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Cyber Deterrence: An Illustration of Implementation
Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7552-9465
Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5053-4519
2018 (English)In: 13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018) / [ed] John S. Hurley & Jim Q. Chen, Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, p. 304-311Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyber deterrence is a strategy to deter attackers from conducting cyber-attacks in the first place. However, several issues exist when implementing cyber deterrence, which are identified in this paper. The findings show (1) non-existence of the deterrence strategy  (2) no doctrine or decision competence to retaliate to an adversary, (3) the armed forces have no authority to retaliate when Swedish sovereignty in Cyberspace is threatened, (4) no norms or regulations exist concerning retaliation, (5) no clear governance on using offensive cyber capabilities, and finally, (6) no credibility in its cyber deterrence posture regarding how much Sweden is willing to sacrifice to protect its electoral system, which is a Swedish national interest. Therefore, this research investigates how cyber deterrence can practically be implemented in Swedish cyber security policy. So far, researchers generally focused on the human aspect of cyber deterrence. By using the case study research strategy and utilizing the Swedish electoral system as a case, this paper examines possibilities to merge the human dimensions of cyber security with the technological dimensions. Data collection is performed through documents studies and semi-structured interviews with experts in the area to identify cyber deterrence components. Further, a mathematical approach is discussed in the paper to express the relationship between an adversary and a deterrent depicting each of the actor’s risk calculus. A result of the research work performed in this paper, the deterrence components for Swedish cyber deterrence are proposed and risk calculus is performed. Moreover, measures to increase Swedish cyber deterrence posture are proposed the practical implementation of cyber deterrence in Swedish cyber security policy in order to deter attacks on the Swedish electoral system is demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018. p. 304-311
Keywords [en]
cyber deterrence, cyber strategy, cyber policy, risk calculus, mathematical illustration, Swedish electoral system
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Military Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8677ISBN: 978-1-911218-74-6 (print)ISBN: 978-1-911218-73-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:fhs-8677DiVA, id: diva2:1337483
Conference
13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018), 8 – 9 March 2018, Washington, DC, USA
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-08-26Bibliographically approved

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Huskaj, Gazmend

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