie DTAG 101208.pdf
  • 30.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Veszelei, Monica
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Zirconium nitride based transparent heat mirror coatings: preparation and characterisation1994In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent heat mirror coatings based on thin zirconium nitride films have been prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering. The zirconium nitride films have been sandwiched between layers of zirconium oxide. It is shown that the multilayer configuration ZrO2/ZrN/ZrO2 can be used as solar control coatings on window glazings. A visible transmittance of around 60% and a thermal emittance lower than 0.2 can be obtained, and the ratio between visible transmittance and total solar transmittance can be as high as 1.7. The influence of substrate temperature on the optical quality of the films is evaluated and it is shown that the crystal structure of the first oxide layer is of importance for the optical quality of the nitride. The influence of preparation conditions and accelerated ageing has been modelled using the optical constants of thin films prepared under identical conditions as the films in the multilayer coatings.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wahlström, M.K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    High stability titanium nitride based solar control films1992In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple-layer structures of TiO2TiN/TiO2 and quadruple layer structures of TiO2Al/TiN/TiO2 have been sputtered on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300°C. The reflectance and transmittance were measured in the visible and the near-IR wavelength regions. The thin layer of aluminium, in the quadruple layer, oxidizes and forms a dense diffusion barrier. The multilayers exhibit improved optical selectivity which also improves with substrate temperature up to 300°C.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Artman, Kristian
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lundberg, Anders
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 1: Grunder2007Book (Other academic)
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  • 33.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Harling, Staffan
    Holmberg, Lars
    Lidén, Ewa
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sundberg, Ulf
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westerling, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 4: Verkan och skydd2009Book (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Andersson, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Möjliga efterträdare till robotsystem 702012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, there has been a discussion about the needs to replace missilesystem 70 witha more modern short range air defense unit. The anti-aircraft regiment has prepared a conceptproposal against a possible successor to the current robotsystem. In order to show that thereare other options which can be potential replacements instead of the concept proposal, ananalysis of three quite different launchers is made along certain valuation criteria, which arereflected against the Swedish Armed Forces basic abilities. The analysis is made of three scenariosin order to reflect some of the tasks that a short range air defense has to handle. Thescenarios will also show the advantages and disadvantages of the different units. By the scenariosseven criteria are revealed as extra important to take into account when a new air defenseunit is ordered to be able to solve the expected tasks.These criteria’s are: Multi-Targeting, darkness capacity, performance area, protection of theterrain - camouflage, Small Claims Act, all-weather capability and set up time.

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    Uppsats_Kd_Martin_Andersson
  • 35.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Behovet av pansarvärnsrobotsystemsystem i Försvarsmakten: en förmågestudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present work is based on the Armed Forces' existing ability to operate with anti-tank missiles. With the objective to investigate whether there is a void to fill for armor piercing missile systems and to compare the existing system with previous and suggest desirable abilities. From history, older studies and technical data from the previous system and interviews are conclusions drawn and underlying the values of the existing need. The results show that anti-tank missile 57 has good potential to solve the given task if the system is applied on a larger scale within infantry units. The environment decide tactic, the tactic control benefits, which in turn generates effect with the system. An upgrade of the 57-system is deemed worth consideration for the armed forces in the context of the needs that exist.

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  • 36.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Elhybridteknik i bandvagnssystemet: Den militära nyttan i logistikfunktionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are finite resources and in a report from 2013, the Swedish Defence Material Administration encourages the Swedish Armed Forces to start planning for the transition to alternative propulsion systems to reduce its dependency of fossil fuels. The most promising technology to bridge the gap between pure electric propulsion and today’s internal combustion engine is hybrid electric technology. This essay examines the implications a series hybrid solution would have on military logistics. The method used includes analysis of both scientific reports and of survey answers from personnel in the SAF with several years of experience working with the tracked vehicle Bandvagn 309. The analysis of the survey answers is completed with interviews with these people and others working at BAE Systems who contributes with technical expertise. The essay will conclude that a series hybrid solution would have a positive impact on military logistics even though it is hard to specify how great the effect would be due to technical uncertainties and the fact that the technology is yet to be tested in combat.

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    SA_Tobias_Andersson
  • 37.
    Andréasson, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönarsvärmar inom ramen för spaningsuppdrag2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, drones are used in both a civilian and military context, a swarm being a group of autonomous drones which are partly controlled by an operator. Swarms are a concept that is still in the research stage and previous research has consisted of how a swarm will communicate with the operator and how the swarm will work technically. However, the problem with the research available today is that it largely lacks the military connection. Hence, this study has aimed to investigate how the Armed Forces want to use swarms in the context of reconnaissance missions. The questions posed were, how do personnel within the Armed Forces want to plan swarm missions? What behaviors and capabilities do Armed Forces personnel want a swarm to possess? How do Armed Forces personnel want to receive information from swarms? Empirical data were collected by conducting three interviews with three individuals employed by the Armed Forces. The empirical data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis where the responses were divided into smaller groups and sub-groups.  The study resulted in tables of desired abilities and behaviors that can be used in later research to create a real swarm system.

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  • 38.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

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    Alexander Andrén - Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik
  • 39.
    Annerfjärd, Christoffer
    Swedish Defence University.
    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drones or Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) were first developed for military use in the start of the twentieth century and were part of a major push toward “airpower”. Nowadays they are available for the public, smaller and easier to fly. This comes with countless opportunities but also security risks. This essay aims to study military risk-taking in a context where this type of threat is prominent. To understand how future military commanders will act upon these threats, a quantitative study with hypothesis will form the basis for answering the question of which mechanism has effect on the level of risk-taking when the subject is faced with the threat of RPAS. The study shows that the support of the squad, self-experienced knowledge about the threat and previous experience of international service has an impact, but no statistical significance to support their effect on the degree of risk-taking in these survey-based scenarios. Surprisingly, age is one of the most significant results of increased risk-taking which forms new questions about risk, experience, and modern threats.

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    RPAS effekt på riskbenägenheten hos blivande beslutsfattare
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    Bilaga 1_Enkät om riskbenägenhet bland svensk militär
  • 40.
    Anwar, Adan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Public Diplomacy and Disinformation Campaigns In A Digital Age: A Study of How the Swedish Social Services Disinformation Campaigns and NATO Membership Application Impacted the Public Diplomacy of Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis highlighted how disinformation campaigns on social media platforms and news outlets were used as tools to influence Swedish public diplomacy. To accomplish this, it aimed to answer the following research question “How are disinformation campaigns, through social media platforms and news outlets, impacting Sweden’s public diplomacy?”. The thesis applied two case studies, the first being a domestic context consisting of the Swedish Social Services (SSS) and the Swedish Care of Young Persons (Special Provisions) Act (LVU), and the second an international context being Sweden applying for a NATO membership. The analysis utilized a sociotechnical approach interpreting newspaper article, social media posts, and reports that made up the empirical material. In addition, an analytical framework, divided into three thematic sections, was used for the analysis. The thematic sections consisted of 1) background of the case; 2) the disinformation campaigns that were conducted including the actors involved; 3) the Swedish public diplomatic response based on Joseph Nye’s theory about political power and public diplomacy. The thesis discovered that both the domestic and international context impacted Sweden’s public diplomacy, where the government and governmental agencies took measures that they previously had not. Furthermore, it discovered that news outlets and social platforms could not be viewed as two separate entities when conducting disinformation campaigns, but instead as an additional third entity. Lastly, the thesis found the two cases to be similar, despite their different contexts, as disinformation campaigns often build on previous rumors.

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  • 41.
    Arrenäs, Rickard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Helikopters överlevnad mot en kvalificerad motståndare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to investigate, from a military technical survival perspective, the effectiveness of helicopter 16 during a transport mission, in a national effort where the threat consists of a qualified opponent. The study has been conducted as a qualitative study with a certain quantitative element and based on data and facts obtained from open literature as well as interviews by mission specialists with experience and knowledge from door gunnery. As a help, the method tool A'WOT analysis have been used, which is a hybrid to the SWOT analysis. The purpose of the A'WOT analysis is to distinguish important factors for the effect from helicopter 16 against a defined opponent. The overall result and summary of the study is that helicopter 16 action ability needs a proper upgrade if assignments as a tactical unit can be carried out in a hot environment dictated by a qualified opponent.

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  • 42. Artman, Kristian
    et al.
    Westman, Anders
    Lärobok i Militärteknik vol. 2: Sensorteknik2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
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  • 43. Artman, Kristian
    et al.
    Westman, Anders
    Lärobok i Militärteknik vol. 2: Sensorteknik : reviderad 20202020 (ed. 2:a rev. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
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    Fulltext
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  • 44.
    Asplund, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Emerging Information Infrastructures: Cooperation in Disasters2009In: Critical Information Infrastructure Security: Third International Workshop, CRITIS 2008 Rome, Italy, October 13-15, 2008 Revised Papers / [ed] Setola, Roberto & Geretshuber, Stefan, Berlin: Springer , 2009, p. 258-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters are characterised by their devastating effect on human lives and the society’s ability to function. Unfortunately, rescue operations and the possibility to re-establish a working society after such events is often hampered by the lack of functioning communication infrastructures. This paper describes the challenges ahead in creating new communication networks to support post-disaster operations, and sets them in the context of the current issues in protection of critical infrastructures. The analysis reveals that while there are some common concerns there are also fundamental differences. The paper serves as an overview of some promising research directions and pointers to existing works in these areas.

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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tools of War: A Few Remarks on the Subject of Military-Technology2008In: Tiede ja ase : Suomen sotatieteellisen seuran vuosijulkaisu, ISSN 0358-8882, Vol. 66, p. 195-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 9: Teori och metod2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet militärteknik utgår från att tekniska system är officerens arbetsredskap och att en förståelse för och kunskap om dessa verktyg är central för att kunna utöva professionen framgångsrikt. Denna nionde volym av Lärobok i Militärteknik, benämnd Teori och Metod, behandlar centrala begrepp, teorier och postulat samt metoder för värdering av teknik och består av ett antal texter författade av 16 forskare och lärare vid den militärtekniska avdelningen. Volymen riktar sig främst till de som inlett sin officersutbildning och utgörs till stora delar av ett kompilat av publicerade och opublicerade militärtekniska texter och kan sägas utgöra militärteknikens ”state of the art”.

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  • 47.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Finn Khan, Malek
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Olofsson, Mats
    FOI.
    Förmåga till snabb anpassning av försvarsmateriel2015Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Axelsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Dator- och nätverksexploatering: ett lekmannaförsök2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Baazius Bågenholm, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Aircraft Systems och dess möjliga roll inom Svenska marinen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Detta självständiga arbete har utifrån ett taktiskt perspektiv studerat på vilket sätt obemannade system i kategorin UAS, Unmanned Aircraft Systems, kan tänkas bidra till taktisk uppgiftslösning inom marinen om dessa infördes idag. Arbetet har genom kvalitativ litteraturanalys studerat utvecklingen av dessa system och vad som är rimligt att förmågemässigt förvänta sig av dem idag. En analys har gjorts av den för arbetet aktuella operationsmiljön, den kvalificerade sjöstriden. Vidare har en analys av hur utvecklingen av UAS i USA och Ryssland gjorts för att sätta ett svenskt system i en kontext. Arbetet har haft sin grund i teorin om sjökrigets principer då dessa ger en god teoretisk grund för hur sjöofficeraren bör agera.

    Slutsatser som redovisas i arbetet är att UAS kan komma att spela en stor roll i att ge ökad förmåga till god lägesuppfattning för marinens taktiska chefer. Vidare redovisas hur UAS kan bidra till att lösa vissa av de marina taktiska uppgifterna och stridsuppgifter som finns i Försvarsmaktens Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna. Vidare redovisas att en UAS-förmåga även kan bidra till att sjöofficerare har större möjlighet att agera utefter de i teorin redovisade sjökrigets principer. Ytterligare slutsatser som redovisas är att UAS kan lösa marina uppgifter av både offensiv och defensiv karaktär. Även uppgifter inom marin logistik kan lösas av UAS.

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    Unmanned Aircraft Systems och dess möjliga roll inom Svenska marinen
  • 50.
    Backlund, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Analys av de formella och informella kraven ställda på helikoptertekniker i Försvarsmakten2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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