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Publications (10 of 41) Show all publications
Käihkö, I. (2024). Sotilaan päiväkirja: Kuinka rauhanturvaaminen muuttui kriisinhallinnaksi. Helsinki: Gaudeamus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sotilaan päiväkirja: Kuinka rauhanturvaaminen muuttui kriisinhallinnaksi
2024 (Finnish)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024. p. 384
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12298 (URN)9789523452558 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-03-07 Created: 2024-03-07 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. & Honig, J. W. (2024). Suomen Afganistan-operaatio ja demokraattisen päätöksenteon ongelmat. In: Susanna Hast, Noora Kotilainen (Ed.), Sodan Pauloissa: Militarismi suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa (pp. 177-196). Helsinki: Gaudeamus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suomen Afganistan-operaatio ja demokraattisen päätöksenteon ongelmat
2024 (Finnish)In: Sodan Pauloissa: Militarismi suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa / [ed] Susanna Hast, Noora Kotilainen, Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12314 (URN)9789523452510 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-03-18 Created: 2024-03-18 Last updated: 2024-03-21Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2024). Veteraaniaktivismi ja veteraanikäsitykset Suomessa. In: Susanna Hast, Noora Kotilainen (Ed.), Sodan Pauloissa: Militarismi suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa (pp. 79-88). Helsinki: Gaudeamus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Veteraaniaktivismi ja veteraanikäsitykset Suomessa
2024 (Finnish)In: Sodan Pauloissa: Militarismi suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa / [ed] Susanna Hast, Noora Kotilainen, Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024, p. 79-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2024
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12315 (URN)9789523452510 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-03-18 Created: 2024-03-18 Last updated: 2024-03-21Bibliographically approved
Honig, J. W. & Käihkö, I. (2023). An Exemplary Defeat: The West in Afghanistan, 2001-2021. Armed forces and society, 49(4), 989-1000
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exemplary Defeat: The West in Afghanistan, 2001-2021
2023 (English)In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 989-1000Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Western defeat in Afghanistan was due to an inadequate process of strategic reflection informed, first, by an overestimation of the attractiveness of the Western political agenda to Afghans and, second, by overconfidence in the effectiveness of its military approach. As a corollary, popular support for the Taliban was underestimated. The insurgents possessed a degree of what we term strategic cohesion-a sociopolitical and military embeddedness within society-that produced a far stronger strategic effectiveness than we could replicate in our Afghan allies. Furthermore, a military-professional mindset underestimated the degree to which political considerations permeated the battlefield. The political effect of military actions was insufficiently integrated into strategic practice. Specifically, the linchpin officer in staff planning and field operations in Western armies struggled to act as what we term strategic colonels. In both respects, the war continues to offer important lessons for Western involvement in future conflict, including with Russia and China.

Keywords
Afghanistan, civil-military relations, strategic cohesion, strategic colonel, strategy
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11018 (URN)10.1177/0095327X221101364 (DOI)000824989500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Armed ForcesSwedish Defence University
Available from: 2022-08-02 Created: 2022-08-02 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2023). Explaining the Finnish – and Swedish – Ascent to NATO. Social Anthropology, 31(2), 134-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining the Finnish – and Swedish – Ascent to NATO
2023 (English)In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 134-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been a year since the Russian invasion of Ukraine started. It is clear that the impact of this war goes far beyond Ukraine. We already know that it will have long-lasting consequences for the regional and global economy, in particular for energy and food security. The war is reshuffling old geo-political arrangements and alliances. It is also shaping the political landscapes of European states: international relations, inflation and migration are increasingly becoming key topics in national elections.

Keywords
Defence alliance, democracy, Finland, NATO, Russia, Sweden
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11711 (URN)
Available from: 2023-07-07 Created: 2023-07-07 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. & Kankainen, V. (2023). On Wargames and War: Modeling Carl von Clausewitz's Theory of War. In: Björn Sjöblom, Jonas Linderoth, Anders Frank (Ed.), Representing Conflicts in Games: Antagonism, Rivalry, and Competition (pp. 75-96). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Wargames and War: Modeling Carl von Clausewitz's Theory of War
2023 (English)In: Representing Conflicts in Games: Antagonism, Rivalry, and Competition / [ed] Björn Sjöblom, Jonas Linderoth, Anders Frank, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The stated purpose of Carl von Clausewitz’s magnum opus On War, in which he presented the most comprehensive theory of war to date, was educational. Clausewitz saw that proper education departed from theory and concepts, which students were encouraged to reflect over and clarify. Although their common use in pedagogy, wargames often continue to struggle with incorporation of the seven factors always present at war in Clausewitz’ theory – violence, friction, chance, politics, trinity, victory and ethics. As a result, many games offer a rather conventional understanding of war that does not match reality. This chapter investigates how Clausewitz’s theory of war has been modelled in two popular ‘commercial-off-the-shelf’ tabletop wargames: Twilight Struggle and Paths of Glory. Based on an analysis of how the seven concepts of war have been modelled in these games, the chapter discusses how Clausewitz’s theory of war can be used to improve the pedagogy of war.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Clausewitz, commercial tabletop games, Paths of Glory, pedagogy, Twilight struggle, war
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11253 (URN)9781003297406 (ISBN)9781032285597 (ISBN)9781032278278 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-04 Created: 2023-01-04 Last updated: 2023-01-05Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2023). Sodan teoria ja Venäjän sota Ukrainassa 2013–2022. Finnish Review of East European Studies, 30(1), 4-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sodan teoria ja Venäjän sota Ukrainassa 2013–2022
2023 (Finnish)In: Finnish Review of East European Studies, ISSN 1237-6051, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 4-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [fi]

Miksi Venäjän helmikuussa 2022 aloittama laajamittainen hyökkäys Ukrainassa on helpompi tunnistaa sodaksi, kuin esimerkiksi vuoden 2014 keväällä alkaneet taistelut Donbasissa? Yksinkertaisin vastaus kysymykseen löytyy tavastammeymmärtää nuoremman Carl von Clausewitzin teorian mukaisesti sota valtioidenvälisenä laajamittaisena väkivaltana vihollisen riisumiseksi aseista. Ennen Venäjän helmikuista laajamittaista hyökkäystä Ukrainassa käytyä sotaapidettiin liian rajattuna, ja sen poliittisuuden tähden epämääräisenä. Tämä ilmeni konkreettisesti länsimaiden passiivisuutena. Teoreettisesti sodalle yritettiin myös keksiä etuliitteitä, jotka erottivat sen ylläkuvatusta ”perinteisestä” sodasta. Clausewitzin viimeistelemätön teoria on kuitenkin ristiriitainen: sen kautta sotaa voidaan pitää sekä väkivaltana että politiikkana. Clausewitzin myöhempi teoria mahdollistaakin sodan ymmärtämisen laajempana ja poliittisempana ilmiönä. Yhtä lailla Clausewitzilta juontuu nykyaikainen strategian käsite, joka keskittyy päämäärien, keinojen ja niiden käyttötapojen suhteeseen. Clausewitzin sotaa politiikan instrumenttina painottava ja sodan käsitteistä ja seuraussuhteistakoostuva teoria tarjoaakin analyyttisen rakennelman, jonka kautta sotia voidaan ymmärtää, ja viime kädessä menestyksekkäästi käydä. Tässä artikkelissa käytetään näitä eri käsitteitä kronologisessa Ukrainan tilanteen analyysissä, joka alkaa loppuvuodesta 2013 ja päättyy alkuvuoteen 2023.

Abstract [en]

Theory of war and Russia’s war in Ukraine 2013–2023

Why is it easier to recognise Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 as war in comparison to the fighting in Donbas that begun in the spring of 2014? The simplest answer to the question can be found in our way of understanding war as large-scale interstate violence to disarm our opponents, as envisaged in the earlier works of Carl von Clausewitz. Until 2022, the war in Ukraine was considered too limited, and because of its politics, ambi-guous. This resulted in the passivity of Western countries. Theoretically, attempts were made to add prefixes to war to distinguish it from the “traditional” war described above. However, Clausewitz’s unfinished theory is contradictory: war can be understood to constitute both violence and politics. Clausewitz’s later theory allows an understanding of war as a broader and more political phenomenon. The modern concept of strategy – which focuses on the relationship between goals, means and ways – also derives from Clausewitz. Clausewitz’s theory emphasises war as a political instrument. His theory consists of concepts that form an analytical framework which can be used to understand, and ultimately win, wars. Various concepts of war are used in a chronological analysis of the situation in Ukraine, which spans from the end of 2013 to early 2023.

Keywords
Ukraina, Venäjä, Carl von Clausewitz, sota, strategia
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11530 (URN)10.33345/idantutkimus.122978 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2022). Ambiguity and Methodological Transparency in the Study of Civil War: An Answer to Themner’s ‘Lingering Command Structures’ in Liberia. Civil Wars, 24(4), 524-534
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambiguity and Methodological Transparency in the Study of Civil War: An Answer to Themner’s ‘Lingering Command Structures’ in Liberia
2022 (English)In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Researchers who study civil wars and other armed conflicts are bound to face ambiguities. This article continues the discussion about research brokers in conflict zones that started in a 2019 special issue of Civil Wars and scrutinises the finding that Liberian wartime command structures continue to linger in informal guises long to the post-conflict. Absent transparent acknowledging of the ambiguities it glosses over, past scholarship risks a far too neat story that imbues arguments with untested assumptions. The result neither captures the complexity of contemporary realities of Liberian former combatants nor helps Liberia to move forward from its difficult past.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10857 (URN)10.1080/13698249.2022.2075248 (DOI)000807038400001 ()
Available from: 2022-08-02 Created: 2022-08-02 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2022). Culture and Ethnography in Understanding the War in Ukraine. Fieldsights
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture and Ethnography in Understanding the War in Ukraine
2022 (English)Other (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, pages
Fieldsights, 2022
Series
Hot Spots
Keywords
culture, ethnography, Russia, Ukraine, war
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11063 (URN)
Available from: 2022-09-11 Created: 2022-09-11 Last updated: 2022-09-12Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2022). ‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks. Journal of Modern African Studies, 60(1), 23-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks
2022 (English)In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Building on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article draws from military sociology to revisit past portrayals of Liberian former combatant networks and assesses four central assumptions connected to them: that formal wartime command structures continue as informal networks long after the end of the war; that former combatants are united by a wartime identity and form a community to an extent separated from the surrounding society; that wartime experiences have had a major disciplining effect on former combatants; and that former combatants are both good mobilisers and easy to mobilise in elections and armed conflict alike. Finding limited evidence close to two decades after the end of war to support these assumptions, I ultimately ask whether it would be more productive to both theory and Liberians alike to widen investigation from former combatants to structural issues that affect many more in the country.

Keywords
former combatants, Liberia, post-conflict, sociology, war studies
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
War Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10787 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X21000409 (DOI)000783853100004 ()
Available from: 2022-04-22 Created: 2022-04-22 Last updated: 2022-05-11Bibliographically approved
Projects
Conscription as Political Socialization in Divided Societies? Evidence from post-Soviet Estonia and post-independence Finland [S2-20-0011_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0462-6679

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