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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Bove, V., Rivera, M. & Ruffa, C. (2019). Beyond coups: terrorism and military involvement in politics. European Journal of International Relations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond coups: terrorism and military involvement in politics
2019 (English)In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

A wealth of research in comparative politics and international relations examines how the military intervenes in politics via coups. We shift attention to broader forms of military involvement in politics beyond coups and claim that terrorist violence and the threat of terror attacks provide a window of opportunity for military intervention, without taking full control of state institutions. We highlight two mechanisms through which terrorism influences military involvement in politics: (1) government authorities demand military expertise to fight terrorism and strengthen national security and “pull” the armed forces into politics, and (2) state armed actors exploit their informational advantage over civilian authorities to “push” their way into politics and policy-making. A panel data analysis shows that domestic terror attacks and perceived threats from domestic and transnational terrorist organizations increase military involvement in politics. We illustrate the theoretical mechanisms with the cases of France (1995–1998 and 2015–2016) and Algeria (1989–1992).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
terrorism, military involvement in politics, civil-military relations, quantitative methods
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8910 (URN)10.1177/1354066119866499 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2019). Designing and Conducting the Comparative Case Study Method. Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing and Conducting the Comparative Case Study Method
2019 (English)Other (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This case is about the comparative case study method and discusses the opportunities and challenges of designing and conducting it in practice. It draws on my research about military organizations in peace operations. In my research, I argue that military organizational cultures influence the way in which soldiers behave while deployed in a peace mission and, ultimately, their ability to keep peace. I complement this argument with an explanation for why those domestic national military cultures look the way they do. To answer my questions, I combine most similar system with most different system designs and compare French and Italian units deployed in the UN mission in Lebanon and the NATO mission in Afghanistan, respectively. I collected my data combining in-depth qualitative interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, and observations between 2007 and 2014.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
military, military organization, peace, trust
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8912 (URN)10.4135/9781526490827 (DOI)9781526490827 (ISBN)
Note

SAGE Research Methods Cases in Political Science and International Relations

Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Rietjens, S. & Ruffa, C. (2019). Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework. International Peacekeeping, 26(4), 383-407
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework
2019 (English)In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 383-407Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coherence is a core objective in most multinational interventions and seems of particular relevance to UN peacekeeping missions with their increasing complexity and multidimensionality. Yet, coherence has rarely been studied empirically. We borrow the concept of ‘fit’ from organizational theory and use it to develop a conceptual framework to study coherence in peacekeeping operations. Fit is the degree of match between what is required by the mandate, on the one hand, and an institutional set-up and the implemented practices, on the other. We identify three relevant dimensions of fit to study coherence: strategic and organizational, cultural and human and operational fit. Our empirical material focuses on the UN mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and in particular on the interplay between the intelligence components and the rest of the mission. We draw upon a large empirical dataset containing over 120 semi-structured interviews, field observations and participation in pre-deployment exercises and evaluation sessions. Our empirical analysis suggests that low level of fit across several dimensions leads to inertial and widespread frictions in the practice of peacekeeping and could potentially undermine peacekeeping effectiveness. Building on existing scholarship on micro-level approaches to peacekeeping, we hope to further the debate on organizational dynamics within peace operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
coherence, UN peacekeeping, peacekeeping intelligence, MINUSMA
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8911 (URN)10.1080/13533312.2019.1596742 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. & Sundberg, R. (2018). Breaking the Frame: Frame disputes of war and peace. Acta Sociologica, 61(3), 317-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking the Frame: Frame disputes of war and peace
2018 (English)In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Frames guide the way in which organizations and individuals interpret their surrounding contexts and shape avenues for thought, action, and behavior. This paper tests the individuallevel effects of experiencing ‘frame disputes’: the state of holding individual-level frames that are at odds with dominant organizational frames. We hypothesize that on the individual level a frame dispute will be associated with negative effects on outcomes important for an organization’s functioning. The hypothesis is tested using a survey of a battalion of Italian soldiers. Our results demonstrate that, on average, soldiers who experienced frame disputes in that they perceived their mission differently from the dominant organizational frame displayed significantly lower levels of perceived cohesion, performance, and legitimacy. Frame disputes are likely to be widespread phenomena among organizations and social movements, and understanding their effects has theoretical, empirical, and policy relevance beyond the military case under study.

Keywords
Frames, military organizations, peacekeeping, Afghanistan, cohesion, sense-making, combat, Italy
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7208 (URN)10.1177/0001699317715758 (DOI)000439584900006 ()
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2018). Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations: Afghanistan and Lebanon (1ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations: Afghanistan and Lebanon
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018. p. 204 Edition: 1
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6479 (URN)9780812250183 (ISBN)9780812295047 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2017). Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations. Security Studies, 26(3), 391-422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations
2017 (English)In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 391-422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although hundreds of thousands of soldiers from different national contingents are deployed every year in multinational peace operations, no previous study has examined differences in peacekeeping practices along national lines. This paper first documents systematically differences in the way national contingents behave during peace operations in their respective area of operation. In a second step, it argues that these differences in behavior are largely consistent with the most important traits of each army's military culture. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted between 2007 and 2014 in Lebanon and Afghanistan, the paper shows how, within each mission, Italian soldiers prioritized humanitarian activities, while the French engaged in more patrolling activities, despite being both contingents deployed under similar conditions. These variations in behavior are consistent with the way French and Italian soldiers perceive the mission and context in which they deployed. And both the differences in behavior and perception are in line with the respective armies' military cultures. This paper contributes to the debate on the role of ideational factors in international politics and in particular to the ongoing discussion on strategic and military cultures.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7207 (URN)10.1080/09636412.2017.1306393 (DOI)000400966700002 ()
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2016). 'Just deploy and always call it peacekeeping!': Italian strategic culture and international military operations. In: Malena Britz (Ed.), European Participation in International Operations: the role of Strategic Culture (pp. 101-122). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Just deploy and always call it peacekeeping!': Italian strategic culture and international military operations
2016 (English)In: European Participation in International Operations: the role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 101-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
Series
New security challenges
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6478 (URN)9783319397580 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2015). Cohesion, Political Motivation and Military Performance in the Italian Alpini. In: Anthony King (Ed.), Frontline: Combat and Cohesion in Iraq and Afghanistan (pp. 250-268). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohesion, Political Motivation and Military Performance in the Italian Alpini
2015 (English)In: Frontline: Combat and Cohesion in Iraq and Afghanistan / [ed] Anthony King, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 250-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6120 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719663.003.0012 (DOI)9780198719663 (ISBN)9780191788680 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2016-05-25Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. (2015). Peacekeeping operations (3ed.). In: Domonic A. Bearfield, Melvin J. Dubnick (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy: (pp. 2362-2369). London: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peacekeeping operations
2015 (English)In: Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy / [ed] Domonic A. Bearfield, Melvin J. Dubnick, London: CRC Press, 2015, 3, p. 2362-2369Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: CRC Press, 2015 Edition: 3
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6119 (URN)9781466569096 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Ruffa, C. & Portela, C. (2015). The Politics of Coercion: Assessing the EU:s Use of Military and Economic Instruments. In: Knud Erik Jorgensen, Aasne Kalland Aarstad,Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen, Ben Tonra (Ed.), Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy: (pp. 545-558). London: Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Politics of Coercion: Assessing the EU:s Use of Military and Economic Instruments
2015 (English)In: Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy / [ed] Knud Erik Jorgensen, Aasne Kalland Aarstad,Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen, Ben Tonra, London: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 545-558Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2015
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6121 (URN)9781446276099 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3474-4281

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