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Westberg, Jacob
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2023). Comparative Strategy – A New Framework for Analysis. Comparative Strategy, 42(1), 80-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Strategy – A New Framework for Analysis
2023 (English)In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 80-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scholars of Strategic Studies have seldom problematized the concept of military strategy beyond identifying the three elements constituting the phenomenon, that is ends, means and ways. Moreover, we see a need for contextualizing the presumably universal conceptualization of military strategy. This article contributes to previous research by operationalize each of the three elements one-step further, thereby introducing an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of states’ different priorities regarding military strategy. Additionally, in order to explain these different priorities, the proposed analytical framework introduces tools related to both relative power and position in the international system, and to regional systems and unit-level characteristics. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated by a summary of some of our findings from a research project on comparative strategy including more than 30 states.

National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science; War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11359 (URN)10.1080/01495933.2022.2130676 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-01-20 Created: 2023-01-20 Last updated: 2023-06-14Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2023). Enighetens gränser: Konsensus eller konfrontation vid utformningen av den svenska försvarspolitiken?. Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, 125(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enighetens gränser: Konsensus eller konfrontation vid utformningen av den svenska försvarspolitiken?
2023 (Swedish)In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The limits of unity: Consensus or confrontation in shaping Swedish defence policy

How encompassing is the consensus among the political parties represented in the Swedish parliament when it comes to the military threat from Russia, the relations with NATO and the design of the Swedish Armed Forces? This article aims at answering this question by exploring the Swedish defence policy from the Russian war against Georgia in 2008 to the ongoing war in Ukraine. Our results indicate that the consensus among the parties increases with the escalation of the tensions in the international relations. Hence, we disagree with some results of previous research on Swedish security politics. We conclude that the tipping point regarding the Swedish application for NATO-membership was the existential dimension of the current Russian aggression. When the internal efforts to defend Sweden against a potential Russian attack was perceived not being enough, applying for membership was considered a necessity, not an option, among a majority of the parties.

National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Political Science; War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11717 (URN)
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2023). READY OR NOT? Explaining military strategic diversity among NATOs new European allies. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 36(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>READY OR NOT? Explaining military strategic diversity among NATOs new European allies
2023 (English)In: The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, Vol. 36, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the defense transformation processes during the two initial decades of the twenty-first century among the 11 former communist states that currently are members of both the European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The article introduces an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of states’ priorities regarding military strategy. Moreover, the article evaluates the influence of two intervening variables: (i) differences in relative power between middle powers and small states and (ii) differences in geographical exposure. Our findings suggest that differences related to these intervening variables correlate with differences in prioritized strategic ends, means, and ways.

Keywords
Defence transformation, Central and Eastern Europe, Military strategy, New EU/NATO members, Realism, Strategic studies
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Political Science; War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11926 (URN)10.1080/13518046.2023.2283967 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2024-01-01Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2023). Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Från neutralitetspolitik till ansökan om Natomedlemskap (tredjeed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Från neutralitetspolitik till ansökan om Natomedlemskap
2023 (Swedish)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023. p. 306 Edition: tredje
Keywords
Svensk säkerhetspolitik, strategi
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11477 (URN)9789144161907 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-08 Created: 2023-03-08 Last updated: 2023-08-11Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2022). How small states manage to stay out of wars: Explaining Sweden’s 200 Years of Peace. In: Nevra Biltekin, Leos Müller, Magnus Petersson (Ed.), 200 years of peace: New perspectives on modern Swedish foreign policy. New York: Berghahn Books
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How small states manage to stay out of wars: Explaining Sweden’s 200 Years of Peace
2022 (English)In: 200 years of peace: New perspectives on modern Swedish foreign policy / [ed] Nevra Biltekin, Leos Müller, Magnus Petersson, New York: Berghahn Books, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Berghahn Books, 2022
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11238 (URN)9781800735897 (ISBN)9781800735903 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2022). Military Strategies of the New European Allies: A Comparative Study. Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Strategies of the New European Allies: A Comparative Study
2022 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book analyses how and to what extent ex-communist states have adjusted their defence strategies since joining the EU and NATO, and how differences and similarities between their strategies can be explained.

Between 1999 and 2013, four phases of enlargement took place when the European Union (EU) and NATO allowed 11 new former communist states to enter both organisations. These states share some common attributes and experiences related to strategic culture and common experiences during the Cold War era that can potentially explain similarities in behaviour and preferences among them. However, the strategic adjustments among these states are far from uniform. In an effort to explain these differences, the book introduces three intervening variables: (1) differences in relative power and position in the international system, (2) national geographical characteristics; and (3) historical experiences related to formative periods of state-building processes as well as wars and armed conflicts. Empirically, the book strives to present and analyse the defence strategies of each of the new allies by conducting a structured focused comparison of official strategic documents from the twenty-first century for each of the 11 cases. Theoretically and methodologically, it introduces an analytical framework enabling us to explain both similarities and differences in the formulation of the strategies of the 11 states, and to shed light on their external and internal efforts to promote their strategic interest by operationalising the dependent variable - defence strategy. The analytical framework combines elements of structural realism with classical realism, and constructivist research on unit-level characteristics related to relative power and perceptions of strategic exposure.

This book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, European Union policy, NATO and International Relations in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2022. p. 240
Series
Cass Military Studies, ISSN 2154-3089
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science; War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11196 (URN)9781032286938 (ISBN)9781003298052 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-10 Created: 2022-12-10 Last updated: 2022-12-14Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2022). Military Strategy of Great Powers: Managing Power Asymmetry and Structural Change in the 21st Century. Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Strategy of Great Powers: Managing Power Asymmetry and Structural Change in the 21st Century
2022 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book explores the military strategies of the five system-determining great powers during the twenty-first century.

The book’s point of departure is that analyses of countries’ defence strategies should acknowledge that states come in various shapes and sizes and that their strategic choices are affected by their perceptions of their position in the international system and by power asymmetries between more and less resourceful states. This creates diversity in strategies that is often overlooked in theoretically oriented analyses. The book examines how five major powers – the United States, China, the United Kingdom, France and Russia – have adjusted their strategies to improve or maintain their relative position and to manage power asymmetries during the twenty-first century. It also develops and applies an analytical framework for exploring and categorising the strategies pursued by the five major powers which combine elements of structural realism with research on power transition theory and status competition. The concluding chapter addresses questions related to stability and change in the present international system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2022. p. 263
Series
Cass Military Studies
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik; Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10324 (URN)10.4324/9781003157113 (DOI)9780367743192 (ISBN)9781003157113 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-09-18 Created: 2021-09-18 Last updated: 2021-09-28Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2022). The alignment strategies of great powers: Managing power asymmetries and structural changes in the international system. Comparative Strategy, 41(1), 97-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The alignment strategies of great powers: Managing power asymmetries and structural changes in the international system
2022 (English)In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AbstractThe article aims to contribute to previous research in two main ways. First, we intervene in the debate on the stability of the present unipolar system by offering an analytical framework and an empirical approach for exploring and categorizing the actual strategies pursued by the major powers in the contemporary international system. In doing so, we present an analysis of how the strategies of the five system-determining states interact and affect the stability of the system. Second, in order to be able to explain why states pursue different strategies, we complement the analytical framework of structural realism with insights from research on Power Transition Theory (PTT). Hereby, we offer a new comprehensive theoretical approach for analyzing how asymmetric power relations affect strategic choices of major powers.

National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
War Studies; Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10723 (URN)10.1080/01495933.2021.2017750 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-02-10 Created: 2022-02-10 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2021). Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Teori och praktik (Andra upplaganed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Teori och praktik
2021 (Swedish)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska intressen. I boken presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhets­strategier som Sverige tillämpat efter förlusten av Finland 1809. Bland dessa strategier återfinns olika former av neutralitetspolitik, allianser med andra småstater och stormakter samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av ett analysramverk som förenar forskning om strategi och internationell politik med ett särskilt fokus på småstaters speciella utmaningar. Boken avslutas med en analys av 2000-talets försvarssamarbeten och säkerhetspolitiska vägval. Denna kompletterade upplaga innehåller en vidareutveckling av bokens teoretiska ramverk och en nyskriven jämförelse mellan svensk försvars- och säkerhetspolitik under 2000-talets första och andra decennium. Övriga delar av boken har uppdaterats med hänsyn till det utvecklade analysramverket och händelser efter första upplagans utgivning. Boken vänder sig främst till universitetsstuderande, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021. p. 286 Edition: Andra upplagan
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9919 (URN)9789144140162 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-05-12 Created: 2021-05-12 Last updated: 2021-05-18Bibliographically approved
Edström, H. & Westberg, J. (2020). Between the eagle and the bear: Explaining the alignment strategies of the Nordic countries in the 21st century. Comparative Strategy, 39(2), 191-208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between the eagle and the bear: Explaining the alignment strategies of the Nordic countries in the 21st century
2020 (English)In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article shows that all four Nordic countries, i.e., Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have adjusted their alignment strategies when responding to the changes in their external environment during the twenty-first century. Furthermore, our findings indicate a great diversity among the four states in their responses. All too often, security policy analyses cluster small states into allies and non-allies, respectively. However, this article suggests that alliance affiliation in isolation is not sufficient for explaining small states’ behavior and adjustments of their strategies. Occasionally, previous experiences of armed conflicts as well as perceptions of strategic exposure provide stronger explanatory power.

National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik; Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9112 (URN)10.1080/01495933.2020.1718994 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-04-13 Created: 2020-04-13 Last updated: 2021-03-12Bibliographically approved
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