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Hellman, Maria
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Wagnsson, C. & Hellman, M. (2018). Normative Power Europe Caving In?: EU under Pressure of Russian Information Warfare. Journal of Common Market Studies, 56(5), 1161-1177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative Power Europe Caving In?: EU under Pressure of Russian Information Warfare
2018 (English)In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1161-1177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scholars have characterized the EU as a normative power whose greatest asset is to be able to shape conceptions of what is ‘normal’ in international affairs. Scholars have argued that a normative power has to meet certain discursive standards; representing others in a non‐antagonistic, humble way. We question whether the EU can live up to this ideal when defending itself against Russian strategic communication. The empirical enquiry establishes that while the EU High Commissioner communicates in line with the stipulated standards, the newly established East Stratcom Taskforce and its publication ‘Disinformation Digest’ diverges from this ideal. The establishment of the Taskforce has led to the EU losing reflexivity and normative power. The article concludes that while Diez’ and Manners’ standards are utopian in the contemporary communicative climate, they remain useful as guiding rules that can help normative powers ‘watch their language’ and avoid doing unnecessary harm.

Keywords
Normative Power Europe, Disinformation Digest, EEAS, Russia, East StratCom TaskForce
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8219 (URN)10.1111/jcms.12726 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M. & Wagnsson, C. (2017). How can European states respond to Russian information warfare?: An analytical framework. European Security, 26(2), 153-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can European states respond to Russian information warfare?: An analytical framework
2017 (English)In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 153-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How can European democratic states respond to Russian information warfare? This article aims to enable and spur systematic research of how democracies can respond to the spread of distorted information as part of information warfare. The article proposes four ideal-type models representing different strategies that democratic governments can employ; blocking, confronting, naturalising and ignoring. Each strategy is illustrated by ways of empirical examples of strategies applied by European states in view of what is regarded as an unwelcome Russian strategic narrative that is spread as part of information warfare. We problematise each strategy and explore reasons for why states choose one strategy over another. We then explore how different strategies might contribute to destabilise or stabilise the security environment and how they resonate with democratic values. Finally, we contribute to theorising on strategic narratives by highlighting that the choice of strategy will influence states in their formation of strategic narratives. We thus further theorising on strategic narratives by highlighting the link between strategies and narratives, thus identifying one central dynamic in how narratives are formed.

Keywords
Information warfare, security, Europe, Russia, strategic narratives
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6631 (URN)10.1080/09662839.2017.1294162 (DOI)000405867000001 ()
Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Aubert, L. & Hellman, M. (2017). Inför det franska valet: De fyra huvudkandidaterna och den transatlantiska länken.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inför det franska valet: De fyra huvudkandidaterna och den transatlantiska länken
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 21
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6765 (URN)
Projects
FORBE
Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M. (2016). Assuming great power responsibility: French strategic culture and international military operations. In: Malena Britz (Ed.), European participation in international operations: the role of strategic culture (pp. 23-48). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assuming great power responsibility: French strategic culture and international military operations
2016 (English)In: European participation in international operations: the role of strategic culture / [ed] Malena Britz, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 23-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
Series
New security challenges
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6550 (URN)9783319397580 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
Olsson, E.-K., Deverell, E., Wagnsson, C. & Hellman, M. (2016). EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?. Defence Studies, 16(2), 97-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?
2016 (English)In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores how armed forces in EU member states work with and view social media in national and international settings, and what the patterns of convergence/divergence are on these issues. To that end, a questionnaire targeted at EU armed forces was constructed. An index of qualitative variation was calculated to explore the relative convergence among respondents (n = 25) on issues of risks and opportunities with using social media nationally and internationally. Consistent with previous research on European armed forces, we found higher levels of divergence than convergence. Contrary to our expectations that similar challenges, joint international standards, and membership in international organizations would foster convergence with regard to social media use in areas of deployment, we found that convergence appeared foremost pertaining to the domestic level. Policy divergence was strongest in areas of deployment.

National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik; Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6280 (URN)10.1080/14702436.2016.1155412 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M., Olsson, E.-K. & Wagnsson, C. (2016). EU Armed Forces’ use of social media in areas of deployment. Media and Communication, 4(1), 51-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EU Armed Forces’ use of social media in areas of deployment
2016 (English)In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.

Keywords
armed forces, EU, international deployments, social media
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik; Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6278 (URN)10.17645/mac.v4i1.336 (DOI)000408561300006000408561300006 ()
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M. (2016). Milblogs and soldier representations of the Afghanistan War: the case of Sweden. Media, War & Conflict, 9(1), 43-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Milblogs and soldier representations of the Afghanistan War: the case of Sweden
2016 (English)In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Building on the notion that military blogs (milblogs) can support national strategic narratives, the aim of the article is to deepen our knowledge of exactly how blogging that depicts soldiers' personal experiences of 'everyday life' can serve to support a strategic narrative. This article explores empirically how Swedish milblogs published between January 2010 and April 2012 articulate the experience of being a soldier in the Afghanistan mission. The analysis shows that soldiering is treated as an everyday practice, de-dramatized and routinized where military assignments are meshed with civilian duties. The article concludes that the 'normalization' of war in milblogs can potentially serve to strengthen national strategic narratives, facilitate recruitment of soldiers and add to growing 'militarism' in society.

Keywords
Afghanistan, civil-military cooperation, milblogs, militarism, soldiering
National Category
Media and Communications Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8038 (URN)10.1177/1750635215611701 (DOI)000405932600004 ()
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Ahva, L. & Hellman, M. (2015). Citizen eyewitness images and audience engagement in crisis coverage. International Communication Gazette, 77(7), 668-681
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Citizen eyewitness images and audience engagement in crisis coverage
2015 (English)In: International Communication Gazette, ISSN 1748-0485, E-ISSN 1748-0493, Vol. 77, no 7, p. 668-681Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amateur imagery has become an important component of news coverage of distant crisis events, and it plays a decisive role in shaping how audiences respond to crises. In this article, we discuss how the factors of authenticity, affectivity, and ethics play a role in the ways in which citizen images engage or disengage the distant audience. The article is based on 17 focus group interviews in Sweden and Finland that centred on a selection of visual news coverage of the Arab Spring in Syria and Libya - landmark news events in the use of citizen eyewitness images in the Nordic countries. The results indicate that citizen imagery is indeed a potential tool with strongly engaging characteristics, especially in terms of its authenticity and to some degree also its affectivity. However, disengagement may also result, especially due to the interpreted deficiencies in terms of ethics.

Keywords
activist footage, amateur images, Arab Spring, audience engagement, citizen eyewitnessing, crisis coverage, distant suffering
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5677 (URN)10.1177/1748048515601559 (DOI)000366159300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M. & Wagnsson, C. (2015). New media and the war in Afghanistan: The significance of blogging for the Swedish strategic narrative. New Media and Society, 17(1), 6-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New media and the war in Afghanistan: The significance of blogging for the Swedish strategic narrative
2015 (English)In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 6-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The new media situation gives fuel to increased competition between narratives. In the sphere of security this poses challenges to government strategic narratives. Scholars, drawing on findings from the Anglo-Saxon sphere, suggest that the new media activism gives rise to counter-hegemonic narratives that thrive on and through social media sites. We argue that the emergence of counter-narratives in the sphere of security depends upon a few key dynamics that might vary with political context such  as political culture, the size of the blogosphere, the debate in mainstream media and socialization processes within the military   organization. Our case study of Swedish blogging about Sweden’s military contribution to the International Security Assistance Force mission in Afghanistan suggests that blogs are mainly used to sustain – and not to challenge – the governmental narrative. This invites us to question the significance of new media platforms as counter-hegemonic forces in communities beyond the Anglo-Saxon sphere.

Keywords
Afghanistan, blogs, counter-hegemonic narratives, International Security Assistance Force, social media, strategic narrative
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-4171 (URN)10.1177/1461444813504268 (DOI)000347979500002 ()
Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-26 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Deverell, E., Olsson, E.-K., Wagnsson, C., Hellman, M. & Johnsson, M. (2015). Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces. Journal of Public Affairs, 15(4), 387-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Public Agency Communication: the case of the Swedish Armed Forces
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article suggests a diagnostic framework of public communication intended to capture new communication strategies used by Armed Forces across Europe to legitimize new tasks and recruit new personnel. Three distinct communicative models that impact differently on democratic values and public support are suggested: an Old Public Administration (OPA) model influenced by bureaucratic values, a New Public Management (NPM) model fuelled by market values and a deliberative model labelled ‘New Public Service’ (NPS) that is largely influenced by proponents of ‘e-democracy’. A case study of the communication of the Swedish Armed Forces identifies a lingering bureaucratic (OPA) ideal. The market ideal (NPM) however clearly dominates. The article concludes that communication along market purposes, principles and practices risks distancing Armed Forces further from society. Yet, an embryonic deliberative ideal (NPS)—much fuelled by the use of social media such as blogs—was also identified. This growing ideal holds the potential of infusing deliberative vigor into the organization and presumably facilitates the bridging of the gap to society.

National Category
Public Administration Studies
Research subject
Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot krishantering och internationell samverkan; Statsvetenskap med inriktning mot strategi och säkerhetspolitik; Krigsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-5118 (URN)10.1002/pa.1552 (DOI)000212305700006 ()
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
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