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Liwång, Hans, Docent, LektorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8968-9793
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Ekenstedt, M., Liwång, H. & Shepherd, C. (2024). From strategy to delivered capability, A value chain analysis for the Swedish Armed Forces. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 10(1), Article ID 100214.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From strategy to delivered capability, A value chain analysis for the Swedish Armed Forces
2024 (English)In: Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, ISSN 2199-8531, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 100214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a perspective external to the Swedish Armed Forces this study examine the Swedish management of capability and technology development focusing on defence equipment. The study analyses a value chain that identifies activities from strategy definition to delivered capability in the case of Swedish management of capability and technology development. In general the study show that Swedish Armed Forces has a structured system supporting each activity in the value chain. However, challenges and potential for improvement can be found throughout the value chain. Especially an effective translator between, what Industries would call Voice of the Customer and Voice of the Engineer, could improve the effectiveness at both the Armed Forces and the Defence Industry.

Keywords
Defence, Research and development, Technology development, Systems science for defence and security
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12157 (URN)10.1016/j.joitmc.2024.100214 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190253Swedish Defence University
Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-03-10Bibliographically approved
Moxley, C., Biller, J., Giorgou, E., Koplow, D. & Liwång, H. (2024). Nuclear Weapons and International Law: The Renewed Imperative in Light of the Ukraine War. Panel tree: The role of risk analysis in the application of international law to nuclear weapons use. Georgetown journal of international law, 55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nuclear Weapons and International Law: The Renewed Imperative in Light of the Ukraine War. Panel tree: The role of risk analysis in the application of international law to nuclear weapons use
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2024 (English)In: Georgetown journal of international law, Vol. 55Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This is a transcript of Panel Three of the 2023 conference “Nuclear Weapons and International Law: The Renewed Imperative in Light of the Ukraine War.” The speakers’ remarks have beenedited for readability and clarity by the Georgetown Journal of International Law Digital Committee staff as well as by the speakers themselves.

National Category
Law and Society Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12351 (URN)
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-19
Liwång, H. (2024). The possible use of nuclear weapons push the envelop of military risk management. Georgetown journal of international law
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The possible use of nuclear weapons push the envelop of military risk management
2024 (Swedish)In: Georgetown journal of international lawArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

According to often described military risk management principles, risk managementshould be integrated cyclically and continuously into all phases of missions and operationsand risk decisions should be made at the appropriate level.1In such a decision perspective,military aims, tactics, technology, laws, ethics, and values need to be integrated. It is all theseaspects together that create military capability.

National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12352 (URN)
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-22
Liwång, H., Kindgren, J., Granholm, J. & Tärnholm, T. (2023). Analyzing Naval Fleet Modelling with a Tactics Perspective: The Case of Implementation of Autonomous Vessels. International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 165(A3), A229-A238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Naval Fleet Modelling with a Tactics Perspective: The Case of Implementation of Autonomous Vessels
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Maritime Engineering, ISSN 1479-8751, E-ISSN 1740-0716, Vol. 165, no A3, p. A229-A238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Development of autonomous vessels is expected to create a paradigm shift in how warfare is conducted. Therefore, there is need to explore the possibilities and limitations in developing integrated systems for defence at sea to support innovation. Fleet modelling can analyse functions and other design options such as autonomous platform’s and evaluate their added effect in naval operations. However, due to the complexity of naval operations, it is not feasible to create a tool that covers all aspects needed to mimic reality. This study, from the perspective of naval tactics, investigate the value of a tool that analyses potential fleet architectures including autonomous platforms. The study identifies that the tool creates relevant mental models for future naval fleets by identifying feasible fleet compositions. However, the proposed fleet combinations are only tested against a limited set of tactical needs and can only be seen as a starting point for development.

Keywords
Fleet modelling, Ship design, Military systems, Systems science for defence and security, UXV
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security; War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12151 (URN)10.5750/ijme.v165iA3.1220 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Defence UniversitySwedish Armed Forces
Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2024-01-25 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Liwång, H. (2023). Data for citation analysis in the area of capability development. Försvarshögskolan (FHS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data for citation analysis in the area of capability development
2023 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]

The file ”Data for capability development citation analysis JSnowball” is readable as a .txt file.

The file contain input to the software JSnowball, an open source software that can be downloaded at: https://github.com/dansarie/jsnowball/releases.

The file ”Data for capability development citation analysis JSnowball” contains all analyzed citations.

Place, publisher, year
Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2023
Keywords
Capability development, Research articles, Förmågeutveckling, Forskningsartiklar
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11882 (URN)10.5878/31df-zf05 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-01-04 Created: 2024-01-04 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved
Malmio, I. & Liwång, H. (2023). Education for Sustainable Development. In: Walter Leal Filho; Anabela Marisa Azul; Federica Doni; Amanda Lange Salvia (Ed.), Handbook of Sustainability Science in the Future: Policies, Technologies and Education by 2050 (pp. 1729-1749). Cham: Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education for Sustainable Development
2023 (English)In: Handbook of Sustainability Science in the Future: Policies, Technologies and Education by 2050 / [ed] Walter Leal Filho; Anabela Marisa Azul; Federica Doni; Amanda Lange Salvia, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 1729-1749Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on a report made by the Swedish Higher Education Authority from 2017, which covered all of Sweden’s 47 higher education institutions, this paper examines the work with sustainable development at universities. The text also gives suggestions on how the area could be developed for those institutions in higher education that have not yet measured up to the criteria for successful sustainability work. The analysis bases its findings on the Swedish National Defense University as a case and a representative for a smaller university but identifies general lessons that are applicable to other universities. The text also identifies lessons from current pedagogical research in higher education and highlights success factors taken from three other higher education institutions that have received high ratings for their sustainability work. The universities that have been successful in this work show that integrating a sustainability approach initially in the daily operations does not have to include all aspects of sustainable development in business planning and education. On the other hand, the aim must be clearly set on a holistic and interdisciplinary approach, where education for sustainability initially creates a base from where issues that are more complex can be included, and generate education specifically aimed at promoting sustainable development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Sustainable Development, Higher Education Institutions, Agenda 2030, Sustainability Assessment, Resistance to Sustainability
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11048 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-04560-8_126 (DOI)978-3-031-04559-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-04560-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-08-25 Created: 2022-08-25 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Liwång, H. (2023). Future National Energy Systems, Energy Security and Comprehensive National Defence. Energies, 16(18), 1-16, Article ID 6627.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future National Energy Systems, Energy Security and Comprehensive National Defence
2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 1-16, article id 6627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study addresses energy security from the perspective of comprehensive national defence, especially the interaction between military and civilian aspects of defence. Civilian infrastructure is seldom configured or developed with defence in focus. Therefore, with the aim off acilitating a system-level discussion, this study takes two steps. The first step is to develop indicators for assessing energy security in a comprehensive national defence setting. The second step is to qualitatively assess the effect on energy security from three different energy development scenarios related to either the development of local solar, wind, and bio-power production and storage; an increased resilience of the high voltage electric power transmission system; or an increase in large hydropower and nuclear power production. The study identifies that there are positive systemic effects of increasing the diversity of the energy system, especially for solutions that do not need external supply and do not risk creating large-scale effects if attacked. However, these changes to the energy system also lead to local changes that affect warfighting and defence. Such changes can be met by updated tactics and technology that would also give the defending force an advantage. 

Keywords
systems science for defence and security, emerging power solutions, local power production, defence capability, total defence
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Energy Systems
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11817 (URN)10.3390/en16186627 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Armed ForcesSwedish Defence University
Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Liwång, H., Andersson, K., Bang, M., Malmio, I. & Tärnholm, T. (2023). How can systemic perspectives on defence capability development be strengthened?. Defence Studies, 23(3), 399-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can systemic perspectives on defence capability development be strengthened?
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2023 (English)In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 399-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last thirty years, suggestions for how to develop defence capability have developed rapidly. However, supporting theory and structured concept development lag behind. Despite this imbalance, countries need to continuously spend resources on defence development. This study identifies central challenges in relation to the scientific perspectives and approaches needed to support the development of defence capability. The results show that the support for developing interactions between technology and social components is especially weak and that relevant supporting theories and methods from related fields are not considered. This study also shows that it is important to be able to address these questions from various perspectives and not to be limited by a specific scientific tradition. Finally, this study also identifies a possible emerging cluster of reports on capability-related research that provide a base for a much-needed cross-disciplinary approach to the development of defence capability.

Keywords
Defence capability development, sociotechnical systems, systems science for defence and security, system of systems
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11727 (URN)10.1080/14702436.2023.2239722 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-07-30 Created: 2023-07-30 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved
Ávila-Zúñiga Nordfjeld, A., Liwång, H. & Dalaklis, D. (2023). Implications of Technological Innovation and Respective Regulations to Strengthen Port and Maritime Security: An International Agenda to Reduce Illegal Drug Traffic and Countering Terrorism at Sea. In: Johansson, T.M., Dalaklis, D., Fernández, J.E., Pastra, A., Lennan, M. (Ed.), Smart Ports and Robotic Systems: (pp. 135-147). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of Technological Innovation and Respective Regulations to Strengthen Port and Maritime Security: An International Agenda to Reduce Illegal Drug Traffic and Countering Terrorism at Sea
2023 (English)In: Smart Ports and Robotic Systems / [ed] Johansson, T.M., Dalaklis, D., Fernández, J.E., Pastra, A., Lennan, M., Cham: Springer, 2023, p. 135-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter analyses the evolution of technological tools to improve port and maritime security, in relation to relevant regulations for their effective use and implementation on board ships and port facilities, based on the legal provisions established under the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code. New technology applications can contribute to reducing security threats at sea. However, international regulations and national laws are not reformed at the same speed as the evolution of technological innovation in ships and other sea-going vessels. The slow reform of regulations and laws is delaying the benefits that novel solutions might bring to the maritime industry and to the whole world in terms of maritime security. In this chapter, the authors introduce a limited number of technology applications instruments, with the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) systems, similar to those used for inspection and maintenance, but combined with sensors to strengthen port and maritime security and, at the same time reduce the illegal trafficking of drugs. Desk research and relevant selected literature from this wide research field were used for the collection/analysis of the data and identification of a suitable solution. The authors suggest changes to the ISPS Code to standardize such equipment on board vessels, equating its need and significance to the Automatic Identification System (AIS), or the Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT), to counter drug traffic by sea threats of the type of packages affixed to the bulbous bow of vessels, which is quite common, especially in the Latin-American region. Finally, outline future trends in drug detection on board vessels due to continuous technical improvement, which is also used by criminal ring organizations, arguing that in the same way as transnational organized crime is adapting and implementing innovative technology, governments and international organizations must also follow this adaptability to deter such security threats and improve the security of ports and oceans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2023
Series
Studies in National Governance and Emerging Technologies, ISSN 2524-6291, E-ISSN 2524-6305
Keywords
Port security, Maritime security, Ship inspection, ISPS code, Water drones, Drug traffic, Counter-smuggling, Operations at sea
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11508 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-25296-9_7 (DOI)978-3-031-25295-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-25296-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Defence University
Available from: 2023-04-04 Created: 2023-04-04 Last updated: 2023-08-11Bibliographically approved
Ávila-Zúñiga Nordfjeld, A., Dansarie, M., Liwång, H., Dalaklis, D. & Mejía Jr., M. (2023). Proposing a Mathematical Dynamic Model to Develop a National Maritime Security Assessment and Build a National Maritime Security Plan. Journal of Maritime Research, 20(3), 123-132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proposing a Mathematical Dynamic Model to Develop a National Maritime Security Assessment and Build a National Maritime Security Plan
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Maritime Research, ISSN 1697-4840, E-ISSN 1697-9133, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A proper assessment of maritime security risks at the national level is crucial to a national maritimesecurity plan (NMSP) in order to secure the concerned country’s ports, vessels and territorial sea. Thus, the importance of implementing a national maritime security assessment (NMSA) to counter securitythreats and ensure the continuity of national and international trade. The most important set of inter-national regulations concerning maritime security is the International Ship and Port Facility Security(ISPS) Code, which includes revision, approval and control of compliance of the Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP), which shall be based upon the Port Facility Security Assessment (PFSA). This paper proposes a mathematical dynamic model that calculates in real time the residual risk for the whole country and each of its ports by adapting and expanding the formula and procedures established in the Code, which since it has already been implemented around the world, gives the opportunity to take advantageof this quantitative solution to administrate maritime security risks on a nation-wide basis and create an effective national maritime security plan, which would allow the concerned authorities to improve situational awareness and adapt to security changes through a better planning of human, economic and material resources to deter security threats. The model was tested with the use of five encoded categories as countries, each of them with three ports, which encompassed three port facilities. The results indicate that this methodology is easy to implement and widespread use of that model could strength robustness in national security. 

Keywords
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, National Maritime Security Plan (NMSP), National Maritime Security Assessment (NMSA), Maritime & Port Security, National Security.
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Systems science for defence and security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12092 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8968-9793

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