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  • Bergström, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University.
    ”Klimatfrågan är vår tids ödesfråga”: En studie om klimatförändringarna och Sveriges politiska agenda2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years climate change has increasingly been considered as a threat to international peace and security. This thesis examines how the framing and agenda setting of climate change as a threat has changed in Sweden after the Cold war. By using an explanatory model and focusing on external factors, such as international events and Swedish international identity, the thesis seeks to develop a greater understanding of how external factors effect national framing and agenda setting of climate change. The thesis concludes that military threats does not prevent climate change for being considered a security threat, and that a greater European identity may cause less focus on military insecurity and more focus on alternative threats. 

  • Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Zahra, Khaji
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Lena, Klintberg
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Greger, Thornell
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures: Investigation of the Effect of Metallization on Read Range2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets, and a study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double- layer screen-printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and the practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements, are presented. As a quality factor reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated. To study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500, 700, and 900 °C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 hours. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 and up to 900°C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 hours at 500°C, 20 hours at 700°C, and for 1 hour at 900°C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross- sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 hours of annealing at 500°C. 

  • Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Shadow structure within higher-level military staff: A qualitative study2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study's aim was to elucidate the role played by leadership in the relationship between informal organizational influencers and the formal organization in a military context. A qualitative study was conducted by interviewing eleven high-level military officers and analyzing the data according to the grounded theory method. The analysis resulted in an identification of a core variable : Organization Influencers, which are composed of two sub-core variables (Shadow Factors and Formal Factors) that interact with one another. Therefore challenges arise for the leader to balance varying shadow and formal factors for individuals, groups and the organization. Previously research has defined the shadow organisation as a negative force ; however, our results indicate that this is not always the case. This study contributes by mapping out specific shadow factors in relationship with formal factors of a military organization, along with pointing out that shadow factors can be beneficial forces for organisations if balanced appropriately by the leader.

  • Dückers, Michel L. A.
    et al.
    National knowledge and advice centre for psychosocial care concerning critical incidents, Diemen, The Netherlands; NIVEL – Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands.
    Thormar, Sigridur B.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Juen, Barbara
    Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Department of Psychology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olff, Miranda
    Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0193285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project “Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis” (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: “planning and delivery system” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); “general evaluation criteria” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82); and “essential psychosocial principles” (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). “Measures and interventions applied”, theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some measures and interventions are more likely to be applied in programmes with more evolved planning and delivery systems, yet for most measures and interventions the likelihood of being applied is not linked to planning and delivery system status, nor to coordinator perceptions concerning psychosocial principles and evaluation criteria. Further research is necessary to validate and expand the findings and to learn more about success factors and obstacles for MHPSS programme implementation.

  • Bergström, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Pesco - Ett fall av integration inom säkerhet och försvar: En fallstudie av fyra EU- medlemstaters uppfattade säkerhetssituation och roll för EU över tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2017 beslutade EU:s medlemsstater att upprätta vad som kallas ett permanent strukturerat samarbete (PESCO) som utgör ett fördjupat samarbete inom säkerhet och försvar på EU nivå. Pesco är dock i grunden inte någonting helt nytt utan utgör en artikel i Lissabonfördraget och således har möjligheten för medlemsstaterna att upprätta, och delta i Pesco funnits sedan fördraget tillkom. Uppsatsen syftar därmed till att undersöka hur det kommer sig att Pesco upprättas först nu och inte i samband med Lissabonfördraget?

    Studien fokuserar på EU:s medlemsstater och undersöker potentiella förändringar av staternas intressen över tid. Detta görs genom en fallstudie där fyra medlemsstater i form av Tyskland, Frankrike, Finland och Irland studeras genom två nedslag i tid. Det första för tiden kring Lissabonfördraget och det andra i närtid.

    Studiens resultat visar på att det de studerade staterna uppvisar betydelsefulla förändringar över tid avseende staternas uppfattade säkerhetssituation och även avseende synen på EU:s roll som säkerhets- och försvarspolitisk aktör. Innebörden av de observerade förändringarna anses i studien bidra till en ökad förståelse kring varför Pesco upprättas först nu och inte i samband med Lissabonfördraget. 

  • Jauer, Linnéa
    Swedish Defence University.
    På väg mot ett (o)modernt totalförsvar: En studie om institutionaliseringen av gender och kvinnor, fred och säkerhet (WPS) i Sveriges övergripande planering för återupptagandet av totalförsvaret2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hickman, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Weissmann, MikaelSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Bachman, Sascha-DominikBournemouth University.Gunneriusson, HåkanSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Thunholm, PerSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hybrid Threats and Asymmetric Warfare: What to do?2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international security environment has seemingly departed from a post-cold war period of everlasting peace and has instead evolved into a volatile and increasingly grey area of war and peace. Security challenges arising from both hybrid wars and hybrid threats are high on security agendas in Sweden and Europe as well as internationally. However, despite the attention there is a lack of research that addresses how such “new” wars and threats should be handled. While studies do exist on specific issues, a comprehensive approach to how hybrid wars and threats are to be handled is still lacking. This is particularly the case when it comes to the sharing of experiences between states. This workshop constituted a first step towards developing such a comprehensive approach.

    The workshop’s aim was to be a bridge across disciplinary boundaries as well as between researchers and practitioners within and outside Sweden; integrating each group’s extensive experiences and knowledge into a coherent whole. Besides producing and disseminating new knowledge, the intention of the workshop was to establish a foundation for long-term collaboration; the first step in the creation of a European Network on Hybrid Warfare Capabilities that can work across borders and link state of the art of research and practice.

    Although mainly a scientific workshop, a number of practitioners were invited, with a mix of presentations by academics and practitioners. This was intended to foster innovative and reflective discussions across the academic-practitioner divide. The workshop also aimed to develop new ideas associated with hybrid threats/warfare in order to facilitate future cooperation

    These proceedings include a summary of the key points made by the presenters, along with conclusions and policy recommendations derived from the ensuing discussions. Conference programme and a list of abstracts for the papers and presentations can be found in the appendix.

  • Laurell, Freddy
    Swedish Defence University.
    Varför sker förebyggande aktioner mot kärnvapenprogram?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Some states, like Israel and USA, has carried out preventive attacks on other states’ nuclear programs. The attacked stated have been autocracies rising in power with a violent history and with a different political orientation than those attacking. However, there are states that have fulfilled the same criteria, but that has not been attacked. What motivates a state, due to relative power, to attack another states’ nuclear program? Israel has attacked nuclear plants both in Iraq and Syria, two autocratic states that has been aggressive towards Israel. Iran, which is another state that is acting aggressive towards Israel and has a developing nuclear program, has not been preventively attacked. The purpose of this study is to find out what generally motivates states to attack nuclear programs, and particularly why Israel in particular has not bombed Iran’s nuclear program. A comparative case study with text and data analysis has been used. The comparison is between Iraq in 1981 and Iran 2009-2013 and the analysis consists of questions about Iraq and Iran in relation to Israel about regime type, military capacity, threats and violent conflicts. The result of the analysis shows that Israel has not attacked Iran because there is no history of violent conflicts between the two countries. Israel, on the other hand, has been at war with Iraq several times. Increasing power in a state that possesses nuclear weapons appears more threatening if there is a history of violent conflicts. This is probably the case with Israel and Iran since the definition of power in this study handles only military capability. More investigation on the subject is needed due to this narrow definition of power.

  • König, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ibland gör man rätt, men ibland blir rätt fel: Varför den svenska massvaccination 2009 blev ett fiasko2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Månsson, Lea
    Swedish Defence University.
    Because 🇷🇺🇷🇺🇷🇺 happens: Överraskning och närområde under Ukrainakrisen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the puzzling question of why Swedish policy makers were surprised by the Ukraine crisis, despite multiple warnings being present. It aims to understand what was so surprising and to explain the effect of the surprise, the foreign, security, and defense policy U-turn. In order to understand this puzzle the thesis uses a framework based on strategic surprise theory from the victims perspective and concludes that surprise theory alone cannot explain the effect of the Ukraine crisis and thus leaves the research puzzle unanswered. By adding to the theory the concept of cognitive vicinity an answer to the research question is brought to light. The surprise lies in the realization of worrying similarities, a distinct feeling of proximity, in the circumstances surrounding Ukraine and Sweden. It became evident that if it could happen to Ukraine, something similar could happen to us. 

  • Eriksson, Malin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilja eller Förmåga?: En studie av militärteoretikers inverkan på flygvapnets operativa utveckling, 1931-19332017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]


  • Christensson, Tobias
    Eniga militära insatser?: Politisk enighet vid beslut om svenska internationella militära insatser 1999-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long tradition of participation in different kinds of peacekeeping missions. During the Cold War, Sweden’s troop contributions were exclusively focused on UN operations, but in the early 1990s Sweden’s official troop contribution policy changed from an “only under the UN flag” position to one of “only under UN Security Council mandate”. It is fair to say that Sweden’s foreign policy has undergone fundamental changes and the country has been contributing military forces to both EU and NATO missions for quite some time. Swedish foreign policy debate has largely been characterized by a sense of political unity or consensus. Despite this, there have been occasions when the political parties have been in disagreement. There are studies that confirm that the level of conflict in the foreign policy debate has increased over time. Political and ideological disagreements do exist and the political landscape has changed during the last 10 years. These changes should also have an impact on foreign policy decisions.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the political decision making process regarding Swedish military international missions. It will examine the political unity in the decisions concerning eight different cases; Kosovo (1999-2010), Congo (2003) , Liberia (2003-2006), Afghanistan (2004-2014), Chad (2007), Somalia (2009-2017), Libya (2011) and Mali (2015 à).  The focus for the study will be the political unity regarding the decision process within Parliament and, more specifically, the work of the combined Foreign affairs and Defence committee, and the debates in Parliament.

    The empirical analysis reveals that the rate of political controversy has increased. However, there is still a great sense of unity and broad agreement among the political parties on the main question regarding troop contributions.  In many cases any conflict and debate concern side issues such as timings, personnel and finance. The two main parties, the Social Democrats and the Moderate Party, are generally in agreement. They also conduct negotiations before a proposition becomes official, which leads to less conflict in the subsequent debate. The study also reveals a higher level of opposition from the Left party and from the Sweden Democrats. Some of their opposition can have ideological explanations. The Left party is mainly critical about participation in NATO missions. 

  • Norman, Anna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vem hålls ansvarig?: En kvalitativ fallstudie av ansvarsutkrävande av politiker och tjänstemän i samband med Transportstyrelens IT-upphandling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utöver ett effektivt och snabbt agerande är det av stor vikt att beslutfattarnas hantering av kriser i en demokrati överensstämmer med lagar och regler samt allmänhetens uppfattning om det moraliskt rätta. Detta för att allmänheten förväntar sig att offentliga institutioner förvaltar den makt de blivit delegerade genom att föra folkets talan och fatta beslut under ordnade former. Förvaltas det här felaktigt har allmänheten rätt att utkräva ansvar av beslutsfattare som ett led i den demokratiska styrkedjan.

    Enligt tidigare studier av politiska kriser i Sverige 1931–2005 har de system som finns i Sverige för att utkräva ansvar underminerats av att mekanismerna för detta avseende är underutnyttjade. I fallet med Transportstyrelsens IT-upphandling 2015 tycks det motsatta förekomma. Misstroendeförklaringar väcktes, rättssystemet blandades in och allmänheten och media uttryckte sitt missnöje. Ansvarsutkrävandet efter Transportstyrelsen tycks avvika från tidigare fall av ansvarsutkrävande vid politiska kriser i Sverige vilket föranledde denna studie.

  • Nordin, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Will Trump make China great again?: The belt and road initiative and international order2018In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 231-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under President Xi Jinping's leadership, Chinese foreign relations have moved from keeping a low profile, to a more assertive bid for international leadership that is beginning to take form in the ‘belt and road initiative’ (BRI). This initiative focuses on connectivity in policy coordination, facilities, trade, finance and people-to-people relations, in order to connect China to key parts of Asia, the south Pacific, east Africa and Europe. Networked capitalism and the national unit, which are often seen as spatial opposites in the global political economy, are both exercised through the BRI in mutually supporting ways. Networked capitalism is not challenging the national spatial unit, nor vice versa. Rather, they conglomerate to reinforce Chinese government narratives which portray China as the new trailblazer of global capitalism—thus illustrating and justifying a new Sinocentric order in east Asia. Likely winners of this constellation, if it is successful, are megalopolises in Eurasia, and most of all the Chinese Communist Party. Likely losers are countries that are not included in the BRI, most notably the United States. In a context where President Donald Trump is signalling a more protectionist stance and the United States is withdrawing from free trade pacts like the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Trump may ironically enable Xi's dream of making China great again.