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Käihkö, Ilmari
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Käihkö, I. & Haldén, P. (2019). Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion. Armed forces and society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion
2019 (English)In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue dedicated to broadening the perspective on military cohesion from the narrow focus on 20th and 21st Western state militaries and the microlevel. The special issue emphasized the need for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion: In order to understand the majority of armed groups in the world, it is necessary to investigate macro- and mesolevel preconditions of microlevel cohesion. Such preconditions include the existence of states, nations, and modern military organization. These are specific to modern, Western contexts, and rarely feature in historical or non-Western cases. In many cases, investigating these preconditions requires qualitative methods. In a critical response, Siebold contested some of the arguments of the special issue, claiming that our argument was exaggerated and our methodologies inadequate. In this reply, we seek to clarify some of the issues and arguments at stake.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
cohesion, Eurocentrism, military cohesion, sociology, social science
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8793 (URN)10.1177/0095327X19841669 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2019). On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants. Civil Wars, 21(2), 179-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants
2019 (English)In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 179-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates research brokers and commodification of information.When combined with inherently asymmetric research relationships and successfulgatekeeping, brokers create demand and become indispensable.Potential negative effects of brokerage and commodification of informationare discussed through experiences studying former combatants in Liberia.There bargains with brokers who could facilitate access to this hidden populationresulted in a vicious circle as brokers confirmed what researchers wantedto hear. The attention to this issue was first brought by subsequent ethnographyand participant observation, which also offer the promise of an ethicallydefensible way of collecting information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
civil war, conflict ethnography, Liberia, methodology, research brokers, war
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8751 (URN)10.1080/13698249.2019.1602806 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2019). On Liberian secret societies and conflict resolution. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 28(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Liberian secret societies and conflict resolution
2019 (English)In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1235-4481, E-ISSN 1459-9465, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent times have witnessed a rising interest in micro-level conflict resolution mechanisms in the form of religious and traditional leaders due to their perceived legitimacy central to peace. Based on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article updates the decades old literature on Liberian secret societies to post-conflict realities, focusing especially on these leaders’ peacebuilding potential. While states remain the main instrument for upholding domestic order, the weak Liberian state continues to rely on societies for legitimacy in conflict resolution and governance alike. The article offers a contemporary look at the Liberian societies, and especially their uneasy relationship with the state: the two are so entwined that it is difficult to separate the two. Yet this also poses problems for the societies, as the proximity threatens their ultimately local legitimacy. While peacemakers and statebuilders alike are tempted to co-opt societies to gain legitimacy, the article questions whether this is always desirable or possible.

Keywords
conflict resolution, legitimacy, Liberia, secret societies, state-building
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8680 (URN)
Available from: 2019-07-20 Created: 2019-07-20 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2019). Sodasta ja Yhteiskunnasta: Review of Miguel A. Centeno & Elaino Enriquez: War & Society [Review]. Sosiologia, 56(2), 194-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sodasta ja Yhteiskunnasta: Review of Miguel A. Centeno & Elaino Enriquez: War & Society
2019 (Finnish)In: Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, E-ISSN 1904-500X, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 194-197Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turku: Westermarck Society, 2019
Keywords
culture, historical sociology, society, sociology, sociology of war, war
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8738 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2019). Strategy, State-centrism and Pessimism: the Case of Russia, 2019. Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift (3), 132-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategy, State-centrism and Pessimism: the Case of Russia, 2019
2019 (English)In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 132-136Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Artikeln tar upp debatten om Rysslands krig mot Ukraina, men fäster blicken på två övergripande och ofta framkommande aspekter av strategisk teori, fokus på staten som analysnivå samt pessimism. Båda är vanligt förekommande aspekter även i pågående debatt om Ryssland, inte minst den som rör det ryska hotet. I denna debatt ses Ryssland ofta som en monolit som kontrolleras av president Vladimir Putin. I slutändan korrelerar hans grad av kontroll över statsmakten med hot. Men, stämmer bilden av Putin som en mästerlig manipulator och strateg som har övertag över västvärlden? I artikeln frågas vad Ryssland ”är” och om ”den” gör strategi? Tendensen att se ”ett” Ryssland som kontrolleras av Putin har i sin tur bidragit till överskattning och pessimism. Detta har i sin tur hindrat bra strategi. Eftersom Finlands historiskt pessimistiska synsätt mot Ryssland ofta uppfattas ha lett till bra strategi är det i synnerhet finska exempel som tas upp i texten. I slutändan är det mycket som vi inte vet om Ryssland. Det är därför lättare att göra teoretiska poäng av situationen. Bra strategi bygger på korrekt analys av den rådande situationen. Medvetenhet om tendenser att fokusera på faktorerna stater och pessimism kan därför nyansera framtida debatter, och bidra till bättre strategi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien, 2019
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8791 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2018). Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion. Armed forces and society, 44(4), 571-586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion
2018 (English)In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 571-586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is difficult to underestimate the importance of cohesion for armed groups or organizations specialized and engaged in organized violence. This article argues that the recent debate on military cohesion has been far too narrow as it focused on Western state militaries during the 20th and 21st centuries, and even then only on the microlevel. It is necessary to broaden the perspective in order to construct theories that encompass even the vast majority of armed groups—the non-Western, nonstate, and nonmodern. This article advocates two ways of doing so: the investigation of cases that belong to these three types and broadening analysis to two new levels of analysis—the meso-level of armed groups and the macro-level, which contains state and society. Cohesion is established through harmonizing these three levels, which necessitates including them in the analysis in the first place.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
armed groups, Eurocentrism, military cohesion, military sociology, militias, primary groups, rebel groups
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-9124 (URN)10.1177/0095327X18759541 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052650136 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-16 Created: 2020-04-16 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2018). Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia [Review]. Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, 113(2), 734-734
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia
2018 (English)In: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 734-734Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Editions Saint-Paul Fribourg, 2018
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8301 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2018). The MODEL social structure of an armed group: From Liberian refugees to heroes of Côte d’Ivoire and liberators of the homeland. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29(4), 776-800
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The MODEL social structure of an armed group: From Liberian refugees to heroes of Côte d’Ivoire and liberators of the homeland
2018 (English)In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 776-800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) through a revised Weberian framework that focuses on legitimacy and offers a thick description of the different phases of this armed group. The article argues that the key to fostering cohesion is the harmonization of the micro, meso, and macro levels. This proved a difficult undertaking for the MODEL. Not only did the MODEL lack material resources but it also relied on different and evolving kinds of legitimacy on these levels. With its sources of legitimacy exhausted after the war, the MODEL ceased to exist.

Keywords
Cohesion, Côte d’Ivoire, cultural sociology of war, insurgency, legitimacy, Liberia, militia, MODEL, social structure, strategy
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8143 (URN)10.1080/09592318.2018.1488417 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-10 Created: 2018-08-10 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2018). The people's war in Ukraine [Review]. Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift (4), 180-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The people's war in Ukraine
2018 (English)In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 180-183Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Review of Volunteer Battalions: Story of a Heroic Deed of Battalions That Saved Ukraine by Kateryna Hladka, Veronika Myronova, Oleg Pokalchuk, Vasilisa Trofymovych and Artem Shevchenko

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien, 2018
Keywords
Crimea, Donbas, Russia, Ukraine, volunteer battalions, war
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8252 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Käihkö, I. (2018). War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession. Journal of Military Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession
2018 (English)In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

Keywords
Clausewitz, cultural sociology, duel, institutions, military culture, strategy, war
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8234 (URN)10.2478/jms-2018-0003 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
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