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Österberg, Johan
Publications (10 of 57) Show all publications
Österberg, J. & Nilsson, J. (2019). A Diary-Based Case Study in the Development of Unit Cohesion during Basic Training in the Swedish Air Force. Res Militaris, 9(2), Article ID 1029926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Diary-Based Case Study in the Development of Unit Cohesion during Basic Training in the Swedish Air Force
2019 (English)In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 1029926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Military training is regarded as a life-changing experience and military service provides a vigorous set of norms and behaviour models. Esprit de corps, morale and cohesion are concepts that are strongly connected with the military context. The aim of this case study was to get a clearer insight into the social life and unit cohesion of Swedish Air Force recruits. Based on a digital diary approach, an exploratory design was used to collect data during military basic training. Four voluntary participants wrote a weekly diary throughout their nine-month basic training. Results indicate that the development of unit cohesion among recruits was a prominent feature during military basic training. They further show that an understanding of the development of unit cohesion could be based on the following four themes : positive adaptation to a new environment, constructive group development, qualitative leadership and challenge. These findings underline the importance of good leadership and positive group dynamics in fostering unit cohesion. Further studies should address the dark side of cohesion, where the military can develop norms and behaviours that are too strong and could be negative, leading to a conflict with the goals of the Armed Forces.

Abstract [en]

La formation militaire, de par le vigoureux ensemble de normes et de modèles de comportement que mettent en œuvre les armées, est une expérience de nature à changer le cours d'une vie. Esprit de corps, moral, et cohésion sont des concepts fortement associés aux contextes militaires. L'objet de la présente étude de cas était de fournir une vue plus claire de la vie collective et de la cohésion d'une unité de nouvelles recrues de l'armées de l'Air suédoise. Fondé sur une approche à base de journal numérique individuel, un protocole exploratoire a été utilisé à cette fin pour recueillir des données au cours de leur formation militaire élémentaire. Au cours des neuf mois de leur formation, quatre participants volontaires ont rédigé chacun un journal hebdomadaire. Les résultats indiquent que la création d'une cohésion au sein de l'unité est une donnée centrale de la formation élémentaire pour des recrues. Ils montrent encore qu'on peut saisir les ressorts de cette cohésion au moyen de quatre facteurs : adaptation à un nouvel environnement, dynamique de groupe positive, qualité de l'encadrement et défis à relever. Ces données soulignent en particulier l'importance du rôle des cadres de contact et de la dynamique de groupe dans l'émergence de la cohésion recherchée. Les recherches ultérieures devront se pencher sur la face sombre de cette cohésion, là où les armées engendrent des normes et des modèles de comportement trop puissants, potentiellement négatifs, car propres à entrer en conflit avec les buts de l'institution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Res Militaris, 2019
Keywords
Air Force, unit cohesion, basic military training, case study, digital diary, Armée de l'Air suédoise, cohésion d'une petite unité, formation militaire élémentaire, étude de cas, journal numérique.
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8916 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
Malmio, I., Björklund, S., Österberg, J. & Svensén, S. (2019). A Qualitative Study of Female Cadets’ Experiences. Res Militaris, 9(1), Article ID 1029345.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Qualitative Study of Female Cadets’ Experiences
2019 (English)In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1029345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One important objective of the Swedish Armed Forces, as expressed in the plan for implementing gender mainstreaming from 2015 onwards, is to increase the number of women in the organization, especially in the higher ranks. Recruiting more women to the Officers' Programme, while at the same time ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in the military, are therefore of utter importance. This article is based on a qualitative study where six recent and present female cadets were interviewed focusing on their experiences of their time in preparing to become officers at the Swedish Military Academy as well as how they perceive a future career with in the Swedish Armed Forces. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results from which three dimensions emerged : ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture covers traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as servicewomen's adaptation strategies. The last dimension, visibility, derives from the way females are made visible in the form of “tokens”, and is enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces where women are often singled out as the main focus. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. The study suggests that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving lower-ranking defence employees in the work related to implementing the value system, and seeing to it that its practical application is an integrated part of the education at the Officers' Programme, while also introducing a mentorship programme for female cadets.

Abstract [fr]

Un objectif majeur des armées suédoises, tel qu'énoncé à partir de 2015 dans le Plan en faveur de l'égalité des sexes, est d'augmenter le nombre des femmes militaires, en particulier dans les postes de responsabilité. Le recrutement de jeunes femmes dans l'instance de formation des officiers, tout comme la fidélisation de celles déjà en service à ce niveau, sont donc de la plus haute importance. Cet article se fonde sur une étude qualitative à base d'entretiens avec six élèves-officières présentes ou récentes à l'Académie de la Défense suédoise, dans le but d'appréhender leur expérience vécue lors de leur formation et la façon dont elles envisagent leur carrière future dans les armées. L'analyse thématique des données recueillies fait émerger trois dimensions principales : leurs ambitions de carrière, la culture dominante au sein de l'institution, et la visibilité qui est la leur. Au titre des ambitions figurent en bonne place leurs attentes préalables et ultérieures à l'égard de la formation, leur détermination à réussir, leurs perceptions des attentes qui pèsent sur elles, et leurs projets familiaux. La dimension ‘culture' englobe les traditions propres à l'Académie, le traitement réservé aux femmes, le langage militaire, l'idéalisation de la masculinité, et les stratégies d'adaptation qu'elles déploient. La dernière dimension concerne la visibilité symbolique que leur confère leur statut de minorité, et qu'accentue la publicité particulière qui leur est faite dans les campagnes de publicité au recrutement, où leur image sert de point d'accroche. Les femmes militaires sont ainsi mises au premier plan à raison de leur sexe, non pour leurs accomplissements. Les recommandations tirées de cette étude en vue d'améliorer leur situation sont d'une part que les armées reconsidèrent leur focalisation sur les femmes dans leur communication interne et externe ; d'autre part, qu'elles prennent soin d'impliquer des militaires du bas de la hiérarchie dans la mise en œuvre du système de valeurs affirmé, de s'assurer que son enseignement pratique figure en bonne place dans la formation des officiers, enfin de proposer aux jeunes élèves-officières des modèles de rôle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Res Militaris, 2019
Keywords
Swedish Armed Forces, gender mainstreaming, recruitment of under-represented groups, military leadership, motivation, Armées suédoises, élimination des causes structurelles de discriminations à l'encontre des femmes, recrutement de groupes sous-représentés, exercice de l'autorité dans les armées, motivation
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8917 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Fors Brandebo, M., Österberg, J. & Berglund, A. K. (2019). The impact of constructive and destructive leadership on soldier's job satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 122(3), 1068-1086
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of constructive and destructive leadership on soldier's job satisfaction
2019 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 1068-1086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate whether constructive or destructive leadership behaviors are the best predictors of soldiers’ experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. Data were collected among 300 employed soldiers using a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about the immediate leader’s constructive and destructive leadership, meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. The results show that the constructive leadership factor inspiration and motivation was the best predictor of both experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction. None of the destructive leadership factors gave a significant contribution to the models although both the passive and active forms of destructive leadership showed a weak to moderate significant, negative correlation with experienced meaningfulness of work and general job satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
destructive leadership, constructive leadership, job satisfaction, meaningfulness, military
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8327 (URN)10.1177/0033294118771542 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Armed Forces
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, E. & Österberg, J. (2018). Försvarsmaktens attraktivitet bland unga i Sverige: Ett samarbetsprojekt inom European Defence Agency. Karlstad: Försvarshögskolan (FHS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Försvarsmaktens attraktivitet bland unga i Sverige: Ett samarbetsprojekt inom European Defence Agency
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2018. p. 31
Series
Ledarskapscentrum Serie I.: Informations- och utbildningsmaterial ; 110
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7345 (URN)978-91-86137-71-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Österberg, J. & Rydstedt, L. (2018). Job satisfaction among Swedish soldiers: Applying the Job Characteristics Model to newly recruited military personnel. Military Psychology, 30(4), 302-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job satisfaction among Swedish soldiers: Applying the Job Characteristics Model to newly recruited military personnel
2018 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A professional military organization was introduced in Sweden in 2010. This means that the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) need to attract and employ soldiers, and to retain them within the organization. This scenario creates new types of challenges in manning the organization. The transition to an all-volunteer force puts job satisfaction in focus in order to retain personnel. This cross-sectional study of the relations between working conditions and job involvement among 300 recently employed soldiers showed that the dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model related significantly to job satisfaction and work motivation and (negatively) to turnover intentions from the SAF. The results further showed that all the critical psychological states contributed independently to the variance in the outcome variables.

Keywords
Recruitment, retention, job satisfaction, job characteristics model
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7356 (URN)10.1080/08995605.2018.1425585 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Österberg, J., Jonsson, E. & Berglund, A. K. (2018). Pridobivanje častnikov - izboljševanje procesa: Officer Recruitment - Improving the Process. Sodobni vojaški izziv / Contemporary Military Challenges, 20(2), 23-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pridobivanje častnikov - izboljševanje procesa: Officer Recruitment - Improving the Process
2018 (English)In: Sodobni vojaški izziv / Contemporary Military Challenges, ISSN 2232-2825, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The only way to become an officer in Sweden is to complete the three-year Officers’ Programme (OP). In the selection process for the OP, there is a large gap between the number of applicants and the number of individuals who start the programme. One consequence of this is that the OP has not been fully manned since 2008, thus leaving the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) with a shortage of officers. Manning the SAF with sufficient officers with the right qualifications is a priority, and henceforth the number of cadets must increase. Therefore, in 2014, a project was launched with the aim of examining recruitment to and selection for the OP, as well as identifying success factors and areas of improvement. An additional ambition was to introduce measures intended to increase recruiting efficiency based on the results, and the proportion of individuals who enter the OP.

The project led to the implementation of a different recruitment strategy in 2016 and 2017. Early in the selection process applicants were contacted by cadets already studying on the OP, and were invited to an information meeting at the Swedish Defence University. Those who were selected to start the OP were also contacted by their future platoon commanders, who provided useful information. The outcomes show that the numbers of cadets starting the OP increased, and the dropout rate during the selection process was lower than before.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ljubljana: Generalštab Slovenske vojske / General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces, 2018
Keywords
recruitment, officers, officer's programme, Swedish Armes Forces
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8182 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Österberg, J., Börjesson, M. & Enander, A. (2018). Profiling the Swedish Ranger: Perceptions of Motivation, Profession and Risk and Safety Issues. In: Jessica Glicken Turnley, Kobi Michael & Eyal Ben-Ari (Ed.), Special Operations Forces in the 21st Century: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Profiling the Swedish Ranger: Perceptions of Motivation, Profession and Risk and Safety Issues
2018 (English)In: Special Operations Forces in the 21st Century: Perspectives from the Social Sciences / [ed] Jessica Glicken Turnley, Kobi Michael & Eyal Ben-Ari, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Series
Cass Military Studies
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7299 (URN)9781138632622 (ISBN)9781315208114 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Manigart, P., op den Buijs, T., van Doorn, E., Jonsson, E., Lecoq, V., Moelker, R., . . . Szvircsev Tresch, T. (2018). The Impact of Demographic Change on Recruitment and Retention of Personnel in Eurpean Armed Forces: Opinions of Young Prospects and International Experts - Final report. European Defence Agency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Demographic Change on Recruitment and Retention of Personnel in Eurpean Armed Forces: Opinions of Young Prospects and International Experts - Final report
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Defence Agency, 2018
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8281 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-03 Created: 2019-01-03 Last updated: 2020-01-17
Österberg, J. (2018). We want you as our new recruit: Prerequisites for recruitment to and retention in the Swedish Armed Forces. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>We want you as our new recruit: Prerequisites for recruitment to and retention in the Swedish Armed Forces
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis was to study the prerequisites for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) in order to recruit sufficient numbers of suitable individuals to the organization, and to retain those within the organization.

The thesis comprises three studies (Study 1-3) where Study One comprises data gathered, with a longitudinal design, when Sweden relied on conscription for the manning of the Armed Forces. Results show that those wanting to do international military service assessed themselves higher for required qualities than those individuals not volunteering for international military service. Study Two shows that job satisfaction, according to Hackman and Oldham´s Job satisfaction model, is higher when job characteristics are good, and they in turn affect the Critical Psychological States, as proposed by Hackman and Oldham. Study Three indicates that there is a relation between performance orientation, job characteristics, job satisfaction and retention. In sum, this thesis suggests that there are different incentives for recruiting and retaining personnel to a conscripted force, and an all-volunteer force. Furthermore, the thesis indicates that an all-volunteer force concept is not the best way of manning the armed forces, for Sweden and countries with similar society, size and likewise a critical geopolitical position. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018. p. 71
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:8
Keywords
conscription, recruitment, all-volunteer force, retention, Swedish Armed Forces
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7357 (URN)978-91-7063-837-4 (ISBN)978-91-7063-932-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-16, Agardhsalen, Karlstad, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Brundtland Steder, F., Op den Buijs, T., Jonsson, E., Lecoq, V., Moelker, R., Otis, N., . . . Manigart, P. (2017). Breaking Away from a White Male Organization? Expert Opinions on Recruitment of Women and Ethnic Cultural Minorities. In: : . Paper presented at Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, 2017, Chicago, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Away from a White Male Organization? Expert Opinions on Recruitment of Women and Ethnic Cultural Minorities
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

European armed forces still remain predominantly white, male organizations; their societies, however, are becoming more diverse and older. How will these armed forces be able to cope with this challenge? In order to answer this question, in the first semester of 2017, a group of scholars working within the framework of the European Defense Agency conducted an online survey among international experts in human and social sciences, defense managers, policymakers, and journalists specialized in defense issues. The aim of the survey, which followed a previous survey among young people on the attractiveness of the military as a job, was to measure their opinions and ask their suggestions concerning possible ways for increasing diversity in European armed forces. This paper presents some of the results of this multinational online survey.The unique feature of the study is that it is forward-looking and international: experts from various NATO and EU countries were asked how Defense organizations could deal with future challenges of demographic characteristics. The study, therefore, adds to our understanding of possible solutions for ensuring increased diversity in armed forces.

Keywords
diversity, societal values, motivation, work satisfaction, recruitment, military culture, measures
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Ledarskap under påfrestande förhållanden
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7164 (URN)
Conference
Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, 2017, Chicago, USA.
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
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