Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Blindsided?: September 11 and the origins of strategic surprise
Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
2002 (English)In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 23, no 3, 601-630 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The devastating terror attacks of 11 September 2001 have often been characterized as a "bolt from the blue. " Drawing inspiration from the political psychological literature on strategic surprise, this article poses the deceptively simple question of why so many U.S. policymakers were caught so woefully off guard last year. Through a preliminary empirical exploration of three broad explanatory "cuts" derived from the relevant interdisciplinary literature psychological, bureau-organizational, and agenda-political-the authors seek to shed light on the sources of failure that may have contributed to 9/11 and point to promising avenues of investigation for future research as the available empirical record becomes more complete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 23, no 3, 601-630 p.
Keyword [en]
strategic surprise, policy failure, overvaluation, overconfidence, wishful thinking, bureaucratic politics, organizational process, threat politics, issue framing, agenda setting
National Category
Social Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-3931DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00300ISI: 000178161000010OAI: diva2:628463
Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-11 Last updated: 2013-06-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Stern, Eric K.
By organisation
CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training)
In the same journal
Political Psychology
Social Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 36 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link