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On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach
Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6104-5788
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: National Defence University of Finland , 2018. , p. 185
Series
Series 1: Research Publications No. 21, ISSN 2343-0001 ; 21
Keyword [en]
military utility, survivability, signature management, systems engineering, camouflage, Low Observable Technology, spectral design, multi-spectral
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7349ISBN: 9789512529995 (electronic)ISBN: 9789512529988 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-7349DiVA, id: diva2:1191846
Public defence
2018-04-13, Sverigesalen, Försvarshögskolan, Drottning Kristinas väg 37, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications
2014 (English)In: Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI (vol. 9253) / [ed] Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen; Harbinder Rana; Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5009 (URN)10.1117/12.2067167 (DOI)
Conference
SPIE European Defence and Security, Amsterdam, September 19-23 2014
Available from: 2014-11-26 Created: 2014-11-26 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
2. Military utility: A proposed concept to support decision-making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military utility: A proposed concept to support decision-making
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 43, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A concept called Military Utility is proposed for the study of the use of technology in military operations. The proposed concept includes a three-level structure representing key features and their detailed components. On basic level the Military Utility of a technical system, to a military actor, in a specific context, is a compound measure of the military effectiveness, of the assessed technical system's suitability to the military capability system and of the affordability. The concept is derived through conceptual analysis and is based on related concepts used in social sciences, the military domain and Systems Engineering. It is argued that the concept has qualitative explanatory powers and can support military decision-making regarding technology in forecasts, defense planning, development, utilization and the lessons learned process. The suggested concept is expected to contribute to the development of the science of Military-Technology and to be found useful to actors related to defense.

Keyword
Technology, utility, decision-making
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5548 (URN)10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.07.001 (DOI)000215364900003 ()
Available from: 2015-08-03 Created: 2015-08-03 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
3. A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited
2015 (English)In: Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein & Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This new security development is expected to increase interest fromNorthern European states in supporting the development of conceptually newstealthy ground platforms, incorporating a decade of advances in technology andexperiences from stealth platforms at sea and in the air. The scope of thiscase study is to draw experience from where we left off. At the end of the1990s there was growing interest in stealth for combat vehicles in Sweden. Anambitious technology demonstrator project was launched. One of the outcomes wasa proposed Systems Engineering process tailored for signature managementpresented to SPIE in 2002.(Olsson et.al, A systems approach…, Proc. SPIE 4718 )The process was used for the Swedish/BAE Systems Hägglunds AB development of amultirole armored platform (The Swedish acronym is SEP). Before development wascompleted there was a change of procurement policy in Sweden from domesticdevelopment towards Governmental Off-The-Shelf, preceded by a Swedish ArmedForces change of focus from national defense only, towards expeditionarymissions. Lessons learned, of value for future development, are presented. Theyare deduced from interviews of key-personnel, on the procurer and industrysides respectively, and from document reviews.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015
Series
SPIE Proceedings, ISSN 0277-786X ; 9653
Keyword
stealth, low observable technology, signature management, camouflage, military utility
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5645 (URN)10.1117/12.2194844 (DOI)
Conference
Target and Background Signatures, 23–24 September 2015, Toulouse, France
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
4. An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Krivanek, V., Brno, 2017, p. 123-129Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP (Armored Multirole Vehicle, in Swedish) and the Visby class corvette cases respectively. The focus was on signature management. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied. The main conclusions can be summarized in three points. 1) A preferred workflow from mission analysis to sub system design has been derived from lessons identified; 2) The three main success factors identified were: building technology demonstrators, having an Integrated Product Team approach, and establishing stealth as a key system design goal; 3) Coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements need further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brno: , 2017
Keyword
Low Observable Technology, Stealth, Signature, Survivability, Systems Engineering, SEP, Visby class corvette
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6724 (URN)10.1109/MILTECHS.2017.7988743 (DOI)9781538619889 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) May 31 – June 2, 2017, Brno, Czech Republic
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
5. Balancing the radar and long wavelength infrared signature properties in concept analysis of combat aircraft – A proof of concept
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing the radar and long wavelength infrared signature properties in concept analysis of combat aircraft – A proof of concept
2017 (English)In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 71, p. 733-741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Designing combat aircraft with high military effectiveness, affordability and military suitability requires balancing the efforts of many engineering disciplines during all phases of the development. One particular challenge is aircraft survivability, the aircraft's ability to avoid or withstand hostile actions. Signature management is one way of increasing the survivability by improving the ability to avoid detection. Here, the long-wave infrared and radar signatures are studied simultaneously in a mission context. By establishing a system of systems approach at mission system level, the risk of sub optimization at a technical level is greatly reduced. A relevant scenario is presented where the aim is to incapacitate an air-defense system using three different tactics: A low-altitude cruise missile option, a low and medium altitude combat aircraft option. The technical sub-models, i.e. the properties of the signatures, the weapons and the sensors are modeled to a level suitable for early concept development. The results from the scenario simulations are useful for a relative comparison of properties. Depending on the situation, first detection is made by either radar or infrared sensors. Although the modeling is basic, the complexity of the infrared signature and detection chain is demonstrated and possible pivot points for the balancing of radar and IR signature requirements are identified. The evaluation methodology can be used for qualitative evaluation of aircraft concepts at different design phases, provided that the technical models are adapted to a suitable level of detail.

Keyword
Radar, Infrared, Signatures, Scenario, Evaluation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7098 (URN)10.1016/j.ast.2017.10.022 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
6. Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft
2017 (English)In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 65, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An analysis scheme and a mission system model were applied to the evaluation of the military utility of efforts to reduce infrared signature in the conceptual design of survivable aircraft. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to contribute to the development of a methodological framework for assessing the military utility of spectral design, and secondly to assess the threat from advances in LWIR sensors and their use in surface-to-air-missile systems. The modeling was specifically applied to the problem of linking the emissivity of aircraft coatings to mission accomplishment. The overall results indicate that the analysis scheme and mission system model applied are feasible for assessing the military utility of spectral design and for supporting decision-making in the concept phase. The analysis of different strike options suggests that LWIR sensors will enhance the military utility of low emissive paint, at least for missions executed in clear weather conditions. Furthermore, results corroborate and further clarify the importance of including earthshine when modeling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Military utility, Spectral design, Emissivity, Earthshine, Combat aircraft
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6726 (URN)10.1016/j.ast.2017.02.017 (DOI)000398869500013 ()
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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