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  • Pettersson, Arvid
    Swedish Defence University.
    Galula och Al-Anbar – är en dåtida teori användbar i ett nutida uppror?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, and the war in Iraq and Afghanistan that followed, the debate about counterinsurgency (COIN) has once again been stirred up. Some researchers claim that the old proven theories and methods of successful COIN are still relevant. Other researchers, however, consider that today's opponents have developed and differ compared to the earlier, claiming that yesterday's theories are out dated and inadequate in a modern context. Today's view of successful counterinsurgency is heavily influenced by David Galula, whose theories were developed in the 1950s and 1960s. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether past theories are useful in contemporary insurgency. To investigate the question, the study examines whether the United States followed Galula's strategies in practice during the counterinsurgency in the Al-Anbar province (2003–2008).

    The study's findings indicate that there are similarities between U.S. action in Al-Anbar and Galula's models for successful COIN. Galula implies that the local population's support needs to be gained in order to achieve success in counterinsurgency. The focus on the population is clearly reflected in the U.S. approach and can be interpreted as the cause of success. In addition to similarities regarding the central parts of the theory, differences can also be found. In the two cases studied, the importance of cooperation with local armed forces and the media's role in the conflict is clearly highlighted, which is not mentioned in Galula's theory. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that other aspects not declared in Galula's theory might have influenced the outcome of the conflict as well. To be able to determine the usefulness of Galula's theory in modern time with greater certainty, further research is proposed to investigate more recent cases, using the results of this study as a starting point.

  • Darnolf-Lindskog, Nic
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den nekande operationskonsten i Bosnien och Kosovo2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo named Deliberate Force and Allied Force took place in 1995 and 1999. Both operations show clear signs that the use of air power was the main contributor to the outcome of the operations. Earlier research states that there are signs of coercive air power in both of these operations but fail to explain in what way. The purpose of this essay is to examine if Robert A. Papes theory about denial strategy in air operations can explain the different outcomes of the operations as the operation in Bosnia took 21 days and the operation in Kosovo took 78 days to reach its designated goals. This essay will also test Papes Theory on what constitutes a successful air campaign by comparing the two operations in Bosnia and Kosovo.

    The result supports Papes theory and shows that operation Deliberate Force acted according to Papes theory on denial in five out of six parts, excluding the strategic interdiction. Whereas operation Allied Force acted according to the theory as well but in a smaller extent. It can be argued that there are other background factors that also contributed to the outcome of the operations but by looking at the usage of the air power in both operations it shows that by acting accordingly to Papes theory the outcome was a success. By supporting Papes theory this essay adds to the earlier research a wider knowledge about coercive air power in military interventions.

  • Hellquist, Joachim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försvars- och säkerhetspolitisk resonans i militärstrategisk doktrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the political situation in the Baltic sea region has deteriorated. This can mainly be referred to a change in Russia’s threat posture, which has caused Sweden to refocus military strategic doctrine from international peace operations towards national defence. The new doctrine involves elements of deterrence through what is called a “threshold effect” which is aimed at discouraging a potential aggressor from taking military action towards Sweden. The doctrine is implemented despite obvious lack of military power and that recent research questions the usefulness of deterrence strategies. This essay examines to what extent the discourse in political security policy is implemented in development of new doctrine. This is done by examining two cases of doctrine development in conjunction with different discourses in Swedish security policy. The implementation of security policy is viewed as a framing process, where the security policy frame is projected at the Swedish armed forces through a defence bill. The result of the examination show that the discourse in political security policy have a high degree of resonance in the military doctrine but that there are some areas connected to the defence forces narrative and culture where the frame lacks resonance. The adaptation of a deterring threshold affect can be connected to these circumstances. 

  • Ed, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den mänskliga faktorns betydelse vid olyckor i militär verksamhet: En studie av mänskliga faktorer som medverkar till olyckors uppkomst i Försvarsmaktens verksamhet till sjöss2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated factors that contribute to the rise of accidents in the Swedish Armed Forces. Through investigation of six accident reports human factors have been identified, classi-fied and compiled. The aim has been to seek answers to the question: Which human factors cause accidents in the Swedish Armed Forces' activities at sea?

    In the context of a case study the content of six accident reports, which were linked to the Swedish Armed Forces, was analysed. Documentary research was used to collect data. The analysis of collected accident reports was carried out with content analysis. A total of 134 human factors were identified in this study, compiled from 31 unique human factors. The results drawn from studying the survey concluded that human factors which appear most frequently in the accident reports are routine deviation, judgment, knowledge, sudden event development and communica-tion/information. The results also show that of all the 31 units of human factors identified, no single factor is represented in all accident reports. However, the human factors routine deviation, judgment, communication/information, education, job description and safeguard were repre-sented in five of six reports.

  • Ehrlinder, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Principer i konflikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The principles of war have a central but debated role in modern doctrine with heritage dating back to Sun Tzu. Despite that the principles are used in several modern doctrines, there is surprisingly little research to be found on these principles. The principles of security and surprise, are both argued as being key components in amphibious operations, though can also be seen as contradictory.

    Method: This thesis explores the principles of war by studying the theory of security, developing a theory with a set of success factors. These factors consist of physical protection, information supremacy and reserves. Hypothetically, the presence of these factors explains the outcome of amphibious raids. The theory is examined in a qualitative text analysis on two case studies on the raids on St Nazaire and Makin Island where the success factors are tested by a deductive dihedral design. The results open for a final discussion in comparison with Jimmy Johansson’s research of the principle of surprise previously made on the same raids.

    Results: The results show that security, through the presence of success factors, is positively affecting the outcome of amphibious raids, though further research is necessary. Security and surprise although contradictory can work in synergy with a successful surprise element leading to increased security and information supremacy a prerequisite for surprise. 

  • Lilliehöök, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Omvärldsanpassning eller policymisslyckande: den svenska debatten om värnpliktens avskaffande och återinförande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 the Swedish parliament decided to enforce a professional army with serving soldiers and seamen as many other Western European states had done in the aftermaths of the Cold War. However, only seven years later the Government decided to reactivate the laws enabling the possibility to enlist young men and women to the Armed  Forces,  once again constituting National Service.

    The purpose of this essay is to shed light on this rather rapid decision to amend the terms and conditions stated for the Armed Forces on how to recruit and man the battle units. This is conducted by analysing the arguments made by the leading political parties in Government and Opposition in relation to two possible explanation models. Firstly, is this a consequence of the rapid changes in the security situation in Europé? Or is this simply a policy failure based on domestic challenges i defence reform. 

    This survey have categorised the arguments made by Sweden´s leading parties describing the relations in both theese major decisions.

  • Gailan, Mohammed
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    National Security Concerns And The Kurdistan Region In A New Middle East: From Rebellion To Statehood: The Influences Of Power, Threat Enviornment And Opportunity Structures On The Choice Of Becoming An Independent State2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Under which conditions do some nations and de facto state actors with relative power assert their statehood and independence? What factors should we focus on when we assess such cases? How much can we relate a nation’s choice and path to statehood and independence to its national security concerns? The aim of this case study has been to answer the questions asked above and explain why nations during some periods do not choose to declare independence and form their own state and during other periods they aim to do so. The case of the Kurdistan region of Iraq has been selected and studied both due the drastic regional changes in the Middle East since Saddam Hussein’s fall and the rise Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. During 2003-2005, the US invaded Iraq, toppled Saddam Hussein and destroyed the Iraqi army. Unlike the expectations that the Kurds would declare independence, they did not do so. However, 14 years after the fall of Saddam Hussein and establishment of the new Iraq, the Kurds aim to declare independence and form their own state. Hence, the puzzle is why not then and 14 years later? Inspired by realism, nationalist movement theory and rational strategic actor, three interrelated hypotheses have been tested and verified, which lay ground for a theoretical and explanatory model for this and similar cases within the fields of security studies and international relations. Process tracing has been used as an additional analytical tool in order to detect critical junctures and the chain of events that have produced the two different outcomes. The empirical material is mainly based on a fieldwork conducted in the Kurdistan region followed up by 12 individual qualitative interviews with a number of highly ranked Kurdish political and military officials including the President of the Kurdistan region, the Foreign Minister of the Kurdistan region, a senior Foreign and Security Advisor, three Peshmerga Generals and six members of both Kurdistan and Iraqi Parliaments. Building on the previous research, the findings of this study suggest that the choice and decision for becoming an independent and sovereign de jure state is closely related to a nation’s national security concerns and it is the same factors that causes a nation to declare/not declare independence during different periods of time. They are: (1) changes in power relations and access to a certain degree of indirect/direct external support and cooperation, (2) the existence/non-existence of national security threats and threat environments and (3) the rise of opportunity structures, strategic thinking and the ability to mobilize resources.