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Repercussions of a weak ocean governance and a non-existent maritime security policy: The resurgence of piracy and Armed Robbery in the Gulf of Mexico
Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3263-5962
World Maritime University, (SWE). (Maritime Safety and Security)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5260-7910
2021 (English)In: Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping, E-ISSN 2572-5084, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines piracy and armed robbery in the Gulf of Mexico, under the framework of maritime security. The results indicate that piratic attacks are most likely underreported by the Government of Mexico. The research findings documented fourteen attacks on supply vessels and offshore platforms for the first half of 2020; only three relevant attacks were officially reported in the same period by the vessel´s (foreign) flag jurisdiction. However, the Maritime Authority of Mexico did not change the security level at any of the ports or territorial sea during the incidents. The maritime security level remained the same (level 1) during 2020, despite several alerts launched by the international maritime community. Recommendations by the respondents (shipmasters, SSO, CSO and PFSO) included that a permanent increased security level (level 2) should be implemented in the Southern part of the Gulf of Mexico until this specific problem is resolved. Participants suggested additional special measures to tackle the problem including the evaluation to class the area as a High Risk Area (HRA) and the establishment of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOU), for international cooperation and capacity building with the US Coastguard authorities to promote necessary collaboration towards effectively dealing with these security threats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021. Vol. 5, no 2, p. 62-73
Keywords [en]
piracy, armed robbery, Gulf of Mexico, ISPS code, PFSA, PFSP, SSP, SSA
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9938DOI: 10.1080/25725084.2021.1925461OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-9938DiVA, id: diva2:1557596
Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2022-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/25725084.2021.1925461

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Nordfjeld, Adriana Ávila-Zúñiga

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