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Ekengren, Magnus, Professor
Publications (10 of 42) Show all publications
Ekengren, M. (2024). Why are we surprised by extreme weather, pandemics and migration crises when we know they will happen? Exploring the added value of contingency thinking. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 32(1), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why are we surprised by extreme weather, pandemics and migration crises when we know they will happen? Exploring the added value of contingency thinking
2024 (English)In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article attempts to explain why governments are surprised when extreme weather, pandemics and migration crisis hit their own country despite their good knowledge of these global threats. With the help of the contingency concept, the article explores the reasons behind these surprises by introducing a new category of threats that complements the ones in the existing literature on surprise. It adds the concept of ‘known—corporally unknown’ threats to the list of known-unknowns, unknown-unknowns as a way to emphasize the difference between abstract knowledge of ‘facts and figures’ (of e.g., global warming) and the acquiring of knowledge through personal, bodily experience (tangere) (of flooding and draughts). The article demonstrates how Swedish decision-makers—despite their good scientific knowledge and warning signals from abroad—were surprised by the migration crisis of 2015 and the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 because they had not been in direct touch with massive flows of refugees or pandemics of that scale before. The article ends by discussing new ways of acquiring knowledge about global threats for a deeper, corporally anchored, preparedness for the surprises and contingencies to come.

Keywords
contingency, corporally unknown, embodied knowledge, surprise
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12031 (URN)10.1111/1468-5973.12515 (DOI)
Projects
Creeping crisis
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, smygande kris
Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2024-03-10Bibliographically approved
Ekengren, M., Rhinard, M. & Engström, A. (2021). Coronapandemin-en smygande kris vintern 2020. Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, 123(5), 33-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coronapandemin-en smygande kris vintern 2020
2021 (Swedish)In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 33-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why did the Swedish Government fail to act earlier against the Covid-19-virus in the light of the many foreshadowing outbreaks in China and in Italy and other EU Member States? With the help of the concept creeping crisis (smygande kris), this article analyses the tardiness with which the Swedish authorities acted to prevent the spread of the virus in the early stages of the pandemic (January – February 2020). The term refers to the phenomenon of belated measures despite extensive knowledge of slow-acting threats with sudden outbursts such as pandemics and global warming. The article explains the procrastination of Swedish actions as a result of psychological repression (“it couldn’t happen here in our country”), as well as cognitive delays that meant that understanding the threat evolution in the abstract did not spur action in proportion to the insight (“we saw it coming, but didn’t act until we felt it in our everyday life”). It ends by discussing possible ways to create more practically and temporally informed knowledge (“know-how”, “know-when”) of creeping crises for the generation of timely action able to stop these before they explode into acute crises.

Keywords
Corona pandemic, creeping crisis, tardiness, Coronapandemin, smygande kris, senfärdighet
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10426 (URN)
Projects
Smygande kriser
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2021-11-08 Created: 2021-11-08 Last updated: 2021-12-15Bibliographically approved
Landström, Y. & Ekengren, M. (2021). Migration, Borders, and Society. In: Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark (Ed.), Understanding the Creeping Crisis: (pp. 87-104). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration, Borders, and Society
2021 (English)In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, we have learned that forced global migration pose a serious threat to international peace and societal values. Despite the many warnings and refugee crises across the world, most national governments have insufficiently addressed this threat. In this chapter, we try to explain this lack of action. The chapter explores possible explanations such as the denial mindset of “it probably won’t happen here (and if it does, it won’t affect my family and community)”. The chapter focuses on the border management crisis in Sweden in 2015. The Swedish government did not address the situation as a crisis until the refugees, who had been on the Mediterranean Sea and traversing north over the continent for months, ended up in Malmö in the south of Sweden in September 2015. This predictable set of events caused chaos for the unprepared Swedish police and the border and migration authorities who had to handle the situation under conditions of urgency and apparent uncertainty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021
Keywords
creeping crisis, migration, migration crisis, Swedish migration crisis
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9925 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-70692-0_6 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-18 Last updated: 2021-05-18Bibliographically approved
Boin, A., Ekengren, M. & Rhinard, M. (2021). Understanding and Acting Upon a Creeping Crisis. In: Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark (Ed.), Understanding the Creeping Crisis: (pp. 1-17). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding and Acting Upon a Creeping Crisis
2021 (English)In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The notion of a creeping crisis is a conceptual one, a heuristic device useful for helping to uncover hidden dimensions of today’s more pressing—some might say existential—societal problems. In this introductory chapter, we present our definition of creeping crisis and unpack the analytical dimensions of the concept. We review what existing research does and does not tell us about those dimensions. The chapter concludes by highlighting key research questions and outlining how the case studies in the book help to answer those questions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9927 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-70692-0_1 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-18 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Boin, A., Ekengren, M. & Rhinard, M. (2021). Understanding Creeping Crises: Revisiting the Puzzle. In: Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark (Ed.), Understanding the Creeping Crisis: (pp. 165-177). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Creeping Crises: Revisiting the Puzzle
2021 (English)In: Understanding the Creeping Crisis / [ed] Boin, Arjen; Ekengren, Magnus; Rhinard, Mark, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 165-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter returns to the research question that animated the case studies and summarizes the findings of the chapters in this book. It offers provisional answers to our research question and formulates an agenda for future research. Much of the chapter is devoted to thinking through the implications of the creeping crisis perspective for the practitioner community. We build on our research findings to argue that the time for action is now and formulate a set of recommendations that can help jumpstart this agenda.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021
Keywords
creeping crises, slow-onset disasters, crisis management, crisis incubation, transboundary crises
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9926 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-70692-0_10 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-18 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Boin, A., Ekengren, M. & Rhinard, M. (Eds.). (2021). Understanding the Creeping Crisis. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Creeping Crisis
2021 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This open access book explores a special species of trouble afflicting modern societies: creeping crises. These crises evolve over time, reveal themselves in different ways, and resist comprehensive responses despite periodic public attention. As a result, these crises continue to creep in front of our eyes. This book begins by defining the concept of a creeping crisis, showing how existing literature fails to properly define and explore this phenomenon and outlining the challenges such crises pose to practitioners. Drawing on ongoing research, this book presents a diverse set of case studies on: antimicrobial resistance, climate change-induced migration, energy extraction, big data, Covid-19, migration, foreign fighters, and cyberattacks. Each chapter explores how creeping crises come into existence, why they can develop unimpeded, and the consequences they bring in terms of damage and legitimacy loss. The book provides a proof-of-concept to help launch the systematic study of creeping crises. Our analysis helps academics understand a new species of threat and practitioners recognize and prepare for creeping crises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021. p. 185
Keywords
creeping crisis, crisis management, crisis detection, crisis leadership, crisis preparation, creeping crisis, public administration, public management, crisis incubation, crisis detection, crisis response, cyber security, migration crisis, pandemix, climate change, global migration, data breach, data accumulation
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9921 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-70692-0 (DOI)978-3-030-70691-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-70692-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-18 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Ekengren, M. & Hollis, S. (2020). Explaining the European Union's security role in practice. Journal of Common Market Studies, 58(3), 616-635
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining the European Union's security role in practice
2020 (English)In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 616-635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European states may no longer expect inter‐state violence, but they do expect complex threats emanating from storms, epidemics, terror attacks and earthquakes. The EU has answered these threats through the rapid and far‐reaching institutionalization of European security cooperation. However, member states hesitate to use their common capacities. While both intergovernmental and constructivist approaches treat this pattern as evidence of weak integration and as unimportant to the European security community, we examine this cooperation through the lens of practice theory and reveal how the growth of EU capacities is fully compatible with a critical and cautious approach to activating these resources in the everyday work of national officials. Using unique empirical data retrieved through participant observation in the first multisectoral crisis management exercise held by the EU, the findings of this analysis sketch the contours of a new type of security community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2020
Keywords
the EU, crisis management, security, practice approach, participant observation, EU, krishantering, säkerhet, praktikteori, deltagande observation
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8889 (URN)10.1111/jcms.12946 (DOI)000483975400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2021-09-23Bibliographically approved
Boin, A., Ekengren, M. & Rhinard, M. (2020). Hiding in Plain Sight: Conceptualizing the Creeping Crisis. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 11(2), 116-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hiding in Plain Sight: Conceptualizing the Creeping Crisis
2020 (English)In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 116-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The COVID‐19 crisis is a stark reminder that modern society is vulnerable to a special species of trouble: the creeping crisis. The creeping crisis poses a deep challenge to both academics and practitioners. In the crisis literature, it remains ill‐defined and understudied. It is even harder to manage. As a threat, it carries a potential for societal disruption—but that potential is not fully understood. An accumulation of these creeping crises can erode public trust in institutions. This paper proposes a definition of a creeping crisis, formulates research questions, and identifies the most relevant theoretical approaches. It provides the building blocks for the systematic study of creeping crises.

National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9805 (URN)10.1002/rhc3.12193 (DOI)000526013500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2021-03-15 Created: 2021-03-15 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Ekengren, M. (2018). A return to geopolitics? The future of the security community in the Baltic Sea Region. Global Affairs, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A return to geopolitics? The future of the security community in the Baltic Sea Region
2018 (English)In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, ISSN 2334-0479 (Online), p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One key question for the European security community is whether today’s confrontation between the EU member states and Russia is the end of its spread to the Baltic Sea region, including Russian districts, and the beginning of a return of geopolitical rivalry in the region. This article investigates the possibilities of avoiding such a negative downward spiral by drawing on security community theory and discussing two different methods of security community building – “top-down” and “bottom-up”. It points to the need for the EU institutions to return to the Monnet method to find a way out of the geopolitical “zero-sum” game increasingly played by the governments in the region. This implies not putting restrictions on participants from the north-west regions of Russia in strategically chosen areas of cooperation, and a more pronounced bottom-up, long-term and macro-regional approach built on joint problem-solving projects and people-topeople contacts that generate “win-win” games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
security community, baltic Sea, monnet method, geopolitics, EU, russia
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8206 (URN)10.1080/23340460.2018.1535250 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2014-374
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
Ekengren, M. (2018). Explaining the European Union's Foreign Policy: a Practice Theory of Translocal Action (1ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining the European Union's Foreign Policy: a Practice Theory of Translocal Action
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. p. 234 Edition: 1
Keywords
EU, foreign policy, practice theory
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8189 (URN)10.1017/9781108381451 (DOI)978-1-108-42230-7 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
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