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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Färgdisplayen i det taktiska uppträdandet: färgdisplayerna i JAS 39 Gripen bidrag till att behålla initiativet i det dynamiska stridsförloppet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Airosto, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    TLZ: temporary landing zone2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Alexandersson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tungt reaktivt pansar: Hur ska Strv 122 möta hot där pilprojektil inte får genomslag?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to develop one or more ways to neutralize an enemy equipped with heavy reactive armour. Reactive armour has previously only protected against shaped charges. Technological advances have now led to today's reactive armour in addition to protection against shaped charges also capable of protecting against an Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS). The Americans discovered that this technology was available to the Russians and developed new types of APFSDS to deal with it. But what have we done in Sweden since this technology was discovered?

    In this essay, the author makes the assumption that the Swedish APFSDS can’t penetrate a tank equipped with reactive armour. A comparative model will compare three different ways to deal with this problem. Before doing the comparative model study, there will be a chapter which describes for example reactive armour, APFSDS, Kontakt-5 (a type of reactive armour), tank protection in general.

    The model consists of one Leopard 2A5 S (Leo 2) and one enemy tank equipped with reactive armour. By comparing different ways for the Leo 2 to defeat the enemy, the author will reach a conclusion for the problem.

    The conclusion drawn from this essay is that the normal procedure when the Leo 2 initially has an APFSDS loaded in the canon should be changed to it having a grenade loaded instead. Bursting a grenade towards the enemy will destroy or damage Kontakt-5 and the second projectile, which should be an APFSDS, will now penetrate the damaged Kontakt-5 and the hostile tank will be defeated.  

  • 4.
    Alvesparr, Oliver
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur påverkar mänskliga kvarlevor åtgärderna på en skadeplats?: Hur påverkar mänskliga kvarlevor den tekniska åtgärdstiden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Armed Forces use their material under warlike conditions, both persons and material can come to harm. How human remains are to be disposed of from a damage vehicle is unknown today. The problem of managing human remains is not found in technical service regulations or any other control. The issue of human remains in an object can be an issue both for the logistical, medical, police, legal, technical service or a combination of those. The man in charge needs to keep in mind three different steps, such as taking care of the deceased, cleaning the equipment and finally repairing the equipment. The purpose of the essay is to investigate how the management of human remains in scene of an accident should be regulated. The work is limited to studying how human remains should suitably be handled by the Swedish Armed Forces, from when a person has been injured or killed in a vehicle, until the vehicle can be repaired. The methods used for data collecting are interview, questionnaire and literature study. The results of the study show that indirectly, almost all measures on a scene of an accident and technical response time are affected due to human remains. There is a need to take care of the deceased body and to clean the equipment, which is lacking or no routines for. The procedures available are too general to provide support to the decision maker. Who to clean and how to implement it within the Armed Forces is still unknown. The author has developed seven different recommendations for further studies

  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hoke Åberg, Pernilla
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sweden: Mission Command and Social Media: Old Leadership Philosophy Challenged by New Information Technology?2017In: Technology and Leadership: International Perspectives / [ed] Lieutenant Colonel Daniel J. Watola, PhD & Allister MacIntyre, PhD, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2017, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    am Ende, Patrick
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kan kortvågsradion öka rörligheten på våra förband?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min målsättning med denna uppsats har varit att forska kring hur kortvågsradion kan öka rörligheten på svenska förband i utlandsstyrkan. Inledningsvis har jag definerat vad jag menar med manöverkrigsföring, uppdragstaktik, de sex grundläggande förmågorna och radio. Jag har intervjuat individer som varit på enheter som rört sig i terrängen i Afghanistan och Kosovo. Jag har sedan diskuterat kring hur man kan öka rörligeheten genom att använd sig av uppdragstaktik och kortvågsradion. Jag har jämfört ledningsätt och radioanvändande mellan Afghanistan och Kosovo och dragit slutsatser från detta.

    En av slutsatserna som har dragits ur uppsatsen är att det är räckvidden som möjliggör en högre rörlighet genom att enheterna inte blir styrda till att hålla sig inom t.ex. en RAP-täckningskarta utan ger dem större möjlighet att själva välja framryckningsväg och möjliggöra att uppdragstaktik[1] kan utnyttjas på ett effektivare sätt.

    Denna slutsats beskriver hur rörlighet och uppdragstaktik blir effektivare genom att använda sig av kortvågsradion.

    Jag anser att kortvågsradion är ett radiosystem som försvarsmakten böra behålla och utveckla. Det som bör utvecklas är antenner och radio utrustningen som har tagit upp i uppsatsen. Förslag på förbättringar är att antennerna utvecklas så att man kan ha en antenn för alla frekvensområden så man inte behöver stanna fordonet och upprätta en deltaantenn[2] för att kunna sända på den lämpligaste frekvensen vid tillfället. Att det finns en individ vid campen som har som uppgift att uppdaterade frekvenspaketen varje vecka eftersom frekvenserna är väderberoende, för att mögligöra att radioförbindelsen blir så bra som mögligt. Radioapparaterna borde byggas med dagen elektronikkomponenter vilket skulle medföra mindre radioapparater, bättre batteritid och en mer lättmanövrerad radioapparat. 

    Jag kommer att avsluta med ett citat ur doktrin för markoperationer som jag anser styrker min uppsats:

    ”De ledningssystem som försvarsmakten använder ska medge en så stor flexibilitet som mögligt i valet av medel och metoder. Detta innebär att det bör finnas en inbyggd förmåga som möjliggör ledning från såväl en framskjuten plats inom ett operationsområde som från en stabsplats[3]”.

     

  • 7.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Matos, Carlos
    Instruction Center for Operations on Law and Order Assurance - CIOpGLO, Exército Brasileiro.
    Cuperschmid, Ana R. M.
    University of Campinas.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Pozzer, Cesar T.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.
    Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality Technologies: Enhancing Training and Mission Preparation with Simulations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Instruction Centre for Operations on Law and Order Assurance (CIOpGLO) is a Brazilian Army facility created in March 2005 in Campinas, Brazil. The mission of this centre involves the offering of training in different perspectives, which includes the preparation of soldiers to enter in slums areas in Rio de Janeiro and other cities to arrest criminals, whenever a federal intervention is required. This centre is involved in training to guarantee law and order and, at the same time, prepare officers and soldiers for interventions even in urban areas. To allow such training, this facility counts with physical built sites to allow soldiers to train how to get inside houses, how to shoot at short ranges (from 0 to 30 meters), how to move and shelter while going up in a hill with many houses and corridors on the way, and so on. The Brazilian Army, in the last few years, started operating in slums like the ones of the "Alemão" and the "Penha" complex in Rio de Janeiro. The Army is also participating in operations out of Brazil in countries like Haiti. In situations like this, the armed forces take over the coordination of public security temporarily to recover the control of certain areas. Since the armed forces were not originally created to act in situations like this, there is a need to train all military stakeholders involved so that the operations are successful. Additionally, major events like the Confederations Cup, the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympics in 2016, generate additional demands for the armed forces, which are likely to be called to act at specific times. Moreover, it is noteworthy that there is a growing trend in which conflicts around the world occur, more than ever, inside the cities, where civilians take great risk and suffer many casualties, something called as “collateral damage” of the urban warfare. Recent examples include Afghanistan and Iraq. In this work, the preparation of soldiers at CIOpGLO is discussed while the possibility of using new approaches based on augmented reality and mixed reality technologies are considered. As a way to enhance training and mission preparation with simulations, this research focus on augmented reality (AR) supported by head-mounted displays (HMDs). HDMs may have many shapes, which include pairs of glasses with lenses that present AR with superposed images, enabling its wearer a total immersion in the simulation. The method used in this work involves a literature review on AR and HMDs, assessment of training needs at the Brazilian Army and an evaluation of emerging technologies from the ICT sector. The technologies to be considered are the HDMs, in this specific case the available programming languages, software and hardware from suppliers of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and military off-the-shelf (MOTS). The main contribution of this work is the comparative study of the main solutions for HDM. This study represents an essential step for concept development and for the experimentation to exploit and evaluate the use of simulations. The research presented suggests that the approach is effective and that future work should be on both development of new applications and its evaluation in real training sets in Brazil.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Emanuel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    MQ-1 Predator: ett rovdjur för Sverige?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Hagstedt, Daniel S
    Nylander, Martin
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 3: Teknik till stöd för ledning2009Book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Case study report on signature engineering: The SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present consolidated results from case studies of the development processes of the SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively.

    The report is intended as an annex to a journal article named “Key requirements in the procurement of future Low Observable combat vehicles: A European perspective” published in the journal of Systems Engineering in 2017.

    Results filtered from interviews and document reviews are presented based on the structure of the Friedman-Sage framework (Friedman & Sage, 2004) for case studies on systems engineering. Firstly, data collected from the two case studies are presented and then the lessons identified consistent with both cases. The sources, an overview of the two cases studied and the application of the framework are described in the journal article.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Krivanek, V., Brno, 2017, p. 123-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP (Armored Multirole Vehicle, in Swedish) and the Visby class corvette cases respectively. The focus was on signature management. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied. The main conclusions can be summarized in three points. 1) A preferred workflow from mission analysis to sub system design has been derived from lessons identified; 2) The three main success factors identified were: building technology demonstrators, having an Integrated Product Team approach, and establishing stealth as a key system design goal; 3) Coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements need further research.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft2017In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 65, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis scheme and a mission system model were applied to the evaluation of the military utility of efforts to reduce infrared signature in the conceptual design of survivable aircraft. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to contribute to the development of a methodological framework for assessing the military utility of spectral design, and secondly to assess the threat from advances in LWIR sensors and their use in surface-to-air-missile systems. The modeling was specifically applied to the problem of linking the emissivity of aircraft coatings to mission accomplishment. The overall results indicate that the analysis scheme and mission system model applied are feasible for assessing the military utility of spectral design and for supporting decision-making in the concept phase. The analysis of different strike options suggests that LWIR sensors will enhance the military utility of low emissive paint, at least for missions executed in clear weather conditions. Furthermore, results corroborate and further clarify the importance of including earthshine when modeling.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Marcus, Carina
    SAAB Aerosystems.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Military utility: A proposed concept to support decision-making2015In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 43, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept called Military Utility is proposed for the study of the use of technology in military operations. The proposed concept includes a three-level structure representing key features and their detailed components. On basic level the Military Utility of a technical system, to a military actor, in a specific context, is a compound measure of the military effectiveness, of the assessed technical system's suitability to the military capability system and of the affordability. The concept is derived through conceptual analysis and is based on related concepts used in social sciences, the military domain and Systems Engineering. It is argued that the concept has qualitative explanatory powers and can support military decision-making regarding technology in forecasts, defense planning, development, utilization and the lessons learned process. The suggested concept is expected to contribute to the development of the science of Military-Technology and to be found useful to actors related to defense.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Brorson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Teknisk prognos: Rapport från seminarier vid Försvarshögskolans militärtekniska avdelning 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Mölleryd, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2012: Military utility of ten technologies: a report from seminars at the SNDC Department of Military Technology2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College (Note that there probably are other technology areas, equally interesting, but not included in this study). The task given by FMV was to assess the military utility of the chosen technologies in a time frame from 2025 to 2030, from a SwAF viewpoint.

    The method used was first to make a summary of each forecast report. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that are assessed to be the best in order to show possible utility as well as possibilities and drawbacks of the technology. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Conclusions regarding the military utility of the technology were drawn.

    We introduce our definition of military utility as being activities that efficiently and with the lowest cost in terms of lives and materiel lead to fulfilment of the mission objectives.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with a significant potential, with uncertain potential and with negligible potential.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a significant potential for military utility;

    • Augmented Reality

    • Nano air vehicles
    • Solid State Laser weapons

    In the scenarios studied, Augmented Reality (AR) is assessed to have a positive impact on several SwAF capabilities, especially for C2 and intelligence. AR is a relatively mature technology, applicable in many different branches. There are examples where AR is already applied with great success, e.g. Head-Up-Displays, HUD. The technology has proven its value. However, there are well known drawbacks to the technology such as weaknesses regarding models, increased weight for dismounted soldiers, power consumption etc. There is also a risk that personnel will have problems solving their tasks when AR systems fail, not being used to fighting without supporting systems.

    Nano air vehicles (NAV’s) have been assessed to contribute to a large range of capabilities, primarily intelligence. Their lifecycle cost has been assessed to be low, since development in this area is commercially driven, bringing down acquisition costs. Also, FAA has decided to allow NAV’s in controlled air space from 2015, which is expected to lead to an increase in civilian use of NAV’s. The technology is relatively mature even though there are obstacles concerning suitable materials, energy efficient propulsion systems as well as miniaturized microprocessors and software to control them.

    In the scenario studied, High Energy Solid State Lasers are assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capabilities to engage targets on surface and in the air. The technology can be used to protect 

    vessels on the surface and thereby increase survivability. The development of SSL in the given timeframe is expected to lower cost per shot and avoid the environmental problems with use of chemical lasers. Neighbouring military powers are expected to use laser weapons in the future, therefore SwAF should monitor the development of the laser weapons technology and develop and purchase adequate countermeasures.

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain potential for military utility;

    • Metamaterial cloaking

    • Electromagnetic gun

    • Small satellites
    • Ultra-violet communication

    Metamaterial cloaking, if realisable in the future, is assessed to be firstly implemented in the acoustic spectrum, since manufacturing of small structured cloaks for the shorter wavelengths in the optic and radar spectra is believed to be more difficult. Cloaking of submarines is primarily assessed to increase the survivability against torpedoes having active sonar. The use of cloaked mines could pose a deterring threat, even to advanced amphibious operations against Sweden. The technological development in this area should be closely monitored and compared to existing, maturing techniques for countermeasures and for the development of broad spectrum active torpedoes. The greatest concern is that cloaking will have negative impact on submarine manoeuvrability.

    The electro-thermal chemical (ETC) gun seems to be a first step towards a fully electrical gun such as the rail-gun or the coil-gun. The fully electrical guns have been a work in progress for some decades and there are still remaining challenges both concerning electrical power supply and design materials. When or if, they will be operational is difficult to say.

    The military utility of small satellites is disputed, despite an assessed contribution to several of the SwAF capabilities. The main reason for this is that there seems to be other alternatives which provide the desired capabilities, at a lower cost. Furthermore, the realisability and performance of small productionline manufactured nanosatellites is uncertain. However the scenario has shown that there are benefits to the military utility not met by other resources, e.g. the capability to perform surveillance and reconnaissance in operational areas globally without risking violation of the territorial integrity of other states or the lives of military personnel. Since there is a great interest in the technology area and several programmes are ongoing internationally the knowledgebase is assessed to be significantly better in a five year period. Also, the Swedish in depth study of space exploitation is soon to report.

    Ultra-violet communication has uncertain potential for military utility within the period, but the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on SwAF capability to maintain communications. The theoretical understanding of the area is low It is therefore uncertain if systems can be realized in the time frame. However, if commercial applications are developed, the prospect of military applications might change. In that case UV-communication could be a complement to RF- communication but is not foreseen to replace it. 

    The following technologies were assessed to have negligible potential for military utility;

    • Biomimetic unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV)

    • Automated behaviour Analysis
    • Evolutionary Robotics

    Biomimetic UUV’s could be used for covert surveillance and inconspicuous naval reconnaissance missions at sea or in amphibious missions. Even though the report focuses on fishlike propulsion, the military utility of UUV’s is assessed to be mostly dependent on the development of advanced automation and learning systems. As of now, we assess other existing technologies as being preferable due to lower cost and less complexity. The performance of UUV’s needed for SwAF capabilities are assessed to be far off into the future. Simpler UUV systems could however be used by potential adversaries for monitoring our own base areas and hence the development should be monitored from a protection point of view.

    Automated behaviour analysis may be of some relevance for increased security screening and surveillance. The primary military utility of the technology will however probably be for international activities and to a lesser extent for increased base security in Sweden. Generally the main applications for this kind of technology are assessed to be for civilian use in public spaces and close to high value areas like airports, important official buildings and other similar objects.

    Evolutionary Robotics, here restricted to the sub domain Advanced Robotics, has uncertain potential for military utility within the period. In the scenarios studied the technology is assessed to have a positive impact on a broad range of SwAF capabilities. The area is large and inconsistent comprising sub areas that are assessed to have significant potential, but also those that are believed to have negligible potential or where technological obstacles might retard the development.

    Our evaluation of the used method shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all possible aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the ten technologies’ military utility in the presented scenarios, not the technology itself. The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the trade off that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hall, Richard
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Häggkvist, Markus
    Johansson, Lars-Åke
    Kedeby, Magnus
    Knape, Henrik
    Lindh, Jens
    Nord, Mats
    Nordström, Rasmus
    Sikvad, Conny
    Strand, Asle
    Stål, Martin
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Introduktion till Operationsanalys: En antologi med essäer av studerande i militärteknik 20112012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ämnesplanen definieras militärteknik som ”den vetenskap som beskriver och förklarar hur tekniken inverkar på militär verksamhet på alla nivåer, strategisk, operativ och taktisk, samt hur officersprofessionen påverkar och påverkas av tekniken.”[1]  En militärteknikers uppgift brukar, utgående från definitionen, uttryckas som att beskriva och förklara den militära nyttan med tekniken. För att kunna göra detta behövs verktyg. Och många av dem kommer från den vetenskapliga disciplinen Operationsanalys.

    Syftet med den här antologin är att introducera studerande i militärteknik på Försvarshögskolan till två av de mest refererade boktitlarna i operationsanalys – Methods for conducting military operational analysis editerad av Andrew G. Loerch och Larry B. Rainey samt Military Operations Research, quantitative decision making av N.K. Jaiswal.

    Kapitlen utgörs av essäer skrivna av studerande på den högre stabsofficersutbildningen med teknisk inriktning, som examinationsuppgift i en fördjupningskurs. Essäerna är till del referat av kapitel i de två böckerna ovan, men kryddade med exempel satta i svenskt sammanhang och med de studerandes egen värdering av metodernas användbarhet.

    [1]Försvarshögskolan, Ämnesplan militärteknik, 2007.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited2015In: Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein & Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This new security development is expected to increase interest fromNorthern European states in supporting the development of conceptually newstealthy ground platforms, incorporating a decade of advances in technology andexperiences from stealth platforms at sea and in the air. The scope of thiscase study is to draw experience from where we left off. At the end of the1990s there was growing interest in stealth for combat vehicles in Sweden. Anambitious technology demonstrator project was launched. One of the outcomes wasa proposed Systems Engineering process tailored for signature managementpresented to SPIE in 2002.(Olsson et.al, A systems approach…, Proc. SPIE 4718 )The process was used for the Swedish/BAE Systems Hägglunds AB development of amultirole armored platform (The Swedish acronym is SEP). Before development wascompleted there was a change of procurement policy in Sweden from domesticdevelopment towards Governmental Off-The-Shelf, preceded by a Swedish ArmedForces change of focus from national defense only, towards expeditionarymissions. Lessons learned, of value for future development, are presented. Theyare deduced from interviews of key-personnel, on the procurer and industrysides respectively, and from document reviews.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Förstudie angående DTAG-metodik2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgör slutrapport på FMV beställning ”förstudie angående DTAG-metodik”.

    RTO har genomfört en studie för att utröna hur NATO bäst identifierar och nyttjar eller skyddar sig mot potentialen i s.k. ”Disruptive Technology”, d.v.s. teknologi som på kort tid signifikant förändrar genomförandet av operationer. Sverige har medverkat i studien. Den tillämpning av metoden DTAG (Disruptive Technology Assessment Games) som beskrivs i RTO studierapport är utvecklad till stöd för beslutsfattning på lång sikt, d.v.s. avseende FoT, konceptutveckling, förbandsutveckling- och materielplanering. Idén bakom den här förstudien är emellertid att undersöka möjligheterna att överföra metoden till erfarenhetsanalys och planering i ett kortare tidsperspektiv - med bibehållande av de rapporterade positiva effekterna för erfarenhetsutbytet mellan personal inom försvarsfamiljen av alla kategorier.

    Rapporten inleds med en diskussion och beskrivning av möjliga anpassningar av DTAG för den nya föreslagna tillämpningen. Slutsatsen är att metoden har potential att effektivt återkoppla speldeltagarnas erfarenheter från uppdrag de deltagit i - dels från egen användning av tekniska system och dels från andra aktörers teknologi - till utvecklingen av de materielsystem som bedöms vara i drift inom en tidsperiod av ca fem år. En analys av identifierade styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och risker leder sedan fram till ett förslag till implementering av metoden och förslag till fortsatt arbete. En positiv bieffekt med att arrangera en återkommande DTAG-aktivitet inom ramen för FHS, i samarbete med FMV och FM, är t.ex. en förbättrad erfarenhetsöverspridning till utbildningen av officerare.

    Förstudien rekommenderar en studie till FHS under 2011 med uppgifterna att:

    • pröva och uppdatera metodramverket till förstudiens DTAG-tillämpning
    • planera och genomföra prov och försök med bemanning enl. förstudiens förslag till organisation
    • genomföra en litteraturstudie och utvärdera den tillämpade DTAG-metoden
    • med andra relevanta metoder och deras tillämpningar avseende: erfarenhetsåtermatning,
    • konceptval och scenariebaserad analys, även i andra domäner än den militära.
    • rapportera skriftligen med rekommendation om implementering av metoden i produktionsledningen av materielprocessen – inkl. lämpliga årliga återkommande tidpunkter för genomförande, m.h.t. rotationer och årliga avvägningar i materielplanen.

    Ett förslag till organisation, aktivitetsplan och en uppskattning av kostnaderna presenteras.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Veszelei, Monica
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Zirconium nitride based transparent heat mirror coatings: preparation and characterisation1994In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent heat mirror coatings based on thin zirconium nitride films have been prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering. The zirconium nitride films have been sandwiched between layers of zirconium oxide. It is shown that the multilayer configuration ZrO2/ZrN/ZrO2 can be used as solar control coatings on window glazings. A visible transmittance of around 60% and a thermal emittance lower than 0.2 can be obtained, and the ratio between visible transmittance and total solar transmittance can be as high as 1.7. The influence of substrate temperature on the optical quality of the films is evaluated and it is shown that the crystal structure of the first oxide layer is of importance for the optical quality of the nitride. The influence of preparation conditions and accelerated ageing has been modelled using the optical constants of thin films prepared under identical conditions as the films in the multilayer coatings.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wahlström, M.K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    High stability titanium nitride based solar control films1992In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple-layer structures of TiO2TiN/TiO2 and quadruple layer structures of TiO2Al/TiN/TiO2 have been sputtered on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300°C. The reflectance and transmittance were measured in the visible and the near-IR wavelength regions. The thin layer of aluminium, in the quadruple layer, oxidizes and forms a dense diffusion barrier. The multilayers exhibit improved optical selectivity which also improves with substrate temperature up to 300°C.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Artman, Kristian
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Astell, Magnus
    Axberg, Stefan
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lundberg, Anders
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 1: Grunder2007Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Kurt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Harling, Staffan
    Holmberg, Lars
    Lidén, Ewa
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sundberg, Ulf
    Tornérhielm, Lars
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westerling, Lars
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 4: Verkan och skydd2009Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Möjliga efterträdare till robotsystem 702012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, there has been a discussion about the needs to replace missilesystem 70 witha more modern short range air defense unit. The anti-aircraft regiment has prepared a conceptproposal against a possible successor to the current robotsystem. In order to show that thereare other options which can be potential replacements instead of the concept proposal, ananalysis of three quite different launchers is made along certain valuation criteria, which arereflected against the Swedish Armed Forces basic abilities. The analysis is made of three scenariosin order to reflect some of the tasks that a short range air defense has to handle. Thescenarios will also show the advantages and disadvantages of the different units. By the scenariosseven criteria are revealed as extra important to take into account when a new air defenseunit is ordered to be able to solve the expected tasks.These criteria’s are: Multi-Targeting, darkness capacity, performance area, protection of theterrain - camouflage, Small Claims Act, all-weather capability and set up time.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Behovet av pansarvärnsrobotsystemsystem i Försvarsmakten: en förmågestudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present work is based on the Armed Forces' existing ability to operate with anti-tank missiles. With the objective to investigate whether there is a void to fill for armor piercing missile systems and to compare the existing system with previous and suggest desirable abilities. From history, older studies and technical data from the previous system and interviews are conclusions drawn and underlying the values of the existing need. The results show that anti-tank missile 57 has good potential to solve the given task if the system is applied on a larger scale within infantry units. The environment decide tactic, the tactic control benefits, which in turn generates effect with the system. An upgrade of the 57-system is deemed worth consideration for the armed forces in the context of the needs that exist.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Elhybridteknik i bandvagnssystemet: Den militära nyttan i logistikfunktionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are finite resources and in a report from 2013, the Swedish Defence Material Administration encourages the Swedish Armed Forces to start planning for the transition to alternative propulsion systems to reduce its dependency of fossil fuels. The most promising technology to bridge the gap between pure electric propulsion and today’s internal combustion engine is hybrid electric technology. This essay examines the implications a series hybrid solution would have on military logistics. The method used includes analysis of both scientific reports and of survey answers from personnel in the SAF with several years of experience working with the tracked vehicle Bandvagn 309. The analysis of the survey answers is completed with interviews with these people and others working at BAE Systems who contributes with technical expertise. The essay will conclude that a series hybrid solution would have a positive impact on military logistics even though it is hard to specify how great the effect would be due to technical uncertainties and the fact that the technology is yet to be tested in combat.

  • 28.
    Andrén, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrig mot bandspridningsteknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines two spread-spectrum technologies and what their effects are on the electronic warfare ability. The essay seeks to answer this question:

    What are the possibilities for signals intelligence and communications jamming against radio communications using one of the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence?

    The essay initially describes a model for how electronic warfare against radio communication is conducted, “telekrigcykeln”. It then describes the principles of a radio system as well as the two spread-spectrum technologies frequency-hopping and direct sequence. Using the model “telekrigcykeln” the essay finally analyses and discusses the impact of the spread-spectrum technologies.

    The essay finds that it is possible to conduct signals intelligence towards both signals, however direct sequence pose bigger problems than frequency-hopping. Both signals are easiest to jam using a jammer in close proximity to the radio receiver. However, close-proximity jammers are harder to place close to the opponent’s receiver.

  • 29.
    Arrenäs, Rickard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Helikopters överlevnad mot en kvalificerad motståndare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to investigate, from a military technical survival perspective, the effectiveness of helicopter 16 during a transport mission, in a national effort where the threat consists of a qualified opponent. The study has been conducted as a qualitative study with a certain quantitative element and based on data and facts obtained from open literature as well as interviews by mission specialists with experience and knowledge from door gunnery. As a help, the method tool A'WOT analysis have been used, which is a hybrid to the SWOT analysis. The purpose of the A'WOT analysis is to distinguish important factors for the effect from helicopter 16 against a defined opponent. The overall result and summary of the study is that helicopter 16 action ability needs a proper upgrade if assignments as a tactical unit can be carried out in a hot environment dictated by a qualified opponent.

  • 30.
    Artman, Kristian
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westman, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik vol. 2: Sensorteknik2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Asplund, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Emerging Information Infrastructures: Cooperation in Disasters2009In: Critical Information Infrastructure Security: Third International Workshop, CRITIS 2008 Rome, Italy, October 13-15, 2008 Revised Papers / [ed] Setola, Roberto & Geretshuber, Stefan, Berlin: Springer , 2009, p. 258-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters are characterised by their devastating effect on human lives and the society’s ability to function. Unfortunately, rescue operations and the possibility to re-establish a working society after such events is often hampered by the lack of functioning communication infrastructures. This paper describes the challenges ahead in creating new communication networks to support post-disaster operations, and sets them in the context of the current issues in protection of critical infrastructures. The analysis reveals that while there are some common concerns there are also fundamental differences. The paper serves as an overview of some promising research directions and pointers to existing works in these areas.

  • 32.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tools of War: A Few Remarks on the Subject of Military-Technology2008In: Tiede ja ase : Suomen sotatieteellisen seuran vuosijulkaisu, ISSN 0358-8882, Vol. 66, p. 195-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ericson, Marika
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 9: Teori och metod2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet militärteknik utgår från att tekniska system är officerens arbetsredskap och att en förståelse för och kunskap om dessa verktyg är central för att kunna utöva professionen framgångsrikt. Denna nionde volym av Lärobok i Militärteknik, benämnd Teori och Metod, behandlar centrala begrepp, teorier och postulat samt metoder för värdering av teknik och består av ett antal texter författade av 16 forskare och lärare vid den militärtekniska avdelningen. Volymen riktar sig främst till de som inlett sin officersutbildning och utgörs till stora delar av ett kompilat av publicerade och opublicerade militärtekniska texter och kan sägas utgöra militärteknikens ”state of the art”.

  • 34.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Finn Khan, Malek
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Olofsson, Mats
    FOI.
    Förmåga till snabb anpassning av försvarsmateriel2015Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Dator- och nätverksexploatering: ett lekmannaförsök2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Baazius Bågenholm, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Aircraft Systems och dess möjliga roll inom Svenska marinen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Detta självständiga arbete har utifrån ett taktiskt perspektiv studerat på vilket sätt obemannade system i kategorin UAS, Unmanned Aircraft Systems, kan tänkas bidra till taktisk uppgiftslösning inom marinen om dessa infördes idag. Arbetet har genom kvalitativ litteraturanalys studerat utvecklingen av dessa system och vad som är rimligt att förmågemässigt förvänta sig av dem idag. En analys har gjorts av den för arbetet aktuella operationsmiljön, den kvalificerade sjöstriden. Vidare har en analys av hur utvecklingen av UAS i USA och Ryssland gjorts för att sätta ett svenskt system i en kontext. Arbetet har haft sin grund i teorin om sjökrigets principer då dessa ger en god teoretisk grund för hur sjöofficeraren bör agera.

    Slutsatser som redovisas i arbetet är att UAS kan komma att spela en stor roll i att ge ökad förmåga till god lägesuppfattning för marinens taktiska chefer. Vidare redovisas hur UAS kan bidra till att lösa vissa av de marina taktiska uppgifterna och stridsuppgifter som finns i Försvarsmaktens Taktikreglemente för marinstridskrafterna. Vidare redovisas att en UAS-förmåga även kan bidra till att sjöofficerare har större möjlighet att agera utefter de i teorin redovisade sjökrigets principer. Ytterligare slutsatser som redovisas är att UAS kan lösa marina uppgifter av både offensiv och defensiv karaktär. Även uppgifter inom marin logistik kan lösas av UAS.

  • 37.
    Backlund, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Analys av de formella och informella kraven ställda på helikoptertekniker i Försvarsmakten2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Backlund, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College. General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania.
    Asault rifles: Comparison, analysis and future trends2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a large worldwide market for assault rifles. Many armed forces need new weapons when their old cold war equipment starts to break down. Throughout the world today, the development of new variants of assault rifles continues and the defence industries are doing business across the globe. Customers demand low prices and high quality.

    Objective: To investigate assault rifles that are currently being used around the world, how they evolved and which factors are important in the development of a future assault rifle, and to compare two widely used assault rifles to explore the differences and determine which one is better.

    Methods: A qualitative study of literature combined with a multi-target analysis of two assault rifles from a given scenario in an urban area.

    Results: Small arms have been the soldier's main weaponry for hundreds of years, and will continue to be so for many years to come. Development of the future assault rifle will be based on such factors as shooting distance, size of magazine and weight. The AK5C rifle was ranked number one ahead of the G36E rifle in the comparison as it was smaller and therefore easier to use in confined spaces.

    Conclusion: Many current rifles are similar in performance and size. Development of the future rifle will not only depend on the rifle itself, but also on the accessories, including ammunition, and the possibilities for customization.

  • 39.
    Backman, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Distribuerade och heterogena databasers interaktion med ett militärt ledningssystem2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 41.
    Bendiksen, Roy Severeide
    Swedish Defence University.
    Operasjonell ildstøtte: Potensial for 9x styrkemultiplikasjon ved bruk av digital kommunikasjon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Militære operasjoner er i vedvarende endring, hvor en sentral utviklingstrend er bruk av tekniske hjelpemiddel. Dette har medført nye og mer effektive samhandlingsmåter og en påfølgende økning i innslag av fellesoperasjoner. Oppgaven handler om hvordan denne utviklingstrenden påvirker den operasjonelle ildstøttens bidrag til at landmakten kjerneoppdrag – å finne, binde og ramme motstan- deren. Dette tilnærmes gjennom å undersøke hvordan innføringen av digital kommunikasjon påvir- ker det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets potensial for å skape effekt i det militære spillerom.

    Oppgavens undersøkelse viser at digital kommunikasjon gir ytelsesforbedring gjennom kompresjon av tid, hvilket i tur muliggjør situasjonsspesifikk styrkemultiplikasjon gjennom ekspansjon av rom. Samtidig indikeres det at situasjonsspesifikke kombinasjoner operasjonell ildstøtte har potensial for 3x ytelsesbedring og opp til 9x styrkemultiplikasjon, hvilket betyr at man kan bruke mindre ressurser for å oppnå samme effekt eller de samme ressurser for å oppnå en større effekt! Realisering av potensialet for styrkemultiplikasjon setter økte krav til den metodiske målbekjempningsprosessen og da spesielt kunnskap om egne muligheter og begrensninger. Dette handler om operasjonskunst og peker på viktigheten av systemkompetanse i planlegging og utførelse av operasjoner.

    Innføring av digital kommunikasjon må ses i sammenheng med hvordan pågående utviklingstrend skyver på det operasjonelle ildstøttesystemets sosio-tekniske balanse. Forståelse av fenomenet blir derfor viktig for videre funksjon- og kapabilitetsutvikling.

  • 42.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nanostrukturell ytbeläggning på utsatta delar av marina drivlinor2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays naval units are participating in international missions, where new and in many cases tougher conditions will affect their propulsion.

     

    This essay deals with some of the now developed nanostructure coatings and gives a presentation of how the coatings could function on some exposed parts of the naval powertrain. The essay investigates the possibility that the coatings can be used as a protective layer that will reduce or prevent wear on selected parts of the naval powertrains. As a basis for the essay, nanotechnology is described, as well as different reasons that wear occurs and application techniques for coatings

     

    The conclusion is that nanostructured coatings can be applied and provide a much better result on hardness and wear resistance as of naval powertrains compared to micro-structural coatings, both for manufacturing and renovation.

     

    The essay presents a few examples of the military utility of the nanostructure coatings as well as suggestions for further research.

  • 43.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Självsanerande ytbeläggning i nanostruktur: Är det möjligt att applicera på elektrooptiska sensorer och till vilken nytta?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with now developed self-cleaning coatings and gives a presentation of how they work on some electro-optical sensor lenses used in the navy. The study also examines the coatings transmittance and how efficient they can clean the sensor lenses from undesired salt layers and other soiling particles.

    After the introduction the study presents basic facts of the chosen sensors, nanotechnology, surface wettability and also salts and salinity. Thereafter the study describes current nano-research on self-cleaning coatings and possible results there of, when the coatings are applied on the different sensors.

    In the study I give my opinion of the military benefit of using self-cleaning coatings, which from a general point of view is that there mostly are positive effects using such a coating, in a technical perspective.

    The study ends with conclusions that there are self-cleaning coatings based on TiO2-nanoparticles which can transmit within the visual spectra and also can clean undesired soiling particles. But can not confirm that these coatings have the desired effect on salt crystals, or transmit within wavelengths spectrum for IR-detectors and lasers.

  • 44.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires by fusing for plasma characterization in microplasma sources. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets on the ends of a fused wire, are intended to act as spherical Langmuir probes. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused with different voltages and currents. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 μm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing its dynamics. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, folded, serpentine shaped and semi-spherical. The stub length leveled out at  ~400 μm as the fusing power increased. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power to yield a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and was fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the IV characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between  −60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes, and will be considered for further integration.

  • 45.
    Bergset, Tor Steinar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Deteksjon av optikk og elektro-optikk ved hjelp av laser: En studie av den militære nytten med et lasersystem for deteksjon av en motstanders optikk og elektro-optikk2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of the optics of an opponent has proven to be of military interest, in order to detect snipers before they have fired. This kind of detection is also of interest when it comes to locating forward observers and other observers, who also use optics to affect our forces indirectly. The principle of such detection is called retro-reflection, where one applies a laser to scan an area and then detect the retro-reflected signal from the opponents optics, and thereby the opponent himself. This thesis investigates what parameters such a system should have, in order to achieve military utility, in a situation where one is typically securing a base or an object in one’s own rear area of operations. This utility is measured against a situation where one does not have systems for detection of the threat. The objects in question may be command posts or other installations of special interest to a sophisticated opponent.

    This thesis examines this topic from a perspective where the military need for such a system is analysed first, followed by identifying what overall functions are needed to fulfill this need and finally what the technical requirements are. The analysis, results and discussions point to four such functions central to fulfilling the military need. It is necessary to have a range that matches the ranges an opponent will operate from. The system must be able to reduce the number of false targets that appear. The safety of one’s own personnel must be adequate. The system configuration must support the other functions at the same time as it fulfills the need for increased situational awareness and flexibility. The examination of the technical factors has shown that the best possible balance of these factors is essential in achieving the desired effects, and avoiding the undesired effects of the system. These factors are described and include laser pulse energies, wavelengths, scanning methods, beam divergence, techniques to minimize the number of false targets and different system configurations, which can increase situational awareness and the usability of the system.

    In order to achieve military utility for the system it is crucial to understand the technical and procedures that can counter the weaknesses of the technology, and in thus produce a flexibility that enables the user to utilize the system as appropriate to the situation

  • 46.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Amorim, Joni
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. George Mason University, USA.
    A Cyber Security Situational Awareness Framework to Track and Project Multistage Cyber Attacks2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare & Security, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Towards a Framework to Detect Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats Attacks2014In: Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2014 IEEE 8th International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting and defending against Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) Attacks is a challenge for mechanisms that are static in its nature and are based on blacklisting and malware signature techniques. Blacklists and malware signatures are designed to detect known attacks. But multi-stage attacks are dynamic, conducted in parallel and use several attack paths and can be conducted in multi-year campaigns, in order to reach the desired effect. In this paper the design principles of a framework are presented that model Multi-Stage Attacks in a way that both describes the attack methods as well as the anticipated effects of attacks. The foundation to model behaviors is by the combination of the Intrusion Kill-Chain attack model and defense patterns (i.e. a hypothesis based approach of known patterns). The implementation of the framework is made by using Apache Hadoop with a logic layer that supports the evaluation of a hypothesis.

  • 48.
    Biverot, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Telekrigsförmåga i Nordic Battlegroup2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Björkman, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fartygsbaserade helikoptrar: ur en teknisk och underhållmässig synvinkel2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Björnberg, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med mobiltelefoni och Radio180: En systemanalys av sambandssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military communication system RA180 is aging while mobile telephony is evolving rapidly. These systems differ from each other in many aspects, but the overall skill in using a mobile phone offers benefits for military communication. Previous research has shown that there are some flaws in mobile telephony, but how these deficiencies relate to a communication system that is already in use by the Armed Forces have not been studied yet.

    This essay aims to investigate whether there is any military utility of using mobile telephony for the communication instead of RA180. A systems analysis, where the systems are compared and evaluated, will be implemented for this purpose. The essay reveals several opportunities available when mobile telephony is used as communication systems and one of the main potential is that the system has a higher availability due to the existing infrastructure. Mobile telephony has a lower military utility than RA180 in a specific scenario, but for several of the reasons that resulted in a lower military utility there are solutions. Encryption is one of these and there are options that would improve security significantly in mobile telephony.

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