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Continuity and Change in post-Cold War Maritime Security: A Study of the Strategies Pursued by the US, Sweden and Finland 1991-2016
Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8073-5581
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

What explains continuity and change in post-Cold War maritime security strategies? What lessons can we learn from the employment of such comprehensive grand strategies in maritime regions where traditional and non-traditional threats converge? While many scholars have addressed particular maritime security issues, this author joins the few who engage themselves in the study of the conceptual development of maritime security.

Through the lens of structural realism, this thesis examines the logic of the maritime security strategies employed in two distinguished regions by the US and EU member states Finland and Sweden. It concludes that while their maritime security concept remains broad, the recent increase in security pressure has renewed the priority assigned to the military sector of security. Navies are thus re-using the measures implemented by a broad set of civil agencies and the shipping industry to improve maritime security, to gain the level of maritime domain awareness required for establishing regional sea control and project power from the sea.

Abstract [sv]

Vad förklarar kontinuitet och förändring i staters maritima säkerhetsstrategier efter det kalla krigets slut? Vilka lärdomar kan vi dra av deras implementering av allomfattande säkerhetsstrategier i maritima regioner där traditionella och icke-traditionella hot sammanfaller? 

Medan många forskare valt att fokusera på specifika maritima säkerhetsproblem som piratverksamhet, terrorism eller smuggling av droger och människor, förenar denna avhandlings författare sig med det fåtal som engagerat sig i studiet av begreppet maritim säkerhets konceptuella utveckling. Genom en teoretisk lins av strukturell realism undersöker författaren av denna avhandling logiken bakom de maritima säkerhetsstrategier som implementerats av USA respektive EU-länderna Finland och Sverige i Ost- och Sydostasien samt i Östersjön. 

I avhandlingen dras slutsatsen att medan dessa staters maritima säkerhetskoncept permanent breddats till att omfatta hot inom olika säkerhetssektorer, innebär de senaste årens ökade säkerhetstryck att hot inom den militära säkerhetssektorn åter prioriteras. De undersökta staternas marinstridskrafter drar därmed nytta av den mångfald av maritima säkerhetsåtgärder som implementerats av civila myndigheter och sjöfartsindustrin i syfte att förbättra maritim säkerhet för handelssjöfart, främja miljöskydd och möjliggöra exploatering av maritima naturresurser, till att upprätta militär kontroll över viktiga havsområden samt projicera militär makt från havet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo: Åbo Akademis Press , 2017. , p. 288
Keywords [en]
Maritime, security, power, influence, cooperation, Baltic Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Finland, Sweden, US
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7140ISBN: 9789521236020 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-7140DiVA, id: diva2:1162970
Public defence
2017-11-30, Akadenisalen, Strandgatan 2, Vasa, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Docent Steve Lindberg utgjorde min handledare vid Åbo Akademi till och med sin pensionering år 2016.

Professor Göran Djupsund utgjorde min handledare vid Åbo Akademi från och med 2016.

Professor Jerker Widén utgjorde min utsedde biträdande handledare vid Försvarshögskolan.

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. From Protection of Shipping to Protection of Citizens and National Economies: Current Changes in Maritime Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Protection of Shipping to Protection of Citizens and National Economies: Current Changes in Maritime Security
2013 (English)In: Journal of Defence Studies, ISSN 0976-1004, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 57-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses the alteration of the referent object for maritime security from protection of shipping and port facilities to protection of citizens and national economies. It presents a tentative answer on the extent and consequences of this alteration applied by states in a global perspective, and focuses on validating four explanatory factors on why the alteration has occurred. The time period of study is between 1991 and 2013. Its results illustrate a transition in states’ security policies from traditional expressions of maritime security to broader security perspectives, and also indicates radically altered maritime strategic perspectives among states.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Delhi: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 2013
Keywords
Maritime security, shipping, terrorism, crime, piracy, UNCLOS
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-4265 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Continuity and change in US post-Cold War maritime security strategy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuity and change in US post-Cold War maritime security strategy
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7125 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05
3. Swedish–Finnish naval cooperation in the Baltic Sea: motives, prospects and challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish–Finnish naval cooperation in the Baltic Sea: motives, prospects and challenges
2016 (English)In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 346-373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, Finland and Sweden decided to substantially deepen their defence cooperation and this project involves creating a bilateral standing Naval Task Group (SFNTG). The present article aims at examining the deepening naval cooperation between Finland and Sweden from a regional integration perspective, focusing on its motives, current challenges and future prospects. Driven by perceptions of common challenges and desires for cost-effectiveness, and strengthened by recent successes on sea surveillance and a combined Amphibious Task Unit, the bilateral project has considerable potential to achieve success. To fulfil its objectives, substantial legal changes in both countries are required to allow the use of force on each other’s territorial waters. To cater for the requirement of not conflicting with EU, NORDEFCO or NATO cooperations, the bilateral Task Group must operate according to NATO standards and by using English as the language in command and control. The costs of adjusting the naval units to NATO’s technical requirements are far from negligible and this issue still remains to be solved. If Finland and Sweden manage to incorporate new policies, common structures and common organisational norms among their navies, an even deeper integration, as in Belgium and the Netherlands, are conceivable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
Keywords
Defence; naval cooperation; Sweden; Finland; NATO; NORDEFCO; the Baltic Sea
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6390 (URN)10.1080/14702436.2016.1220805 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. The New US Maritime Strategy: Implications for the Baltic Sea region
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The New US Maritime Strategy: Implications for the Baltic Sea region
2015 (English)In: RUSI Journal, ISSN 0307-1847, E-ISSN 1744-0378, Vol. 160, no 6, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The new US maritime strategy has received praise from many corners of the world. As a manual it is well suited to guide the efforts of its three sea services in navigating a challenging global security environment in the years ahead. The strategy emphasises maritime presence, both where conflict threatens the global system and US national interests, and where allies require reassurance, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region. However, Stefan Lundqvist and J J Widen argue that the document fails, to some extent, to address Russia’s increasingly challenging conduct and its implications for Northeast Europe and the Baltic Sea region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2015
Keywords
Maritime strategy, maritime security, the US, the Baltic Sea
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5705 (URN)10.1080/03071847.2015.1122986 (DOI)000367065200003 ()
Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
5. Maritime Security and Sea Power: A Finnish-Swedish Perspective on the Baltic Sea Region
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maritime Security and Sea Power: A Finnish-Swedish Perspective on the Baltic Sea Region
2016 (English)In: Focus on the Baltic Sea: Proceedings from the Kiel Conference 2015 / [ed] Adrian J. Neumann & Sebastian Bruns, Kiel: Institute for Security Policy Kiel University , 2016, p. 16-28Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent European and U.S. maritime security strategies are characterised by addressing the multidimensional threats to the maritime domain that result from states􀇯 increased dependency on seaborne trade and maritime resource exploitation. Stefan Lundqvist notes, however, that in the Baltic Sea – as in the Asia-Pacific region – there is a continuing need for navies. This is due to certain regional powers pursuing strategies that include the wielding of sea power in ways that violate international law, heightens the risk of accidents and threatens international security.Given the hybrid character of the threats, he recommends that states in the region opt for a co-operative and comprehensive regional approach to maritime security – like that of the U.S. in the Asia-Pacific region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kiel: Institute for Security Policy Kiel University, 2016
Keywords
Maritime security challenges, sea power, comprehensive approach, Baltic Sea, Sweden, Finland, the U.S.
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6391 (URN)
Conference
Kiel Conference 2015
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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