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Espevik, Roar, Professor
Publikationer (10 of 14) Visa alla publikationer
Bakker, A. B., Hetland, J., Kjellevold Olsen, O. & Espevik, R. (2023). Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?. European Management Journal, 41(5), 700-708
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 700-708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study uses the full-range leadership model to argue that on days when leaders engage in transformational leadership behaviors, they identify follower strengths and stimulate followers to show personal initiative. We propose that transformational leadership is related to follower work engagement and performance through follower strengths use and personal initiative. Moreover, we hypothesize that followers' personal initiative is most effective when followers use their strengths. A total of 57 Norwegian naval cadets filled out a diary booklet for 30 days (response = 72.6%; n = 1242). Multilevel modeling analyses largely supported our hypotheses. On the days when leaders used transformational leadership behaviors such as intellectual stimulation and individual consideration, followers were more likely to use their strengths and take initiative. These behaviors, in turn, predicted next-day work engagement and next-day job performance. Moreover, followers’ personal initiative was particularly related to work engagement when strengths use was high rather than low. We discuss how these findings contribute to the leadership literature by showing how leaders inspire their followers to lead themselves. In addition, we elaborate on the practical implications for leadership training.

Nyckelord
Job performance, Personal initiative, Strengths use, Transformational leadership, Work engagement
Nationell ämneskategori
Övrig annan samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11028 (URN)10.1016/j.emj.2022.04.004 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-08-09 Skapad: 2022-08-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-21
Eid, J., Hansen, A. L., Andreassen, N., Espevik, R., Brattebø, G. & Johnsen, B. H. (2023). Developing local crisis leadership: A research and training agenda. Frontiers in Psychology, 14
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Developing local crisis leadership: A research and training agenda
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The crisis triggered by Covid-19 has exposed the interdependencies of modern society and sparked interest in local response to protracted and complex crisis situations. There has been a growing awareness and interest in the key roles of political and professional stakeholders, their emotional regulation and how they influence team performance and outcomes in dealing with uncertainty and complex crisis situations. While cognitive and behavioral aspects of crisis leadership are well researched, less is understood about how one can mitigate negative emotions, instill trust, or restore public faith and support of security forces and emergency response teams during crises. In addressing this gap, we propose a simplified conceptual roadmap for research and training of local crisis leadership. In this, we emphasize complex problem solving, team interaction, team context and technology and team training design. These four factors represent significant barriers if neglected. On the other side, they may be considerable force multipliers when better understood and managed. We suggest how seven research and training questions could be linked to the four conceptual factors and guide an evidence-based approach to develop local crisis leadership.

Nyckelord
crisis leadership, complex problem solving, simulation, team training, technology, performance, resilience, emergency
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Annan samhällsvetenskap Studier av offentlig förvaltning
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11556 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1041387 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-01 Skapad: 2023-06-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-02
Eid, J., Brattebø, G., Jacobsen, J. K., Espevik, R. & Johnsen, B. H. (2023). Distributed team processes in healthcare services: a scoping review. Frontiers in Medicine, 10
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Distributed team processes in healthcare services: a scoping review
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Medicine, E-ISSN 2296-858X, Vol. 10Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: High-quality healthcare services is delivered by teams rather than individuals and depends heavily on multidisciplinary cooperation between dispersed healthcare professionals. The aim of this scoping review is to identify common barriers and innovative applications of technology supporting team processes and patient safety, in geographically dispersed healthcare services.

Methods: Studies were identified from searches in APA PsychINFO, Epistemonikos and Medline databases, from 2010 to 2023. A detailed search strategy was performed, and studies were included, based on prior established criteria.

Results: Among the 19 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, the majority (85%) were from Europe or North America, and most studies (53%) were quantitative, with a cross-sectional study design. Several reported observed distributed team processes in training and education. Most studies described barriers and detailed how innovative approaches and technological solutions were introduced to improve communication, coordination, and shared mental models in distributed healthcare settings. A small proportion of studies (16%) used health services data to examine interpersonal exchange and team processes.

Conclusion: The scoping review offer recommendations to enhance future research on distributed team processes in healthcare services.

Nyckelord
patient safety, healthcare, distributed teamwork, coordination, shared mental model, prehospital
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12053 (URN)10.3389/fmed.2023.1291877 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-22 Skapad: 2023-12-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Mattingsdal, J., Bjørn Helge, J. & Espevik, R. (2023). Effect of changing threat conditions on police and military commanders’ preferences for urgent and offensive actions: An analysis of decision making at the operational level of war. Military Psychology
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of changing threat conditions on police and military commanders’ preferences for urgent and offensive actions: An analysis of decision making at the operational level of war
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

A simulation was conducted to examine the decision making of 102 high-ranking police and military commanders (male/female = 88/12, mean years of employment = 22.15) engaged in a simulated hybrid attack on Norway. Four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA tests were performed, with two groups (police, military) and three phases (peace, war, and post-conflict) as independent variables. The decision tasks of force posture and mission urgency, along with Subject Matter Expert (SME) ratings of decision-making performance, served as dependent variables. By using social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, the analysis demonstrated within-group effects indicating how the transition from peace to war caused more offensive postures, higher urgency levels, and increased performance in wartime. Between-group differences were also found, illustrating that police commanders had higher levels of urgency than military commanders in general. Regarding force posture, within-group differences were only found in the post-conflict phase, when police commanders returned to pre-war levels, while military commanders showed less offensive postures than in peacetime. No significant between-group differences were found in decision-making performance. The analysis demonstrated new empirical findings about how crisis management is impacted by change and the backgrounds of those in charge. The findings have implications for designing interagency frameworks that improve police-military interoperability in collaborative efforts.

Nyckelord
Decision making, hybrid attacks, police-military collaborative crisis management, social cognitive theory, force posture, mission urgency
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11916 (URN)10.1080/08995605.2023.2277609 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-11-09 Skapad: 2023-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-15
Mattingsdal, J., Espevik, R., Johnsen, B. H. & Hystad, S. (2023). Exploring Why Police and Military Commanders Do What They Do: An Empirical Analysis of Decision-Making in Hybrid Warfare. Armed forces and society
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploring Why Police and Military Commanders Do What They Do: An Empirical Analysis of Decision-Making in Hybrid Warfare
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this study, a total of 102 high-ranking commanders from a military and police background were included in a simulation involving hybrid attacks on Norway. The aim was to explore the commanders’ decision-making in the context of hybrid warfare and changing threats. Data were collected in a simulated national headquarters and analyzed by a multinominal logistic regression method using a scenario that transformed from peacetime into war and returned to peace. The results demonstrated significant differences in the commanders’ preferences for unilateral or interagency forces depending on whether decisions were made in peacetime, war or the post-conflict phase. The results also showed how the commanders’ level of operational experience was associated with an increased preference for interagency forces. The current findings are new empirical insights into a thus far neglected aspect of decision-making research and have implications for improving police-military interoperability in major security crises.

Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11553 (URN)10.1177/0095327X231160711 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-01 Skapad: 2023-06-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-10
Mattingsdal, J., Aandal, J., Johnsen, B. H. & Espevik, R. (2023). From Peacetime to War: A path analysis of the factors that predict performance among police and military commanders in collaborative crisis response. Frontiers in Psychology, 14
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>From Peacetime to War: A path analysis of the factors that predict performance among police and military commanders in collaborative crisis response
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the applicability of Bandura’s social cognitive theory in predicting organizational performance in dynamic and ambiguous hybrid warfare contexts. Specifically, the study investigated the influence of dyad composition, past performance in peacetime, collective self-efficacy, and persistence on wartime performance among high-ranking police and military commanders.

Study design/methodology/approach: One hundred and thirty-eight participants, consisting of police and military commanders, took part in a simulation exercise that escalated from peace to war. The participants were assigned to three types of dyads (N = 69); all-police (n = 20), all-military (n = 27), and mixed police-military (n = 22). The study utilized path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of the variables on wartime performance.

Results: The model developed in this study accounted for 54% of the variance in wartime performance (R2 = 0.54). Path analysis showed direct effects of persistence (β = −0.33) and peacetime performance (β = 0.45) on actual performance in wartime. Direct effects also showed how persistence was predicted by dyad composition (β = −0.24) and peacetime performance (β = −0.50). Indirect effects indicated how persistence mediated the effects of peacetime performance (β = 0.17) and dyad composition (β = 0.08) on actual performance in wartime.

Originality/value: This study contributes to the understanding of how social cognitive factors, as described by Bandura’s theory, can predict decision outcomes in collaborative crisis response settings involving police and military commanders. The findings have implications for policy-making and provide recommendations for further research in this area.

Nyckelord
hybrid warfare, decision-making, collaborative crisis response, organizational performance, persistence, collective self-efficacy, police-military interoperability
Nationell ämneskategori
Tillämpad psykologi
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-12052 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1238760 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-22 Skapad: 2023-12-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Espevik, R. (2023). Sover vi godt?: Utvikling av sjømilitært lederskap. In: Rino Bandlitz Johansen; Jan Ketil Arnulf (Ed.), Militær leder- og ledelsesutvikling i teori og praksis: (pp. 297-312). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sover vi godt?: Utvikling av sjømilitært lederskap
2023 (Norska)Ingår i: Militær leder- og ledelsesutvikling i teori og praksis / [ed] Rino Bandlitz Johansen; Jan Ketil Arnulf, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2023, s. 297-312Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Naval officers must through leadership act well under pressure and be able to develop mature teams. This requires social competence, empathic skills, and a respectful approach to those around you that ensures closeness and durable interaction. Use of safe, free-play cadet-led activities is paramount. Two invariable requirements are set for each cadet – action and justification. Research shows that the Naval Academy’s leadership development program has the desired effect.

Abstract [no]

Sjøoffiserer må gjennom lederskap handle godt under press og kunne utvikle modne team. Dette krever sosial kompetanse, gode empatiske ferdigheter og en respektfull tilnærming til de rundt, som sikrer nærhet og slitesterk samhandling. Viktige prinsipper er kadettstyrte aktiviteter, med maksimalt handlingsrom for frilek innen sikkerhetsmessige rammer. To ufravikelige krav settes til hver kadett – handling og begrunnelse. Forskning viser at Sjøkrigsskolens lederutviklingsprogram har ønsket effekt.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2023
Nyckelord
Navy leadership development, character building, Naval academy, shared mental models, sjømilitær lederutvikling, karakterstyrke, Sjøkrigsskolen, felles mentale modeller
Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap Annan samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11767 (URN)10.18261/9788215064710-23-13 (DOI)9788215064703 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-08-29 Skapad: 2023-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Johnsen, B. H., Espevik, R., Eid, J., Østerås, Ø., Jacobsen, J. K. & Brattebø, G. (2022). Coordinating Mechanisms Are More Important Than Team Processes for Geographically Dispersed Emergency Dispatch and Paramedic Teams. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 754855.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Coordinating Mechanisms Are More Important Than Team Processes for Geographically Dispersed Emergency Dispatch and Paramedic Teams
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, artikel-id 754855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent decades there has been an increased emphasis on non-technical skills in medical teams. One promising approach that relates teamwork to medical efficiency is the theory of Shared Mental Models (SMM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Shared Mental Model approach for teamwork between operators in emergency medical communication centers and the first line ambulance personnel in real-life settings. These teams collaborate while working from geographically dispersed positions, which makes them distinct from the kinds of teams examined in most previous research on team effectiveness. A pressing issue is therefore whether current models on co-located teams are valid for medical distributed teams. A total of 240 participants from 80 emergency medical teams participated in the study. A team effectiveness model was proposed based on identified team coordinating mechanisms and the “Big five” team processes. Path analyses showed that SMM was positively associated with team effectiveness (i.e., performance satisfaction and situational awareness) and negatively related to mission complexity. Furthermore, the coordinating mechanisms of SMM and Closed Loop Communication was positively related to “Big five” team scores. However, no effects were found for the “Big five” team processes on effectiveness, which could indicate that the model needs to be adjusted for application to geographically dispersed teams. Possible implications for team training of distributed emergency response teams are discussed.

Nyckelord
medical first responder teams, shared mental models, team processes, coordinating mechanisms, performance
Nationell ämneskategori
Omvårdnad
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10776 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.754855 (DOI)000778607900001 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2022-04-07 Skapad: 2022-04-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-02-08
Sørlie, H. O., Hetland, J., Bakker, A. B., Espevik, R. & Olsen, O. K. (2022). Daily autonomy and job performance: Does person-organization fit act as a key resource?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 133, Article ID 103691.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Daily autonomy and job performance: Does person-organization fit act as a key resource?
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2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 133, artikel-id 103691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, we integrate Person-Organization (P-O) fit and Job Demands-Resources theories to argue that P-O fit (i.e., value congruence between person and organization) is a key resource that facilitates the accumulation and activation of situational job resources. We hypothesize that P-O fit strengthens the well-established positive relationship between job autonomy and job performance. Measures of objective P-O fit were obtained for 43 Norwegian naval cadets before embarking on a training mission onboard a sailing ship. During the mission, we measured daily self-reported autonomy as well as peer-rated task and contextual performance for 30 consecutive days. As predicted, the results of multilevel modeling analyses showed that the relationship between daily autonomy and (a) next- (but not same-) day task performance, and (b) next- (and same-) day contextual performance is stronger positive for individuals high (vs. low) in P-O fit. Moreover, effects of the daily autonomy – P-O fit interaction were noticeable on performance several days after. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

Nyckelord
Autonomy, Contextual performance, Key resources, Person-organization fit, Task performance, Diary study
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-10746 (URN)10.1016/j.jvb.2022.103691 (DOI)000782190700006 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2022-02-21 Skapad: 2022-02-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-05-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Hetland, J., Bakker, A. B., Espevik, R. & Olsen, O. K. (2022). Daily work pressure and task performance: The moderating role of recovery and sleep. Frontiers in Psychology, 13
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Daily work pressure and task performance: The moderating role of recovery and sleep
2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Whereas previous research has focused on the link between (mental and physical) workload and task performance, less is known about the intervening mechanisms influencing this relationship. In the present study, we test the moderating roles of daily recovery and total sleep time in the relationship between work pressure and daily task performance. Using performance and recovery theories, we hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates positively to daily task performance, and that both (b) daily recovery in the form of psychological detachment and relaxation, and (c) total sleep time independently enhance this relationship. Our hypotheses were tested in a 30-day diary study with 110 officer cadets on a cross-Atlantic voyage on a Naval sail ship. The results of multilevel modeling lend support to all three hypotheses. Taken together, our findings suggest that recovery and sleep duration between shifts play a key role in the relationship between daily work pressure and task performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the stressor-detachment model.

Nyckelord
recovery, performance, work pressure, longitudinal diary-study, sleep
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Forskningsämne
Ledarskap och ledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:fhs:diva-11030 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.857318 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-08-09 Skapad: 2022-08-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-09
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