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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Ekström, T., Listou, T. & Hannenko, I. (2023). Societal resilience in theory and practise. Collection of the sceintific parers of the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, 79(3), 66-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Societal resilience in theory and practise
2023 (English)In: Collection of the sceintific parers of the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, ISSN 2304-2699, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article outlines the first steps towards creating the foundations for further research into the logistical aspects of warfare in the context of societal resilience. The possibility of achieving seven basic indicators of national stability, the organization and network of using the strategy of rapid response to threats to achieve efficiency, reliability and stability of the state are considered.

Keywords
Infrastructure, logistics, NATO, russian-ukranian war, supply chain
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12225 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Armed Forces, FOT Logistik
Available from: 2024-02-12 Created: 2024-02-12 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T. (2023). Towards Defence Supply Chain Resilience: A Prestudy of the Swedish Defence Sector. Paper presented at SAS-ORA Conference 2022. NATO STO review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Defence Supply Chain Resilience: A Prestudy of the Swedish Defence Sector
2023 (English)In: NATO STO review, ISSN 3005-2092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Layered resilience has received increased attention in recent years. This paper addresses an important subset of layered resilience, which is resilience in defence supply chains. The paper reports on findings from two studies, conducted in the Swedish defence sector. The purpose of the two studies is to identify feasible solutions for how the Swedish defence sector can redesign its supply network to meet the new challenges of a re-established Swedish Total Defence. The first study used a modified Delphi technique and concluded that two Delphi panels constitute a useful modification to the Delphi technique. Two panels increase the validity of the results and can potentially lead to interesting outcomes that a traditional design is less likely to produce, particularly if combined with presenting the panels with statements from different perspectives and using workshops to discuss the findings. The second study used a survey to investigate which tactics for resilience in defence supply chains defence authorities and defence industry prefer in peace, crises, and war. Though inconclusive, the findings indicate that authorities and companies agree that multiple sourcing and pre-storage of supplies are important tactics to achieve resilience in defence supply chains. This is in line with previous research in commercial supply chains, which identifies increased safety stock and multi-sourcing as two of the most commonly used tactics to address disruptions.

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12186 (URN)
Conference
SAS-ORA Conference 2022
Projects
FoTFörsvarsmakten
Available from: 2024-02-02 Created: 2024-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T. & Hellberg, R. (2022). Logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains: A Swedish perspective. In: Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson (Ed.), The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE, June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS. Paper presented at 2022 Annual NOFOMA Conference, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 8–10, 2022 (pp. 83-83). NOFOMA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains: A Swedish perspective
2022 (English)In: The 34th ANNUAL NOFOMA CONFERENCE, June 8 – 10, 2022 - Reykjavík, Iceland: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Gunnar Stefánsson; Júlíus I. Guðmundsson, NOFOMA , 2022, p. 83-83Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NOFOMA, 2022
National Category
Business Administration Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11110 (URN)
Conference
2022 Annual NOFOMA Conference, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 8–10, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-02 Created: 2022-11-02 Last updated: 2022-11-04Bibliographically approved
Skoglund, P., Listou, T. & Ekström, T. (2022). Russian Logistics in the Ukrainian War: Can Operational Failures be Attributed to logistics?. Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, 5(1), 99-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Russian Logistics in the Ukrainian War: Can Operational Failures be Attributed to logistics?
2022 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, E-ISSN 2596-3856, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lacking Russian progress in war in Ukraine is often attributed to failing logistics, yet the logistics and its eventually failure is not explained. The purpose with this paper is to present some logistics principles that can be used to describe the Russian way of logistics planning, and to infer whether failing logistics slowed down the military operations or if failing operational conduct led to revised operational plans that could not be sustained logistically. The initial Russian Course of Action (COA) to take Kyiv was probably well supported logistically. When the COA failed, contingency plans most likely did not take into consideration the logistical challenges of supporting another type of operation, partly because of the logistics vacuum resulting from the preceding exercises. In the southeast the logistical concept seems to build on the echelon principle, which fits poorly with the lack of operational success. Adding to this is successful Ukrainian tactics of targeting Russian logistics resources which significantly reduces the Russian fighting power. This assessment is based on openly accessible information about the Russian campaign. Reporting from an ongoing war poses challenges of verifying data. Both warring parties and other stakeholders pursue their own interest through strategic communication. Yet, by combining different sources we believe that our findings are quite robust. For future research, archival studies both in Ukraine and Russia, combined with interviews with logistics personnel at both sides would add new dimensions to the research. We realise though that such data sources will not be accessible for quite some time.

Keywords
Logistics, culmination, defence logistics, supply lines, echelon, Ukraine, Russia
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11251 (URN)10.31374/sjms.158 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-01-04 Created: 2023-01-04 Last updated: 2023-01-05Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T., Hilletofth, P. & Skoglund, P. (2021). Towards a purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Delphi study of Swedish defence authorities. International Journal of Production Economics, 233, Article ID 107996.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Delphi study of Swedish defence authorities
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 233, article id 107996Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explains the constructs of a purchasing portfolio model (PPM) that defence authorities can use in practice in defence procurement and designs a segmentation model. We identify open PPM design and application questions in the literature and conduct a Delphi study with twenty experts from Swedish defence authorities to design a segmentation model that is fit-for-purpose. The paper addresses the open design and application questions discussed in the literature and satisfies the operational requirements of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF). The proposed segmentation model builds on three dimensions: the operational requirements of the SwAF, the market's ability to deliver supplies on time, and limitations in the SwAF operational capability if the market does not deliver supplies on time. To reduce complexity, we propose a two-stage model in which we use one dimension as a precursor to a two-dimensional model. In the latter, we merge sixteen elements into one square along with three other segments which users should treat differently. The paper contributes to extant academic knowledge on PPMs by eliciting practitioners' views on open design and application questions. We develop the proposed segmentation model in cooperation with practitioners and believe that it will be of value in defence procurement practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Purchasing portfolio model; Segmentation model; Military logistics; Defence procurement; Defence supply chain design; Delphi study
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Business Administration
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9592 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107996 (DOI)000620463900006 ()2-s2.0-85096877797 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Armed Forces
Note

Published in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2020-11-16 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2022-02-01Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T., Hilletofth, P. & Skoglund, P. (2020). Differentiation strategies for defence supply chain design. Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, 4(2), 183-202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differentiation strategies for defence supply chain design
2020 (English)In: Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, ISSN 2399-6439, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 183-202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – Defence supply chains (SCs) aim at operational outcomes, and armed forces depend on them to provide availability and preparedness in peace and sustainability in war. Previous research has focussed on strategies for SCs aiming at financial outcomes. This raises the question of how suitable commercial supply chain strategies (SCSs) are for supply chain design (SCD) in defence. The purpose of this paper is to explain the constructs of SCSs that satisfy military operational requirements and to propose SCSs that are appropriate in defence. 

Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on a Delphi study with 20 experts from Swedish defence authorities. Through three Delphi rounds, two workshops and a validation round, these experts contributed to the reported findings. 

Findings – The findings demonstrate that commercial SC constructs are acceptable and applicable in defence but not sufficient. An additional strategy is required to satisfy requirements on availability, preparedness and sustainability. The paper shows that different requirements in peace and war make it challenging to design suitable defence SCs and proposes eight SCSs that satisfy these requirements. 

Research limitations/implications – The results emanate from the Swedish defence context and further research is required for generalisation.

Originality/value – This paper extends theory by investigating SCs aiming at operational outcomes. For managers in companies and defence authorities, it explicates how the unique issues in defence must influence SCD to satisfy operational requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
Delphi study, supply chain strategies, defence supply chain design, military logistics
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9590 (URN)10.1108/JDAL-06-2020-0011 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-10-15 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2022-02-14Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T., Hilletoft, P. & Skoglund, P. (2020). Guidance for the application of a dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Swedish perspective. Necesse, 5(3), 136-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidance for the application of a dynamic purchasing portfolio model for defence procurement: A Swedish perspective
2020 (English)In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 136-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop guidance, including tactical levers, for the application of a dynamic purchasing portfolio model (PPM) for defence procurement.

Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a workshop and a literature review to identify suitable tactical levers for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement. Based on application rules proposed in previous research (Ekström et al., 2021), the study then formulates guidance for application and validates the methodology in two desktop exercises.

Findings: The study identifies tactical levers and proposes guidance for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement.

Research limitations/implications: The proposed guidance includes tactical levers, which will enable defence authorities to dynamically reposition in the segmentation model proposed by Ekström et al. (2021) and find an enhanced position to optimise. The presented results build on a study in the Swedish defence context. To determine generalisability, additional studies are required.

Originality/value: The paper develops guidance, including tactical levers, for the application of a dynamic PPM for defence procurement, which is original in several aspects. The guidance addresses public procurement, which is a novelty. In contrast to most extant PPMs, the model is dynamic, which enables practitioners to reposition in the model. 

Keywords
purchasing portfolio model, tactical levers, guidance for application, defence procurement, military logistics
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9595 (URN)
Available from: 2020-12-21 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Listou, T., Ekström, T., Skoglund, P., Håbjørg, G. E. & Sørgaard, P. E. (2020). Performance Based Logistics: A Norwegian-Swedish Perspective. Necesse, 5(3), 118-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Based Logistics: A Norwegian-Swedish Perspective
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2020 (English)In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 118-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Performance Based Logistics (PBL) as a support strategy for defence systems has been coined as a paradigmatic change within defence acquisition and maintenance. Originating from the defence industry, the concept has been adopted in many defence organisations. Although studies of its applicability has identified both enablers and barriers for implementation, these studies predominantly are performed in a few large nations. How the concept corresponds with a small state perspective needs to be addressed. Further on, perceived outputs of PBL practices would differ between the acquisition organisation, the supplier of PBL services, and the users of the services. Understanding these differences in perceptions would give valuable knowledge about how to design PBL contracts. Thirdly; assuming that PBL contracts indeed result in improved effectiveness, adapting the involved organisations to a new way of managing logistics should be accompanied by related organisational change processes. The purpose with this study is to contextualise the concept and define barriers and enablers for PBL in a small state perspective (represented by Norway and Sweden), identify different stakeholders’ expectations for output, and explore whether implementing such a concept is perceived as a significantly new way of organising defence supply chains with an accompanying organisational change strategy. 

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9594 (URN)
Available from: 2020-12-21 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2021-11-09Bibliographically approved
Ekström, T. (2020). The Delphi Technique – Limitations and Possibilities. In: The 32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, 17 – 18 September on Internet: Book of abstracts. Paper presented at 32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference 17-18 September, 2020 (online).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Delphi Technique – Limitations and Possibilities
2020 (English)In: The 32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, 17 – 18 September on Internet: Book of abstracts, 2020Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The dual purpose of this paper is to analyse the implications on research rigour of using two panels in a Delphi study, and to take a first step towards investigating how researchers in logistics and SCM establish rigour in Delphi studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review on research rigour in Delphi studies, this paper analyses how a modified design, with two panels, effected research rigour in a Delphi study that produced unexpected results. The paper also conducts a pilot literature review on Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research, and investigates how these authors establish research rigour.

Findings

This paper finds that with two panels, researchers may enhance rigour in a Delphi study, but also that such a design may lead to results that would be less likely with a conventional design, especially if combined with concluding workshops. The pilot literature review indicates that Delphi-studies in logistics and SCM research establish rigour through the provision of an audit trail, rather than by explicitly discussing the quality criteria of correspondence and/or trustworthiness.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

The research indicates limitations with a conventional Delphi design, with one expert panel, and opportunities with a modified design, with two panels. Further research is required to explore these indicative findings.

Original/value

The paper demonstrates how a modified design of the Delphi technique, in combination with concluding workshops, can produce results and insights that would be more difficult to achieve with only one expert panel.

Keywords
Delphi technique, rigour, modified design
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Business Administration
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9589 (URN)
Conference
32nd Annual NOFOMA Conference 17-18 September, 2020 (online)
Available from: 2020-11-16 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2020-12-21Bibliographically approved
Listou, T., Skoglund, P. & Ekström, T. (2019). Performance Based Logistics: Lessons from the Nordic countries. In: The 31st Annual NOFOMA Conference: Supply Chain Designs and Sustainable Development of Societies - Extended abstracts. Paper presented at NOFOMA 2019 - The 31st Annual NOFOMA Conference, 12-14 June 2019, Olso, Norway (pp. 32). Oslo: BI Norwegian Business School; Norwegian Defence University College
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Based Logistics: Lessons from the Nordic countries
2019 (English)In: The 31st Annual NOFOMA Conference: Supply Chain Designs and Sustainable Development of Societies - Extended abstracts, Oslo: BI Norwegian Business School; Norwegian Defence University College , 2019, p. 32-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose

PBL is thought of as a novel way of designing defence supply chains, advocating long-term relations in which a 1st tier supplier assumes responsibility for the upstream supply chain, and is awarded or punished based on pre-set performance standards. Activities and resources could be lifted out of the defence hierarchy. PBL should lead to adjusted inter-organisational relations and intra-organisational activity structures. The purpose of this research is to explore a) what barriers and enablers to PBL are perceived as the most important in a Nordic perspective, b) how relations between the Defence and PBL suppliers are handled, and c) whether PBL leads to organisational change within the defence.

Design/methodology/approach

Because few PBL contracts exist within the Nordic countries a qualitative approach was chosen, based on document studies and semi-structured interviews. Primary data were collected from four units of analysis, each chosen to shed light to all one or more of the research questions.

Findings

Our study supports some of, but not all barriers and enablers found in previous research. Lack of supply chain orientation is the main barrier. Relationships seem to depend on trust developed over time, also prior to the PBL contract. Although PBL alters interorganisational activity structures, this only to a minor degree results in organisational change.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative study of a few Nordic PBL contracts. Findings validated in a Nordic context, not necessarily for other small nations.

Practical implications

Our findings have implications when planning and implementing PBL contracts.

Original/value

This is the first reported study of PBL contracts in the Nordic countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: BI Norwegian Business School; Norwegian Defence University College, 2019
Keywords
PBL, defence logistics, small state, Nordic, relations, organisational change
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9063 (URN)
Conference
NOFOMA 2019 - The 31st Annual NOFOMA Conference, 12-14 June 2019, Olso, Norway
Funder
Swedish Armed Forces
Available from: 2020-02-18 Created: 2020-02-18 Last updated: 2021-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7838-7044

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