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Bolt from the Blue or Avoidable Failure?: Revisiting September 11 and the Origins of Strategic Surprise
Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
2005 (English)In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 1, no 3, 301-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing on the strategic surprise, warning-response, and foreign policy literature, this article argues that the September 11 terror attacks should be regarded as a strategic surprise and examines a number of key factors that contributed to vulnerability and inhibited vigilance. Three broad explanatory "cuts" derived from the literature-psychological, bureau-organizational, and agenda-political-are deployed to sift through the rapidly expanding empirical record in an effort to shed light on the processes and contextual factors that left the United States vulnerable to the attacks. The article aims to improve our understanding of generic processes and practices that enhance or detract from vulnerability and vigilance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 1, no 3, 301-331 p.
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Social Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-3905DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-8594.2005.00014.xISI: 000207979700003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-3905DiVA: diva2:628511
Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-11 Last updated: 2013-06-14Bibliographically approved

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Parker, Charles F.Stern, Eric K.
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