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Boschetti, N., Sigholm, J., Wallén, M. & Falco, G. (2023). A Hybrid Space Architecture for Robust and Resilient Satellite Services. In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology (SMC-IT): . Paper presented at 9th IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, July 18-21, 2023, s. 114 - 122 (pp. 114-122). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Hybrid Space Architecture for Robust and Resilient Satellite Services
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology (SMC-IT), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, s. 114-122Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

A 'hybrid space architecture' has been proposed to facilitate robust and resilient satellite data downlink, integration and analysis; however, the technical details for what may comprise a hybrid space architecture are severely lacking. Thus far, 'hybrid' principally entails the diversity of commercial providers. While diverse suppliers can contribute to hybrid space architectures, we argue that robustness and resilience will only be achieved through heterogeneous network and asset architectures. A connected satellite services ecosystem composed of the union of different networks with different characteristics would limit single points of failure, thereby generating high levels of redundancy, resilience and scalability. This research outlines parameters of a hybrid space architecture, documents satellite service reference architectures and provides a comparative analysis of the features for each architecture. Further, through a case study of existing satellite service providers, we propose how a hybrid space architecture could be piloted in Northern Europe and the High North.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Serie
IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, ISSN 2836-4163, E-ISSN 2836-4171
Nyckelord
Hybrid Space Architecture, Hybrid Satellite Network, Ground Station as a Service, Satellite Communications, System of Systems, Cybersecurity, Military Satellite Communications, Commercial Space Sector, New Space
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11521 (URN)10.1109/SMC-IT56444.2023.00021 (DOI)979-8-3503-4138-6 (ISBN)979-8-3503-4137-9 (ISBN)
Konferens
9th IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, July 18-21, 2023, s. 114 - 122
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-24 Skapad: 2023-04-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Boschetti, N., Smethurst, C., Epiphaniou, G., Maple, C., Sigholm, J. & Falco, G. (2023). Ground Station as a Service Reference Architectures and Cyber Security Attack Tree Analysis. In: 2023 IEEE Aerospace Conference: . Paper presented at 44th IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, USA, March 4-11, 2023.. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ground Station as a Service Reference Architectures and Cyber Security Attack Tree Analysis
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2023 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

As the Ground Station as a Service (GSaaS) paradigm transforms space infrastructure operations, new attack surface emerges for malicious actors. While the space community generally refers to GSaaS as a singular model, there are several flavors of these systems. After a description of the general GSaaS network's basic structure, this paper presents an analysis of four reference architectures of GSaaS. On the basis of this systems engineering analysis, a cybersecurity analysis of the critical nodes will be carried out through the attack tree method. Later the cybersecurity implication both of technical and strategic characteristic of GSaaS networks will be discussed and put in relation with the current state of space cyberwarfare landscape.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Serie
IEEE Aerospace Conference proceedings, ISSN 1095-323X
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11520 (URN)10.1109/AERO55745.2023.10115903 (DOI)978-1-6654-9032-0 (ISBN)
Konferens
44th IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, USA, March 4-11, 2023.
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-24 Skapad: 2023-04-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Boschetti, N., Gordon, N., Sigholm, J. & Falco, G. (2022). Commercial Space Risk Framework Assessing the Satellite Ground Station Security Landscape for NATO in the Arctic and High North. In: 40th IEEE Military Communications Conference, Rockville, MD, USA, November 28 - December 2, 2022.: . Paper presented at 2022 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM) (pp. 679-686). IEEE
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Commercial Space Risk Framework Assessing the Satellite Ground Station Security Landscape for NATO in the Arctic and High North
2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: 40th IEEE Military Communications Conference, Rockville, MD, USA, November 28 - December 2, 2022., IEEE , 2022, s. 679-686Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Satellite ground stations in the Arctic and High North are of strategic importance to NATO, given their ability to collect intelligence from space assets in polar Earth orbit. Commercial space infrastructure such as ground systems are increasingly dual-use, employed for both civilian and defense purposes. Their dual-use could cause them to become military targets. As such, commercial operators must strategically consider ground station placement to optimize for utility, while accounting for their security risk. This research presents a frame-work to assess the commercial satellite ground station security landscape by outlining security and performance tradeoffs given geographic location, including proximity to potential adversaries, and designates eight separate risk regions. Particularly, Sweden's and Finland's space infrastructure is of focus given their recent application to join NATO in the wake of Russian aggression. The paper concludes that, to secure ground stations and the assets and services that they enable, a comprehensive risk evaluation including positioning of ground stations is critical.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2022
Serie
MILCOM IEEE Military Communications Conference, ISSN 2155-7578, E-ISSN 2155-7586
Nyckelord
Space Security, Satellite Communications, Ground Station Security, Space Cybersecurity, NATO, Space Infrastructure, Commercial Ground Stations, Dual-Use, Ground Station as a Service
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11401 (URN)10.1109/MILCOM55135.2022.10017538 (DOI)978-1-6654-8535-7 (ISBN)978-1-6654-8534-0 (ISBN)
Konferens
2022 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-01-31 Skapad: 2023-01-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Wiktorin, J. (Ed.). (2022). Cyberförsvaret: en introduktion. Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cyberförsvaret: en introduktion
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2022 (Svenska)Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien, 2022. s. 197
Nationell ämneskategori
Juridik
Forskningsämne
Juridik med inriktning mot operativ juridik och folkrätt
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11102 (URN)978-91-88581-33-4 (ISBN)978-91-88581-34-1 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-14 Skapad: 2022-10-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-10-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Sigholm, J. & Larsson, E. (2021). Cyber Vulnerability Implantation Revisited. In: 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), San Diego, November 29-December 2, 2021.: . Paper presented at 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM) (pp. 464-469). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cyber Vulnerability Implantation Revisited
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), San Diego, November 29-December 2, 2021., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, s. 464-469Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we revisit a study presented at MILCOM 2014. Our goal then was to determine the utility of implanting a vulnerability into a cybersecurity software protocol to an actor planning to execute an offensive cyber operation. Based on a case study describing the then recently discovered Heartbleed bug as an offensive cyber operation, a model was devised to estimate the adoption rate of an implanted flaw in OpenSSL. Using the adoption rate of the cryptographic protocol Transport Layer Security version 1.2 as a proxy, we predicted that the global adoption of the vulnerability of at least 50% would take approximately three years, while surpassing 75% adoption would take four years. Compared to subsequently collected real-world data, these forecasts turned out to be surprisingly accurate. An evaluation of our proposed model shows that it yields results with a root-mean-square error of only 1.2% over the forecasting period. Thus, it has a significant degree of predictive power. Although the model may not be generalizable to describe the adoption of any software protocol, the finding helps validate our previously drawn conclusion that exploiting implanted cyber vulnerabilities, in a scenario like the one presented, requires a planning horizon of multiple years. However, as society becomes further dependent on the cyber domain, the utility of intentional vulnerability implantation is likely an exercise in diminishing returns. For a defender, however, our model development process could be useful to forecast the time required for flawed protocols to be phased out.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
Serie
MILCOM IEEE Military Communications Conference, ISSN 2155-7578, E-ISSN 2155-7586
Nyckelord
cyber operations, cybercrime, vulnerabilities, exploitation, intelligence, cyber insurance
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10554 (URN)10.1109/MILCOM52596.2021.9652921 (DOI)978-1-6654-3972-5 (ISBN)978-1-6654-3956-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-01-03 Skapad: 2022-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Sigholm, J., Falco, G. & Viswanathan, A. (2019). Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX). In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: . Paper presented at 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 8-11, 2019, Grand Wailea, Maui, USA (pp. 7553-7562). IEEE conference proceedings
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX)
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, s. 7553-7562Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The people responsible for building the IT products and infrastructure of tomorrow – today’s students of the computing disciplines – oftentimes do not have the opportunity or proper motivation to develop cybersecurity skills meeting the needs of the job market. This paper introduces High Fidelity Live eXercises (HiFLiX) a teaching/learning activity designed to expose students to cybersecurity challenges resembling those they could face in a future work environment. We describe a HiFLiX prototype study, conducted as a collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s CyberSecurity@CSAIL research group and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Our analysis indicates that the proposed delivery method met the stipulated cybersecurity educational outcomes and increased the motivation for future cybersecurity studies in the majority of participants. Two previously unknown software flaws were also discovered.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE conference proceedings, 2019
Serie
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), ISSN 1530-1605, E-ISSN 2572-6862
Nyckelord
communication, cooperation, curriculum development, cybersecurity, education, industry academia cooperation, training
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-8310 (URN)10.24251/HICSS.2019.911 (DOI)978-0-9981331-2-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 8-11, 2019, Grand Wailea, Maui, USA
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-10 Skapad: 2019-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Franke, U., Cohen, M. & Sigholm, J. (2018). What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development. Software and Systems Modeling, 17(2), 695-711
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 695-711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2018
Nyckelord
enterprise architecture, MODAF, model-based capability development, experiment, models versus documents
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6145 (URN)10.1007/s10270-016-0535-z (DOI)000430548300017 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-02 Skapad: 2016-06-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Silfverskiöld, S., Liwång, H., Hult, G., Sivertun, Å., Bull, P., Sigholm, J., . . . Sturesson, P. (2017). Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division. Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division
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2017 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

- Nanocarbons for photonic applications

The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

- Internet of things (IoT)

- Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

- Post-quantum cryptography

- New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2017. s. 27
Nyckelord
Nanocarbons, Photonic Applications, Post Quantum Cryptography, Internet of things, Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents, Hyperspektral bildanalys
Nationell ämneskategori
Övrig annan samhällsvetenskap Övrig annan teknik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-7034 (URN)
Projekt
Teknisk prognos
Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-19 Skapad: 2017-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Larsson, E. & Sigholm, J. (2016). Papering Over the Cracks: The Effects of Introducing Best Practices on the Web Security Ecosystem. In: The 30th International Conference on Information Networking: ICOIN 2016. Paper presented at 30th International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, January 13-15, 2016 (pp. 1-6). IEEE, Article ID 15837791.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Papering Over the Cracks: The Effects of Introducing Best Practices on the Web Security Ecosystem
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: The 30th International Conference on Information Networking: ICOIN 2016, IEEE, 2016, s. 1-6, artikel-id 15837791Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is the de facto standard for secure end-to-end web communication. However, numerous flaws discovered during recent years, such as Apple’s “goto fail” bug, and cryptographic weaknesses as illustrated by the Poodlebleed vulnerability, have brought the efficiency of the mostly self-regulated web security market into question. In this cross-disciplinary paper, the authors survey some 160.000 HTTPS-enabled servers among popular web sites over a time period of three years. The research question is what effect the introduction of best practices and vulnerability publication have on web server security in the form of protocol support. Main findings include that (i) insecure configurations, although well known, can remain widespread for over a decade, (ii) the introduction of best practices affect the decline of insecure configurations only moderately, whereas highly publicized security flaws have a significant impact, and (iii) economic incentives for website owners to provide secure services are weak, motivating such other levers of influence as legislation or blocking of noncompliant sites.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2016
Serie
International Conference on Information Networking, ISSN 1976-7684
Nyckelord
Internet governance, network security, security economics, HTTPS
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6685 (URN)10.1109/ICOIN.2016.7427064 (DOI)9781509017256 (ISBN)9781509017249 (ISBN)
Konferens
30th International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, January 13-15, 2016
Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-24 Skapad: 2017-04-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Sigholm, J. (2016). Secure Tactical Communications for Inter-Organizational Collaboration: The Role of Emerging Information and Communications Technology, Privacy Issues, and Cyber Threats on the Digital Battlefield. (Doctoral dissertation). Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde (University of Skövde)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Secure Tactical Communications for Inter-Organizational Collaboration: The Role of Emerging Information and Communications Technology, Privacy Issues, and Cyber Threats on the Digital Battlefield
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The development within the area of information and communications technology (ICT) has been rapid during the last couple of decades. Advancements in mobile technology, such as smartphones and other portable devices with embedded sensors, rapid expansion of communications infrastructure, and increased spectrum utilization, has had a major impact on civilian society, but increasingly also on professional organizations such as the Swedish Armed Forces. While this technology allows for enhanced capabilities in the areas of command and control, situational awareness, and information management, it also leads to new challenges in such areas as cyber security and privacy. For armed forces in many parts of the world, being able to deploy in new types of missions, such as humanitarian assistance and response operations due to natural or man-made disasters, is an increasingly sought-after capability. Such operations commonly require collaboration amongst several heterogeneous organizations, which in turn requires technical as well as organizational interoperability. While the actors must be able to share certain information efficiently, with regards to integrity and availability, sensitive or classified information must be safeguarded in terms of confidentiality.

This thesis is concerned with studying emerging ICT for use on the battlefield of tomorrow, investigating how it can lead to more effective operations, and what preconditions that must be met in order for the technology to be of utility for inter-organizational collaboration. In particular, the thesis studies how an acceptable level of information security can be upheld in interconnected tactical communications networks. It is found that Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Software-Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio are emerging technologies that, while still immature, can contribute to improved capabilities for communications, command and control, and information collection. Furthermore, Hastily Formed Networks is found to be an effective framework for collaboration between heterogeneous actors. However, in order for emerging ICTs to provide military utility, several non-technical requirements must be met. These include usability, trust, legality, cost, and verifying that the technology is in accordance with current military doctrine. Antagonistic as well as unintentional threats must also be mitigated, including information leaks caused by cyberattacks or insiders, and possible consequences of reduced user privacy.

Besides to the Swedish Armed Forces, this thesis should be of interest to armed forces of comparable countries, and for professional organizations faced with similar challenges. Among the drawn conclusions, the thesis recommends continuously evaluating emerging ICT in support of new capabilities, through academic research as well as internal concept development. Adopting an incremental and modular process is also recommended when developing or procuring new ICT systems, instead of making long-term investments in proprietary technology. Furthermore, a focus should be put on promoting military requirements in future civilian ICT standards. In this way development costs can be reduced, while facilitating tactical use of commercial off-the-shelf products. Regarding information security in tactical networks for inter-organizational collaboration the thesis concludes that employing best-effort methods could allow for efficient information exchange between actors, while upholding acceptable risk levels regarding data leakage.

Abstract [sv]

Informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) har under de senaste årtiondena varit under stark utveckling. Ökad tillgänglighet av mobil teknik, såsom smarta mobiltelefoner och andra bärbara enheter med inbyggda sensorer, kraftig utbyggnad av kommunikationsinfrastruktur samt framsteg inom spektrumeffektivitet, har haft en stor betydelse för civilsamhället samt i ökande grad även för insatsorganisationer såsom Försvarsmakten. Tekniken bidrar till ökad förmåga till ledning, situationsuppfattning och informationshantering, men medför samtidigt flera utmaningar inom områden som cybersäkerhet och personlig integritet. Nya uppgifter som parallellt kommit i fokus för försvarsmakter i många länder inkluderar förmågan att kunna delta i stödjande insatser i samband med naturkatastrofer, terrorattacker, eller att kunna erbjuda humanitärt bistånd i internationella miljöer. Sådana insatser kräver vanligtvis samverkan mellan många olika heterogena organisationer, vilket medför ett behov av såväl teknisk som organisatorisk interoperabilitet. Viss information måste kunna delas effektivt mellan de ingående aktörerna med avseende på riktighet och tillgänglighet, samtidigt som känsliga uppgifter måste skyddas avseende sekretess.

I denna avhandling studeras taktiskt användande av framväxande IKT på morgondagens slagfält, hur tekniken kan bidra till mer effektiva operationer, samt vilka förutsättningar och krav som måste uppfyllas för att tekniken ska kunna vara till nytta vid interorganisatorisk samverkan. Särskilt undersöks möjligheten att upprätthålla en acceptabel nivå av informationssäkerhet i gemensamma taktiska sambandssystem, samtidigt som dessa kan användas effektivt under påfrestande förhållanden. Avhandlingen finner att tekniker som mobila ad hoc-nätverk, mjukvarudefinierad radio och kognitiv radio, trots att de ännu är omogna, kan komma att bidra till förbättrade eller helt nya förmågor inom bland annat samband, ledning och informationsinhämtning. Vidare dras slutsatsen att ramverket Hastily Formed Networks är effektivt för samverkan mellan heterogena aktörer. För att framväxande IKT ska kunna vara av militär nytta krävs dock att flera icke-tekniska krav kan mötas. Dessa inkluderar användbarhet, tillit, legalitet, kostnad, samt att tekniken ligger i linje med rådande militär doktrin. Såväl antagonistiska som oavsiktliga hot måste samtidigt hanteras, såsom informationsläckor orsakade av cyberattacker eller insiders, samt konsekvensen av en minskad personlig integritet för användarna.

Avhandlingen förväntas vara av intresse för såväl Försvarsmakten som organisationer med liknande förutsättningar i Sverige och jämförbara länder. Som slutsats rekommenderas i avhandlingen att framväxande IKT till stöd för nya förmågor kontinuerligt utvärderas genom såväl akademisk forskning som intern konceptutveckling, samt att en inkrementell och modulär modell bör väljas vid utveckling och anskaffning, snarare än att göra omfattande investeringar i proprietär teknik. Fokus bör även vara på att tidigt få med militära krav i civila IKT-standarder. På så vis kan utvecklingskostnader reduceras, samtidigt som militär användning av kommersiellt tillgängliga produkter förenklas. En slutsats gällande informationssäkerhet är att man med metoder som baseras på så kallad ”best-effort” kan effektivisera utbytet i ett gemensamt informationssystem, samtidigt som risken för dataläckage kan behållas på en acceptabel nivå.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde (University of Skövde), 2016. s. 74
Serie
Dissertation Series ; 13
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Försvarssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-6326 (URN)978-91-982690-3-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-11-11, Sverigesalen, Drottning Kristinas väg 37, Stockholm, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-19 Skapad: 2016-10-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4376-9800

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