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The Instructor Role during Educational Wargaming
Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. Försvarshögskolan. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1019-8933
2014 (English)In: THE SHIFT FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning through Gaming / [ed] Willy C. Kriz, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014, 66-79 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The instructor has a vital role in leading the debriefing discussion in game-based learning. The role during the gaming part is however not as clear. Some results suggest that the instructor should take an active and authoritative role, but results provide few clues on how to apply this to military wargaming. Wargaming is a two-sided game activity where both sides are assumed to learn from their play experience. Wargaming against a live opponent can however produce unwanted effects. One such effect is ‘gamer mode’ that is a result of an exaggerated willingness to win, which can be observed when the players, for instance, exploit the game rules in unrealistic manner. This paper investigates the main responsibilities or duties of the instructor to prevent gamer mode to occur and instead support the desired player-orientation toward the game. By reasoning on the main characteristic features of wargaming, to play the game and to learn from the experience, I conclude that the main duties of the instructor are to frame the game activity and to steer the learning process. This supports earlier results that the instructor should take an active part in the gaming process, yet needs to have the skills, knowledge, and authority to intervene in students’ game play. The findings are illustrated with excerpts from videotaped wargaming sessions at the Swedish National Defence College.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014. 66-79 p.
Keyword [en]
Wargaming, education, instructor, gamer mode
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Ledningsvetenskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5107ISBN: 978-3-7639-5420-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-5107DiVA: diva2:773863
Conference
45th Conference of the International Simulation and Gaming Association
Note

QC 20141208

Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2014-12-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. viii, 103 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2014:18
Keyword
Gamer mode, military education, wargaming, game-based learning
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Ledningsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5106 (URN)978-91-7595-399-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2014-12-19Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
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