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Lundmark, Martin
Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
Axelson, M., Lundmark, M., Olsson, P. & Öhrn-Lundin, J. (2018). Förutsättningar för undervattensförmåga - dagens resurser och morgondagens effekter. Stockholm: FOI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förutsättningar för undervattensförmåga - dagens resurser och morgondagens effekter
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: FOI, 2018. p. 29
Series
FOI Memo ; 6314
Keywords
Undervattensförmåga, vidmakthållande, resurser, Sverige
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7250 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Belin, J., Hartley, K., Lefeez, S., Linnenkamp, H., Lundmark, M., Masson, H., . . . Ungaro, A. (2017). Defence industrial links between EU and US. Paris: ARES, Iris
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defence industrial links between EU and US
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

3

Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

-That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

-That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

-Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

-Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

4

 

-Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

-The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: ARES, Iris, 2017. p. 51
Series
ARES ; 20
Keywords
defence industry, transatlantic, EU, security policy
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7019 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2017-09-13Bibliographically approved
Axelson, M., Lundmark, M. & Schröder, K. (2017). Snabb anpassning av materielsystem - effektivt samarbete med leverantörer. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Snabb anpassning av materielsystem - effektivt samarbete med leverantörer
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2017. p. 85
Series
FOI-R ; 4408
Keywords
Snabb anpassning, materielsystem, försvarssystem, försvarsindustri, samarbete, brådska
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7020 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2017-09-13Bibliographically approved
Silfverskiöld, S., Liwång, H., Hult, G., Sivertun, Å., Bull, P., Sigholm, J., . . . Sturesson, P. (2017). Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division. Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

- Nanocarbons for photonic applications

The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

- Internet of things (IoT)

- Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

- Post-quantum cryptography

- New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2017. p. 27
Keywords
Nanocarbons, Photonic Applications, Post Quantum Cryptography, Internet of things, Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents, Hyperspektral bildanalys
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7034 (URN)
Projects
Teknisk prognos
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, M. (2017). The need for rapid adaptation - organizational solutions. Paris: FRS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The need for rapid adaptation - organizational solutions
2017 (English)Other, Policy document (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, pages
Paris: FRS, 2017. p. 2
Series
Défense et industries ; 9
Keywords
rapid adaptation, defence materiel, cooperation, collaboration, state, industry
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7038 (URN)
Note

Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-10-09Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, M. (2016). Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defense technology Acquisition and the Asia-Pacific. In: Richard A. Bitzinger (Ed.), Emerging Critical Technologies and Security in the Asia-Pacific: (pp. 37-52). New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defense technology Acquisition and the Asia-Pacific
2016 (English)In: Emerging Critical Technologies and Security in the Asia-Pacific / [ed] Richard A. Bitzinger, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
Keywords
absorptive capacity, defence export, collaboration, security policy, defence innovation, emerging technologies, technology policy, globalization
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7023 (URN)9781137461285 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2017-09-15Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, M. (2016). CMTC Policy Renewal: A study of Civil-Military Technology Cooperation (CMTC) policies, and planning and management, in Korea, Sweden, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, and the European Defence Agency. Stockholm: FOI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CMTC Policy Renewal: A study of Civil-Military Technology Cooperation (CMTC) policies, and planning and management, in Korea, Sweden, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, and the European Defence Agency
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Executive Summary

This report compares the policies for civil-military technology cooperation (CMTC) of six nations (France, Germany, Russia, South Korea, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and the European Defence Agency (EDA). ADD, Korea, commissioned FOI, Sweden, to perform the study.

The concept of ‘dual-use’ is treated quite differently in different nations. In this report, we see dual-use as three different flows of technology:

-

spin-on denotes that technology developed in the non-military sector can be utilized in military applications;

-

spin-off denotes that technology developed in the defence sector can be utilized in the non-military sector;

-

spin-up denotes that there is a shared commitment and interest among actors from both sides to develop a certain technology. Actors from each side will contribute with their knowledge and technology – both sides will learn from the other and also strive to mutually create some novel technology combination.

The standpoint in this report is thereby that dual-use concerns the unidirectional flows between civil and military technology, whereas CMTC also comprises the spin-up phenomenon.

The study shows that France and Korea have clear national policies and invest heavily in CMTC-related activities with a yearly budget of about USD 90 million. Korea is however expansive, whereas France’s efforts in CMTC have been shrinking in recent years. Sweden has had, for more than two decades, a strong commitment towards CMTC in aerospace technology, but has no explicit dual-use policy in general. The UK has a clear policy of only searching for non-military technologies that can be used in defence. The UK does not invest in spin-off or spin-up at all; the MoD is only allowed to fund very specific defence technology. The UK puts resources into identifying technologies for spin-on. Germany has non-transparent, decentralized CMTC activity, performed by institutes and industry. Defence R&D is a sensitive issue in Germany; there is CMTC-relevant innovation, but there is no explicit policy to support it. Russia has strong rhetoric about strengthening its defence-industrial base and its defence-relevant innovation. Russia invests in broad development in bio- and nano-technologies, which are intended to produce civil as well as military technologies in the long run. Russia, however, has fundamental difficulties in maintaining its innovation infrastructure, and its visions for CMTC have limited credibility.

The CMTC policies of these nations and EDA have been compared, based on eleven competitive factors: CMTC policy consistent with defence policy, triple helix infrastructure, defence-related clusters of companies, access to CMTC funding, internationalization of CMTC investments, internationalization of

FOI-R--4263--SE

8

defence industry, SME growth initiatives, human capital (CMTC relevant), dual-use demonstrators, CMTC match-making and processes for CMTC procurement.

Based on these comparisons, we recommend that the CMTC institute at ADD:

- increases the participation of academia in their CMTC activities;

- strives to increase the degree of internationalization of its CMTC activities, with Germany, France and Sweden (in that order) as the best targets;

- strives to increase the domestic support from other ministries by more clearly showing the benefits for both civil as well as military innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: FOI, 2016. p. 145
Series
FOI-R, ISSN 1650-1942 ; 4263
Keywords
dual-use, dual use, military inovation, civil-military innovation, national policy, synergies, spin-up, technology readiness level, TRL
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7026 (URN)
Note

Uppdrag åt Agency for Defense Development, Sydkorea

Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2017-09-15Bibliographically approved
Schröder, K., Lundmark, M. & Lusua, J. (2016). Försörjningstrygghet för mängdmateriel: En studie av förutsättningar vid fredstida grundberedskap och höjd beredskap. Stockholm: FOI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Försörjningstrygghet för mängdmateriel: En studie av förutsättningar vid fredstida grundberedskap och höjd beredskap
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det poängteras i inriktningsbeslutet att enskilt viktigast under försvarsinriktningsperioden 2016 t.o.m. 2020 är att öka den operativa förmågan i krigsförbanden och att säkerställa den samlade förmågan i totalförsvaret.”1 Erfarenhetsmässigt vet vi att logistiken inte sällan har en gränssättande inverkan på operativ förmåga2 och med den nya styrningen ställs krav på försörjningstrygghet i såväl fredstida grundberedskap som vid höjd beredskap. Behovet av försörjningstrygghet för mängdmateriel och hur denna ska skapas är i dagsläget inte tydligt i fred och framförallt inte vid höjd beredskap vilket kan få konsekvenser för krigsförbandens operativa förmåga nu och framöver. I denna rapport beskrivs och analyseras en försörjningskedja för mängdmateriel översiktligt och de huvudsakliga utmaningar som försvarsmyndigheterna möter i arbetet med att uppnå en tillräcklig försörjningstrygghet i grundberedskap och vid höjd beredskap diskuteras.

De huvudsakliga utmaningar som behöver adresseras för uppfyllande av målbilden handlar dels om det strategiska planeringsarbetet i omvandlingen av försörjningskedjan och dels om upphandling, ledtider och lagernivåer på mängdmateriel. Intervjuer, dokumentstudier samt studiebesök pekar på en hög grad av kompetens på området försörjningstrygghet i myndigheterna. Styrningen behöver dock stödja pågående arbete mot en fortsatt god utveckling för att uppnå en tillräcklig försörjningstrygghet. Förslag lämnas på riktade åtgärder och rekommendationer för att uppnå kostnadseffektiv försörjningstrygghet via exempelvis riskhantering och kategoristyrning för mängdmateriel.

1 Försvarsdepartementet, Regeringsbeslut 7, Inriktning för Försvarsmaktens verksamhet för åren 2016 till och med 2020, Fö2015/00953/MFI, 2015-06-25

2 Försvarsmakten t.ex. Grundsyn logistik, 09 833:67228, 2007-04-24 och Handbok Logistik vid insats 2016, FM2015-689:8, 2016-07-01

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: FOI, 2016. p. 46
Series
FOI-R, ISSN 1650-1942 ; 4366
Keywords
försörjningstrygghet, försvarslogistik, försörjningskedja, materielförsörjning, förnödenhetsförsörjning, mängdmateriel
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7029 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, M. & Oxenstierna, S. (2016). Koordinering och prioritering av internationella samarbeten inom materiel- och logistikområdet. Stockholm: FOI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Koordinering och prioritering av internationella samarbeten inom materiel- och logistikområdet
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: FOI, 2016. p. 48
Series
FOI-R, ISSN 1650-1942 ; 4388
Keywords
internationellt samarbete, bilateralt, multilateralt, exportstöd, koordinering, prioritering
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7028 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2017-09-15Bibliographically approved
Masson, H. & Lundmark, M. (2015). Base industrielle et technologique de défense suédoise: défis et priorités d’action du gouvernement Löfven. Paris: Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Base industrielle et technologique de défense suédoise: défis et priorités d’action du gouvernement Löfven
2015 (French)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, 2015. p. 77
Series
Recherches & documents, ISSN 1966-5156 ; No 05/2015
Keywords
Suède, Löfven, défi, politique du défense, base industrielle et technologique
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Militärteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7066 (URN)9782911101861 (ISBN)
Note

Nedladdningsbar på www.frstrategique.org

Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
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