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Heteronymous politics beyond anarchy and hierarchy: The multiplication of forms of rule 750-1300
Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
2017 (English)In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Anarchy and hierarchy are two central concepts of international relations theory but as conventionally defined they cannot describe political life for most of Western history. Neither concept describes the structure of medieval politics well. Rather, many different principles of differentiation existed simultaneously, both stratificatory and segmentary. The situation was closer to anarchy as understood as the absence of overarching principles of order rather than as ‘anarchy’ in the conventional sense used in international relations and absence of government. The power of the Popes over temporal rulers was considerable, but it never corresponded to the concept ‘hierarchy’ as conventionally understood either. Between c. 700 and c. 1300, Europe became more heteronymous as time went by, not less. More principles of differentiation were developed, and both Popes and kings became more powerful. The reinvention of the papacy after the ‘Investiture Controversy’ (1075–1122) created a system of law and practices in which European monarchs and realms were embedded, but it did not create an all-powerful papacy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE , 2017.
Keyword [en]
Anarchy, international systems, differentiation, the papacy, Middle Ages
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6994DOI: 10.1177/1755088217715482OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-6994DiVA: diva2:1136096
Available from: 2017-08-25 Created: 2017-08-25 Last updated: 2017-08-28

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  • apa
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  • Other locale
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