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  • Plass, Christian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Är krig blott en fortsättning på politiken med alla medel: En flerfallstudie av uppfattningen om hybridkrigföring i Baltikum2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research paper examines the relation between theoretical descriptions of hybrid warfare and national observation of the phenomena in the Baltic countries. The study is based on the research problem that there is no coherent definition and scholarly debate about the nature of hybrid warfare. By comparing theoretical hybrid components with threats in the national security- and defence concepts of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the study aims to determine whether the theories accurately reflect empirical perception. The theoretical framework was based on 3 theories of hybrid warfare, which describes both military and non-military aspects of hybrid threats. The research study is that of a comparative case study. The security- and defence concepts is studied through the method of qualitative text analysis.

    The results of the study show that several of the hybrid components is described and is seen as a threat in the cases. However, the results were impaired, mainly due to temporal difference between studied texts, incoherent definitions of central concepts and lacking distinctions between internal and external influences in text and theory. The analysis concludesthat a continued focus on the inclusion of non-military means is relevant in studies about hybrid warfare and contemporary conflict.

  • Rhönnstad, Jesper
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fjärde generationens krigföring, kvalitativ innehållsanalys av en småstats försvarsförmåga2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The globalised world that we can see today bear with it many threats thus states must constantly keep up with developments to address these threats. This dissertation evaluates Sweden’s militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 and operativ doktrin 2014 as a general example for small states in their defence against fourth generation warfare (4GW). The overall aim is to endeavour to determine if the doctrines meet the criteria and are prepared for the threats that come with 4GW, but also the integration between both management levels which the doctrines represents is mentioned to be of utmost importance.

    To succeed in facing the threats of the 4GW, it is according to the theory of the subject important to meet six criteria: Maneuver warfare, legitimacy, synergy, people, network and communications. This dissertation shows that Sweden meets the criteria and has an integration between both doctrines which represents the strategic and operational management levels. In addition to this, the study also shows the difference in objectives for these management levels which the study was not aimed at from the beginning.

    The method that has been used is a qualitative content analysis where the criteria are based on the theory which has been the basis for the analysis that could answer the research questions.

  • Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hackergruppens beteende i informationskrigföring2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever-expanding speed of technological development and the dependence of social media outlets in everyday life. Information warfare can be used to strike targets with information operations from leaders down to the average person. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge the fact that attacks are being performed on our media corporations to influence are opinion. By influence opinion via deception the outcome of an attack even changes an election.

    The aim of this paper intends to shed light on the behaviour of hacktivist groups. The Syrian Electronic Army will be the main character in this paper do to the groups plausible deniability connections to the Syrian regime. As this paper will show with the works of a case studies on this group with the theoretical framework of John Warden. Hacker groups with connections to a regime work towards influencing the public via the power of disinformation.

  • Söreke, Joel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Galula och Kilcullen i Afghanistan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Counterinsurgency is still believed to be of relevance in modern time and affect military organizations. Kilcullen and Galula, two theorists who have been of high relevance for the development of strategies for population-centric counterinsurgency used in the modern era. In 2010, Operation Moshtarak was conducted with Field Manual 3-24, which is based on these theorists. Despite this, there is a discrepancy if the operation was conducted with a population-centric counterinsurgency and if Kilcullen and Galula theories can be applied in a modern era. The purpose of this study is to examine why operation Moshtarak, which was supposed to implement the aspects of population centric counterinsurgency resulted in failure. The study uses a qualitative case study and even though the theories didn’t reach the expected elucidatory level, the results of the study indicate that the initial steps of the operation demonstrate that population-centric counterinsurgency were used, but after the initial successes in the expulsion of insurgents, problems arised for the coalition. The study also indicates that more research is necessary to understand the outcome of the case and the relevance of these theories.

  • Viper, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gerillakrigföring till sjöss: En teoriprövande tvåfallstudie om underlägsnas framgång2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When explaining the course of action of inferior actors in asymmetric conflicts, Guerrilla Warfare is normative. But when illustrated, the examples are only of battles and wars fought on land. Consequently, there seems to be an insufficient amount of studies that show whether Guerrilla Warfare truly is a theory for maritime forces.

    The purpose of this study is to test if Guerrilla Warfare can explain the procedure of inferior, but successful, maritime forces in asymmetric conflicts. To extract the principles of guerrilla tactics, the controversial thoughts of Tse-tung, Giap and Guevara has been examined. The cases of this study are the Israeli maritime forces in the Yom Kippur war, and the Sea Tigers in the civil war of Sri Lanka.

    The results show that Guerrilla Warfare, despite similarities, cannot fully explain the tactical procedures of the Israelis. However, Guerrilla Warfare can, despite one difference, explain the tactical procedures of the Sea Tigers. This essay therefore argues that Guerrilla Warfare can be of use for maritime forces in the search of victory despite inferiority. 

  • Lindholm, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Kan kostnad och de grundläggande förmågorna belysa effektiviteten hos taktikanpassningar i Adenviken och Somalia?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis there have been identified that there is a window in research between the two phenomena on (1) how pirates have influenced the global economy and (2) how tactics adaptation between the actors in the Gulf of Aden and around the Somali basin have affected each other.

    The purpose is to investigate this relationship between the fundamental capabilities and the cost of tactical adaptation. With a theory-developing approach I try to explain how these two phenomena affects our ways of distinguishing maritime tactic effectiveness.

    The result of the paper is that there is a difference between the tactically effective and the most cost-effective tactical adaptation. The theory of the fundamental capabilities boundaries to cost, illuminates which tactical adaptation to be the most efficient, both cost-effective and tactically efficient and that is passive measures.

  • Sävland, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärstrategiska doktriner, en verktygslåda för fredliga och krigande småstater?: En fallstudie av IDF Official Strategy 20152018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Israel has fought over 20 wars or conflicts since 1948. Israeli doctrines have always been classified, until recently. For the very first time ever the IDF released a public version of the IDF Official Strategy in 2015. The problems of small state doctrines are two-folded. First, all states are confronted with several military theoretical problems on how to efficiently distribute military resources. Second, doctrinal tool development theories have tended to examine only friendly small state doctrines. The IDF 2015 defines Israel’s threat as heterogenous and therefore, according to Høiback’s doctrinal tool development theory, the IDF doctrine should serve as a tool of education.

    The aim of this study is to test Høibacks theoretical applicability on small state doctrines by analyzing The IDF 2015. The result is indicating that Høiback’s theory is not applicable on small state doctrine regarding heterogenous threats, however the theory can be used to examine the purpose on what tool the IDF doctrine serves.

    The conclusion is that Høiback’s theoretical applicability on IDF 2015’s purpose doesn’t comply with defined Israeli strategic threats, but Høiback is still relevant for examining and determine what tool the IDF doctrine serves.  

  • Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Giacomellob, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn högskola, Flemmingsberg, Sverige.
    The Invisible Hand?: Critical Information Infrastructures, Commercialisation and National Security2018In: The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 0393-2729, E-ISSN 1751-9721, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporatisation of critical information infrastructure (CII) is rooted in the ‘privatisation wave’ of the 1980s-90s, when the ground was laid for outsourcing public utilities. Despite well-known risks relating to reliability, resilience, and accountability, commitment to efficiency imperatives have driven governments to outsource key public services and infrastructures. A recent illustrative case with enormous implications is the 2017 Swedish ICT scandal, where outsourcing of CII caused major security breaches. With the transfer of the Swedish Transport Agency’s ICT system to IBM and subcontractors, classified data and protected identities were made accessible to non-vetted foreign private employees – sensitive data could thus now be in anyone’s hands. This case clearly demonstrates accountability gaps that can arise in public-private governance of CII.

  • Andersson, Jonny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Understödjande förmågor vid specialoperationer: En studie av understödjande förmågors relativa betydelse för McRavens teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the relevance of enablers in special operations. How come, that the well-known and famous theory of special operations by Admiral William H. McRaven, doesn’t discuss the relevance of enablers in support of special operations?

    The purpose of this study is to tentatively investigate the connection of enablers to McRavens theory of direct action special operations. The investigation will be conducted through a case study of two prominent special operations; Operation Gunnerside and Operation Neptune Spear. Both operations exemplify a direct action special operation raid, but in a various time in history and context.

    The result of this study indicates, the relevance of supporting intelligence, mobility and command and control, to reinforce McRavens six principles of special operations. Further on, the study shows the direct influence of enablers, on key events, in relation to McRavens theory of relative superiority.   

  • Jönsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Sjöstridskrafter i fredsfrämjande operationer: En teoriprövande studie av Geoffrey Tills teori i Operation Sharp Guard och UNIFIL MTF4482018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper examines the advantages of deployment of naval forces in peace support operations. The study has been undertaken because the research on this subject is fairly limited. The research tends to be normative and traditional strategists are often focusing on the effect of naval force in terms of war. None of the writers on the subject dispute the use of naval force moreover, they tend to highlight the advantages of a naval force.  

    The purpose is to analyse the usefulness of a naval force in peace support operations. This has been achieved by testing Till´s theory of the inherently advantage of a naval force in a study of two cases, Operation Sharp Guard in the Adriatic Sea during the conflict in former Yugoslavia and the Swedish contribution to UNIFIL MTF448 in Lebanon. These two cases were selected in order to ascertain to what extent Till´s theory can explain the effect of naval force.

    Results of this analyse demonstrate the existence of sound arguments for the use of naval force in peace support operations and the empirics of the two cases are valid evidence for that. Naval force can sometimes even work as an enabler for ground troops and air force. The analysis shows furthermore that flexibility and strategic mobility was the two most distinguishing features of a naval force in both cases.

  • Remes, Tony
    Swedish Defence University.
    Pape eller Wardens teori i Kosovo?: En teoriprövande fallstudie på Operation Allied Force i Kosovo 19992018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theories on how to use airpower as coercion are divided between those who advocate strategic bombing and those who advocate support for land operations. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether Pape and/or Warden´s airpower theories applied on Operation Allied Force can explain how NATO´s air force was used.

    The result shows that both the Warden´s Enemy as a system and Pape´s Denial strategy can partly explain the outcome. Warden´s 5-ring system is the only variable in the survey assigned with a high variable value; this is because the analysis shows that it is judged to influence the outcome extensively. Parallel attacks occurred at low frequency and have a low variable value. Pape´s theory occurred with high frequency in variable support for the ground forces, however, the analysis shows that no variable value from Pape´s theory received higher variables than the medium.

    The conclusion is that both theories can explain how NATO used airpower during the operation but to different degrees.

  • Holmberg, Hans
    Swedish Defence University.
    Defensiva luftoperationer: När tröskeln passerats och klockan startat2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Theory of the use of air power in defensive operations is not as developed as in offensive operations. The purpose of this study is to examine if Papes strategies of air power and coercion can be used to analyze the use of air power and its effects in a defensive operation.

    The result shows that Papes strategies can explain the use of air power in the cases of the study but have difficulties in explaining the outcome of the conflict in a distinct and clear way.

    Papes Denial-strategy has the best explanatory power of the four (Punishment, Risk, Denial and Decapitation) for the outcome of the conflict.

    The result shows that the use of air power could not be used isolated to reach decisive effect.

    Only during joint operations was the decisive effects reached.

    The conclusions, however, are to be seen in the light of the interests of USA and the Soviet Union and their roles before, during and their influence in ending the conflict.

  • Thellman, Eric
    Swedish Defence University.
    Taktikens utveckling i den tekniska revolutionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theorists in war studies have since the 1940’s debated the issue of the connection between technology and tactical development, and at the end of the 1990’s a technological revolution in warfare was debated. As presented in this thesis the debate is far from completed. Lieutenant Commander Erik Öhrn made an effort to construct a general theory for this connection in 2011 at the Swedish Defense University. Preliminary studies prove that the theory is applicable for naval tactics. The purpose of this thesis is to examine if the theory is valid in mechanized tactics by studying the introduction of the Swedish Combat Vehicle 90. In using a qualitative method, searching for theoretical constructed indicators, this thesis finds shortages in the theory as a general theory for the connection between technology and tactical development. The definition and concept of technology is among these shortages, which is a crucial part of the understanding of the revolution debated in previous research.

  • Rosgren, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett berömt misslyckande - En fallstudie av Operation Market Garden ur ett fältarbetsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operation Market Garden is famous for its failure, although before its execution, all signs pointed to an imminent Allied victory. As well as being outnumbered in both men and weapons the Germans were also disorganized due to previous defeats. The reason why the operation failed has, therefore, interested many. Various explanations include logistics and communications as well as politics. However, today there is still no commonly accepted explanation and new books about the operation are being written.

    At the strategic level the problem for the Allies was to get across the rivers and canals in Holland to reach the industrial Ruhr in Germany. At the tactical level each watercourse was a problem. Because there is a lack of study of the operation from an engineering perspective, the purpose of this essay is to achieve that by combining land warfare theory with engineering lessons learned. In this qualitative case study J. F. C. Fuller’s theory of protection, offensive power, and movement is used to explain how engineering affected the outcome of the operation.

    The analysis shows that engineering played a decisive role in the operation and concludes that the outcome of the operation depended on a few critical situations. The Germans used counter mobility effectively to dictate where to fight the battles. At these chosen locations they used survivability measures, which enabled them to fight a static battle and hold key terrain. Allied mobility operations were vital to their assault, and without engineers the land component would have been stopped on the first day of the operation.

  • Sandström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den vetenskapliga etiska debatten kring UAS2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly growing implementation of unmanned aerial systems in military applicationsafter 9/11 has led to a rising debate on the ethical implications that comes with new andeffective weapons systems. The contrast from other weapons system and possibilities offuture paths of development in relation to the new tactical uses implemented has led to anuncertainty of the ethical aspects of the system.

    This thesis examines the scientific debate regarding the ethical aspects of unmanned aerialsystems in military contexts to see if they are reliable from a utilitarian and deontologicalview of just war theory – jus in bello.

    The results of this paper show that there isn’t just one correct answer to be given. But thatin the way the author has approached the problem the conclusion can be drawn that themain arguments in the debate have a connection towards just war theory. However, theargumentation in itself relies on different sets of premises which can be understood fromthe fact that the approach to normative theories can be from different directions.

  • Ronkainen, Filip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur organiseras och utbildas direktriktad verkan för krig?: En fallstudie av den svenska försvarsmaktens grundläggande skjututbildning genom ett vetenskapligt grundat analysverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces direct fire have from previous research in combat situations in Afghanistan shown development potential. Reports from Afghanistan shown lack of marksmanship in such a magnitude that the combat effectiveness where impaired. To strike is one of three essentials in fighting. The Swedish Armed Forces basic rifle marksmanship training have newly been renewed and have influences from civil shooting competition marksmanship. The purpose of this study is to get comprehension on how the Swedish basic rifle marksmanship training has developed and is organised. With that information, conclusions on how it effects Swedish warfare is known. By better understanding flaws and virtues, the skill can be understood which simplifies development for direct fire in warfare. Tool for analysis based on scientific research about military learning and marksmanship is used for examination and results demonstrate that the marksmanship training is missing several training methods. The major deficiency is within the affective variables like mental training and reflection. Remarkable the training consists of almost every cognitive and perceptual-motor variable.

  • Jönsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Överraskningens orsaker: En flerfallsstudie om vad som orsakar överraskning på taktisk beslutsnivå2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Military theories regarding surprise has a conceptual way of being described which may influence the effect that surprise actually has on a specific command level. Without sufficient explanations there might be unclear reasons for the conversion of these theories into practice.

    The existing research shows an increased possibility of surprise within the strategical command level and how to achieve it. It also shows the absence of research regarding what causes surprise on tactical command level, even if some theories describe surprise as being more effective at that level. Special operations can be included within the tactical command level and may offer an explanation. This case study examines which causes may lead to surprise on a tactical command level by analyzing descriptions of special operations within the conduct of regular warfare.

    With theoretical and empirical references, surprise was achieved in both of the selected cases. The results of the study can be divided in to two categories: the direct and the indirect causes. The categorization gives a further explanation in how to better understand surprise within a specific command level. The study contributes to the existing research by revealing a better understanding for commanders within a tactical command level in how to achieve surprise.

  • Jungestrand, Michael
    Swedish Defence University.
    Geostrategy and the doctrines function: A case study of the Swedish doctrines MSD12 and MSD162018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of war studies there is an ongoing debate about the understanding of the doctrine. A common understanding of the doctrine is important not only within the field of research but also because it creates a common language among its users which reduces the risk of misunderstandings.

    Harald Høiback, an important player in the matter, claims that a nations prolonged geostrategic situation predicts its doctrines content with regard to its function. These functions are to act as tools of command, education and change.

    The main aim of this essay is to make a contribution to the debate by testing Høiback´s predication. In a case study of the Swedish strategic doctrines MSD12 and MSD16, Høiback´s predication is tested using qualitative text analysis.

    The main finding of this essay is that a doctrine can change its function as tool of command faster than Høiback's assertion predicts.

  • Hammarström, Caroline
    Swedish Defence University.
    Logistik en viktig eller oväsentlig faktor för framgång i fälttåg2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Military campaigns has throughout time been analysed through the eyes of the commanding officers and their tactical knowledge. Is this the only way to analyse military campaigns or can victory be explained through other actions then tactical decisions? Can the importance of logistics explain outcomes in different military campaigns?

    This study strives to explain how logistic measures can explain different outcomes in military campaigns. The concept which is used in this study is Moshe Kress theory on operational logistics, and through this I will try to explain the importance of logistics as a factor for outcomes in military campaigns.

    This study has shown that pre-emptive measures in the operational logistics level can change the outcome of military campaigns. Although logistics isn´t the only reason for victory or defeat in military campaigns this study shows the importance in understanding and making sure your logistic planning is as well planned as your tactical planning.

  • Engström, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigsföring -  Ett förvirrande begrepp2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term hybrid warfare is both controversial and debated. Those who favor the use of the term usually use widely different definitions of it. This makes the term problematic to use in an official and academic context, which may contribute to unjustified policy decisions. My thesis aims at using three existing theoretical definitions to identify a more sustainable definition of the hybrid warfare concept. And at the same time contribute to the debate about the usefulness of the concept.   

    The thesis analyzes three theoretical perspectives of the hybrid warfare concept, by adopting a conceptual study approach founded in Giovanis Sartori's theoretical framework. The result shows that a more sustainable definition of hybrid warfare primarily comprises the coordination of funds and methods for achieving political purposes. Based on this result can hybrid warfare primarily be understood as a management perspective.  

  • Dufva, Teodor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Rörlighet till sjöss: En begreppsutredande studie kring rörlighet inom marin teoribildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is manoeuvre and why is it important to comprehend its implication on contemporary naval theory? During the initial stages of the study a confusion regarding the use of manoeuvre as a concept was identified. The purpose of this concept analysis is to pinpoint the contents of the concept of manoeuvre for the field of war studies to enable further studies on the subject.

    The study utilises John Gerring’s meta theory Conceptual Goodness consisting of eight criteria used for concept analysis in social sciences. The study examines the three concepts of manoeuvre by Raoul Castex, maneuver by Milan Vego and maneuver by Wayne P. Hughes.

    The study confirms that a confusion regarding the understanding of the concept exists in contemporary naval though. It has also shown that manoeuvre acts as an important enabler for other processes on the field of battle. Both as a conceptual idea of how war can be fought and in the physical matter of moving platforms. The concluding discussion argues that well-defined concepts are essential for further empirical studies on theories and phenomena.